The biodegradation characteristics of palm oil mill effluent (POME) and the related microbial community were studied in both actual sequential anaerobic ponds in Malaysia and enrichment cultures. The significant degradation of the POME was observed in the second pond, in which the temperature was 35-37 °C. In this pond, biodegradation of major long chain fatty acids (LCFA), such as palmitic acid (C16:0) and oleic acid (C18:1), was also confirmed. The enrichment culture experiment was conducted with different feeding substrates, i.e. POME, C16:0 and C18:1, at 35 °C. Good recovery of methane indicated biodegradation of feeds in the POME and C16:0 enrichments. The methane production rate of the C18:1 enrichment was slower than other substrates and inhibition of methanogenesis was frequently observed. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analyses indicated the existence of LCFA-degrading bacteria, such as the genus Syntrophus and Syntorophomonas, in all enrichment cultures operated at 35 °C. Anaerobic degradation of the POME under mesophilic conditions was stably processed as compared with thermophilic conditions.
In Malysia, the proportion of children fully immunized againest diphtheria is generally low (20%). On the other hand, the Schick conversion rate rises with age and reaches 90% by 11 years of age. It is noted that asymptomatic carriers are an important epidemiological factor in diphtheria and that carrier rates for school children are high (prevalence of 7.5% while the rate of coloization with C. diphtheriae over a period of one year was 30%). Although immunization protects against clinical diphtheria, it does not prevent the carrier state. Thus, for the control of diphtheria, one should aim for 100% compliance. Some suggestions as to how higher levels of immunity may be achieved are described.
Pneumonia and diarrhoeas are an important cause of toddler mortality and morbidity in developing countries. Of the 147 children admitted to the University Hospital at Kuala Lumpur in 1971 for pneumonia and diarrhoeas 50 (34%) were found to be suffering from protein-calorie malnutrition of varying degrees of severity. The malnourished children tended to come from poorer homes, and to have a larger number of siblings born in rapid succession when compared with normal weight children. Anemia was more common among the malnourished children. The interaction of infection and malnutrition and the social implications of these diseases are important. It is vital that hospitals in developing countries promote health in addition to their traditional curative role.
The weights and heights of 3,312 Malaysian primary school boys and girls, aged 6 to 11 years, belonging to various ethnic groups in Malaysia were measured. On the whole, the Chinese children were taller and heavier than the Malay and the Indian children who were the least heavy among the three ethnic groups. Economically the Indians were the poorest among the three ethnic groups and they also had the largest family size. When the household incomes were taken into consideration it was found that the growth achievement of the higher income children was better than that of the poorer children, irrespective of their ethnic groups. It is interesting to note that, although the Indian children as a whole, were the least heavy of the three ethnic groups, yet the growth achievement of the higher income Indian children was similar to that of the higher income Chinese children. The differences in growth achievement of the various ethnic groups are probably due to environmental differences, rather than genetic differences. It seems likely that Malaysian children of different ethnic groups (Malay, Chinese and Indian) can attain similar statures if environmental conditions are similar.
126 Malay children from higher income families were followed-up regularly from birth to six years of age in the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur. Their developmental performance was compared to that of Denver children. Generally, Malaysian and Denver children appear to be similar in their development during the first six years of life except for some minor differences in the personal-social, language and gross motor sectors. Malaysians appear to be slower in self-care but more advanced in "helping around the house", "playing interactive games" and in "separating from mother". They were slightly slower in gross motor function during the first year of life but more advanced during the second year of life. However, they were slightly more advanced in language development. The differences in development between the two groups of children are discussed and it is concluded that the differences can partly be explained by differences in socio-economic or cultural differences between the two groups of children. However, the influence of genetic factors cannot be dismissed.
