Melicope ptelefolia (MP) is one of the alternative herbal resources which have a great potential to be marketed worldwide. Because of its exploratory nature, this study used qualitative research methodology, which is natural and highly interpretive in order to gain consumer insights. This preliminary qualitative study used an in-depth personal interview approach for data collection. Informants for this study were 30 regular consumers of MP, aged from 18 years old and above. From the findings, it is reported that MP had a slightly bitter taste, crunchy young leaves, pungent, and lemon-lime aroma. In terms of its physical characteristics, it is said that MP has trifoliate, green, thick, broad leaves and has small white and greenish flowers. Respondents have varying levels of awareness and knowledge regarding MP but most of them believed that medicinal products can be produced from this herb. Respondents also stressed the importance of scientific research to properly develop MP into medicinal products and turn it into alternative treatment that has commercial values in the market.
In the present work, the influence of microwave power and heating times on the quality
degradation of corn oil was evaluated. Microwave heating test was carried out using a domestic
microwave oven for different periods at low- and medium-power settings for the corn oil sample.
The changes in physicochemical characteristics related to oil degradation of the samples during
heating were determined by standard methods. In this study, refractive index, free fatty acid
content, peroxide value, p-anisidine value, TOTOX value, viscosity and total polar compound
of the oils all increased with increasing heating power and time of exposure. In GLC analysis,
the percentage of linoleic acid tended to decrease, whereas the percentage of palmitic, stearic
and oleic acids increased. The C18:2/C16:0 ratio decreased in all oil samples with increasing
heating times. Exposing the corn oil to various microwave power settings and heating periods
caused the formation of hydroperoxides and secondary oxidation products. The heating reduced
the various tocopherol isomers in corn oil and highest reduction was detected in γ-tocopherol.
Longer microwave heating times resulted in a greater degree of oil deterioration. Microwave
heating caused the formation of comparatively lower amounts of some degradative products in
the oil samples heated at low-power setting compared to medium-power setting. The present
analysis indicated that oil quality was affected by both microwave power and heating time.
Cavendish (Musa paradisiaca L, cv cavendshii) and Dream (Musa acuminata colla. AAA, cv ‘Berangan’) banana flours were prepared from ripe fruits collected from eleven markets located in Penang, Malaysia. The mineral composition (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn) of the flour were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer and the data obtained were analyzed using logistic regression model. Ripe banana flours were rich source of K and a fair source of other minerals, however logistic regression model identified Mg as an indicator to discriminate between the two types of banana flour affording 100 % correct assignation. Based on this result, mineral analysis may be suggested as a method to authenticate ripe banana flour. This study also presents the usefulness of logistic regression technique for analysis and interpretation of complex data.
Physical properties of ripe banana flour were studied in Cavendish and Dream banana, in order to distinguish the two varieties. Flour was analyzed for pH, total soluble solids (TSS), water holding capacity
(WHC) and oil holding capacity (OHC) at 40, 60 and 80 °C, color values L*, a* and b*, back extrusion force
and viscosity. Physical properties data were analyzed by cluster analysis (CA) and discriminant analysis (DA). CA showed that the two types of flour were different in terms of selected physical properties. DA indicated that WHC at 60 °C was the main contributor in discriminating the two types of flour.
Four types of soft dates (SD), three types of semi-dried dates (SDD) and one type of dried dates (DD) were used in this study. The antioxidant activities were assessed using TEAC method (ABTS assay) and the ferric reducing/antioxidant power method (FRAP assay), while total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) were measured using Folin-Ciocalteau and aluminum chloride colorimetric methods. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA), discriminant analysis (DA) and principal component analysis (PCA) were used to analyze the data. MANOVA showed a strong significant difference between the eight types of dates. DA identified the relative contribution of each parameter in distinguishing the dates. DA also identified two functions responsible for discriminating the dates and showed the difference between different types of dates. The first function distinguished DD from other types of dates, whilst the second function discriminated SD and SDD, affording 100% correct assignation. PCA identified only one component responsible for explaining 98.85% of the total variance in antioxidant data. It is suggested that the TEAC method and the quantitative determination of TPC and TFC was suitable for differentiation of dates and quality control.
