Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) bone cements (BCs) have some drawbacks, including limited bioactivity and bone formation, as well as inferior mechanical properties, which may result in failure of the BC. To deal with the mentioned issues, novel bioactive polymethyl methacrylate-hardystonite (PMMA-HT) bone cement (BC) reinforced with 0.25 and 0.5 wt% of carbon nanotube (CNT) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) was synthesized. In this context, the obtained bone cements were evaluated in terms of their mechanical and biological characteristics. The rGO reinforced bone cement exhibited better mechanical properties to the extent that the addition of 0.5 wt% of rGO where its compressive and tensile strength of bioactive PMMA-HT/rGO cement escalated from 92.07 ± 0.72 MPa, and 40.02 ± 0.71 MPa to 187.48 ± 5.79 MPa and 64.92 ± 0.75 MPa, respectively. Besides, the mechanisms of toughening, apatite formation, and cell interaction in CNT and rGO encapsulated PMMA have been studied. Results showed that the existence of CNT and rGO in BCs led to increase of MG63 osteoblast viability, and proliferation. However, rGO reinforced bone cement was more successful in supporting MG63 cell attachment compared to the CNT counterpart due to its wrinkled surface, which made a suitable substrate for cell adhesion. Based on the results, PMMA-HT/rGO can be a proper bone cement for the fixation of load-bearing implants.
Porous structure, biocompatibility and biodegradability, large surface area, and drug-loading ability are some remarkable properties of zeolite structure, making it a great possible option for bone tissue engineering. Herein, we evaluated the potential application of the ZSM-5 scaffold encapsulated GEN with high porosity structure and significant antibacterial properties. The space holder process has been employed as a new fabrication method with interconnected pores and suitable mechanical properties. In this study, for the first time, ZSM-5 scaffolds with GEN drug-loading were fabricated with the space holder method. The results showed excellent open porosity in the range of 70-78% for different GEN concentrations and appropriate mechanical properties. Apatite formation on the scaffold surface was determined with Simulation body fluid (SBF), and a new bone-like apatite layer shaping on all samples confirmed the in vitro bioactivity of ZSM-5-GEN scaffolds. Also, antibacterial properties were investigated against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The incorporation of various amounts of GEN increased the inhibition zone from 24 to 28 (for E. coli) and 26 to 37 (for S. aureus). In the culture with MG63 cells, great cell viability and high cell proliferation after 7 days of culture were determined.
The present study addressed the synthesis of a bi-layered nanostructured fluorine-doped hydroxyapatite (nFHA)/polycaprolactone (PCL) coating on Mg-2Zn-3Ce alloy via a combination of electrodeposition (ED) and dip-coating methods. The nFHA/PCL composite coating is composed of a thick (70-80 μm) and porous layer of PCL that uniformly covered the thin nFHA film (8-10 μm) with nanoneedle-like microstructure and crystallite size of around 70-90 nm. Electrochemical measurements showed that the nFHA/PCL composite coating presented a high corrosion resistance (R(p)=2.9×10(3) kΩ cm(2)) and provided sufficient protection for a Mg substrate against galvanic corrosion. The mechanical integrity of the nFHA/PCL composite coatings immersed in SBF for 10 days showed higher compressive strength (34% higher) compared with the uncoated samples, indicating that composite coatings can delay the loss of compressive strength of the Mg alloy. The nFHA/PCL coating indicted better bonding strength (6.9 MPa) compared to PCL coating (2.2 MPa). Immersion tests showed that nFHA/PCL composite-coated alloy experienced much milder corrosion attack and more nucleation sites for apatite compared with the PCL coated and uncoated samples. The bi-layered nFHA/PCL coating can be a good alternative method for the control of corrosion degradation of biodegradable Mg alloy for implant applications.
In this work, binary Zn-0.5Al and ternary Zn-0.5Al-xMg alloys with various Mg contents were investigated as biodegradable materials for implant applications. Compared with Zn-0.5Al (single phase), Zn-0.5Al-xMg alloys consisted of the α-Zn and Mg2(Zn, Al)11 with a fine lamellar structure. The results also revealed that ternary Zn-Al-Mg alloys presented higher micro-hardness value, tensile strength and corrosion resistance compared to the binary Zn-Al alloy. In addition, the tensile strength and corrosion resistance increased with increasing the Mg content in ternary alloys. The immersion tests also indicated that the corrosion rates in the following order Zn-0.5Al-0.5Mg