Between 1976 and 1979, hand radiographs of 112 Malay children, 55 males and 57 females aged from 12 to 28 months, from higher socio-economic class families were obtained and studied by two radiologists. These children were part of a longitudinal study on growth and development. A total of 268 hand and wrist radiographs were taken, which the radiologists read independently of each other using the Greulich and Pyle Atlas. The bone age was then compared with the chronological age and the difference, if any, was noted and 'scored'. It was found that 83.4% of cases for males and 94.8% of cases for females matched within the +/- 6 months discrepancy range. For practical purposes therefore, our population may use the Greulich-Pyle Atlas with a good degree of confidence. Typical hand radiographs of male and female Malay children at 12, 18 and 24 months of age are also presented and these may be used as standards for Malaysian children at the respective age groups.
126 Malaysian children, 65 boys and 61 girls from higher income families were followed-up regularly from birth to six years of age in the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur. The study confirms the observations of previous studies that growth velocity of head circumference is most rapid during the first few months of infancy and then decreases so that by the fifth year of life the increment is minimal. It also confirms the fact that boys have bigger head circumferences than girls. The paper also presents the head circumference distance and velocity percentile charts which can be used to monitor the head circumference of Malaysian children.
126 Malaysian children, 65 boys and 61 girls from higher income families were followed-up regularly from birth to six years of age in the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur. Their physical growth, development, dietary and illness patterns were measured at each visit. The study confirms the observations of previous studies that boys are, on the average, heavier and taller than girls and that Asians are smaller in size with relatively shorter legs compared with children of European ancestry. These racial differences are due to a combination of genetic and environmental differences. Since there are genetic differences in the size and shape of children, standards applicable to the specific population should be used to obtain the best results when assessing the health of an individual child. The growth charts presented in this paper can be used as standards to monitor the growth of Asian infants and pre-school children.
Over the past hundred years in industrialised countries and recently in some developing countries, children have been getting larger and growing to maturity more rapidly. This paper compares the growth of Malaysian children with similar socioeconomic backgrounds but born about twelve years apart. Data were obtained from records of 227 children born between 1968 and 1973 and 238 children born between 1980 and 1985. The children were followed-up regularly at the University Hospital Child Health Clinic in Kuala Lumpur for a variable period from birth to five years of age. Measurements for their weight, length and head circumference were taken at each visit. There is a directional indication that boys and girls of the 1980-1985 cohort are taller, heavier and have bigger head circumferences from birth to five years of age and the difference widens as the child grows older. This study clearly shows that a positive secular trend has taken place in the last decade, reflecting an improvement of living conditions with time. The factors involved in the positive secular trend are manifold and the most important is probably nutrition.
126 Malaysian children, 65 boys and 61 girls from higher income families were followed-up regularly from birth to six years of age in the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur. The study shows that for boys and girls, there is a progressive increase in the left mid-upper arm circumference from birth to six years of age. However the rate of growth is not even, being most rapid during the first four month of infancy, then rapidly decreases during the middle third of infancy and thereafter it decreases slowly and by the second year of life, there is hardly any increase in the arm circumference. The left triceps skinfold thickness curves for boys and girls rise rapidly after birth to reach a peak at about three to five months before commencing to decline and then flatten off from the second year of life. The study also shows that on the whole, boys have slightly bigger arm circumference than girls during the first two years of life. From two years of age, girls on the average have more fat than boys. However this difference is statistically not significant at the ages tested. This paper also presents the left mid-upper arm circumference and left triceps skinfold percentile charts of Malaysian boys and girls from birth to six years of age.
Tembusu virus (TMUV, genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae) was first isolated in 1955 from Culex tritaeniorhynchus mosquitoes in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. In April 2010, duck TMUV was first identified as the causative agent of egg-drop syndrome, characterized by a substantial decrease in egg laying and depression, growth retardation and neurological signs or death in infected egg-laying and breeder ducks, in the People's Republic of China. Since 2010, duck TMUV has spread to most of the duck-producing regions in China, including many of the coastal provinces, neighbouring regions and certain Southeast Asia areas (i.e. Thailand and Malaysia). This review describes the current understanding of the genome characteristics, host range, transmission, epidemiology, phylogenetic and immune evasion of avian-origin TMUV and the innate immune response of the host.