Bacillus amyloliquefaciens B7 was isolated from the fermented fish sauce and identified as protease producer. Generally, in downstream processing, purification of enzymes consumes higher cost regarding reagents and equipment used. Moreover, harsh purification methods used might cause denaturation of the enzymes. Therefore, there is a high demand for efficient and lowcost extraction and purification methods. Aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) is an alternative method that should be considered as it is simple, rapid separation yet cause little denaturation. Protease produced by B. amyloliquefaciens B7 was partitioned using two different ATPS, which were PEG/potassium phosphate and PEG/sodium citrate. Results showed the highest enzyme activity was found in interface phase with the ATPS system of 27% (w/w) PEG1500/ 34% (w/w) sodium citrate. Later, the ATPS conditions (pH, temperature, the concentration of selected salt and PEG) were optimized by using response surface methodology. The optimum conditions for ATPS purification were observed in ATPS conditions at pH 7 and 35°C with the enzyme activity of 0.20± 0.01 U/ml.
Heat exchanger H.X.s is the equipment used to transfer the thermal energy between two or more
fluids at varying temperatures. The nature of this paper is an experimental study of the optimum
design for shell and tube heat exchanger as a condenser with high productivity of drinking
water for portable solar water distiller. The elaboration covers the aspects of considerations,
design, fabrication, and test of the shell and tube H.X. as a portable condenser for solar water
distiller system. The system consists of a portable stainless steel condenser, which is able to be
dismantled and assembled without tools. The experimental result establishes that the condenser
is able to produce 3.8 liter /hour of distilled water from vapor at 99.7˚C of inlet temperature and
4 liter/hour vapor flow rate, with 130 liter /hour as a condenser coolant water flow rate. The heat
efficiency of the condenser can be increased by means of minimizing the tube’s thickness and
vapor inlet pressure. There is no back pressure effect on the system and the pressure drop in
both sides of the condenser is reportedly of very low value and negligible, therefore, no need
for a pressure pump is to be eliminated.
Date palm is an important plant in arid regions with more than 20 varieties reported all over the world. Date seed is a byproduct of date fruit industry which is normally being discarded, used as animal feed ingredient or turned into non-caffeinated coffee by the Arabs. About 11-18% of date fruit weight is the seed which is composed of carbohydrates, dietary fiber, fat, ash and protein. In addition, the antioxidant content in date seed oil (DSO) was found to be comparable with olive oil, which can be as a good source of antioxidant in order to fulfill the consumers demand. Oleic acid is the major fatty acid found in DSO, followed by lauric, linoleic, palmitic and myristic acid. However, different varieties of date fruits have different fatty acid compositions. This paper reviewed the potential use of date seed and date seed oil in order to discover and develop its usage and find out the suitable application of these seed and oil.
The objective of this study was to determine microbiological quality of gulai tempoyak paste (GTP) added with three different leaf; Vietnamese coriander, turmeric and asam gelugor. The GTP was cooked for 10 minutes with control temperature (60-70°C) and the leaf were added at 2, 5 and 8 minutes during the cooking time to give exposure times of 8, 5 and 2 minutes of the leaf to GTP. GTP without addition of leaf was treated as control and all the prepared GTPs were stored at 30°C for 2 days before analysed using total plate count (TPC) and yeast and mould count (YMC). The addition of asam gelugor leaf to GTP for 5 minutes of the cooking period significantly (p > 0.05) reduced TPC (log10 3.54 CFU/g) compared to Vietnamese coriander (log10 4.67 CFU/g) and turmeric leaf (log10 4.70 CFU/g). Asam gelugor leaf also showed a significant difference in TPC reduction (log10 4.44 CFU/g) when added to GTP for 8 minutes compared to Vietnamese coriander (log10 5.10 CFU/g), but was insignificant to turmeric leaf (log10 4.71 CFU/g). In conclusion, there are significant effects on microbiological quality of GTP when added with Vietnamese coriander, turmeric and asam gelugor leaf at different exposure time based on TPC and YMC.
The aim of the present work was to compare and choose the best method to extract incurred
pesticide residues from green tea. Accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) with in-cell cleanup
and the quick, easy, cheap, effective rugged and safe (QuEChERS) methods were tested on
green tea samples with incurred beta-endosulfan pesticide. The extracts were analyzed by
GC-MS/MS and the recovery and the precision of both methods were compared. The average
recovery using ASE with the in-cell cleanup method was in the range of 89 to 92% which is
better than that obtained using a QuEChERS method. Both the ASE with in-cell cleanup and
the QuEChERS methods provided good precision with RSDs in the range of 12 to 15% and
17 to 18%, respectively. This finding indicates that the ASE method with the in-cell cleanup is
more suitable for the accurate determination of pesticides incurred in tea.
‘Nasi kandar’ is defined as boiled white rice placed inside a wooden basket and carried on the shoulder using a pole. The rice is served with a variety of pairing dishes that are usually fried, curried or boiled. The tradition of carrying rice and pairing dishes on the shoulder began to die out in the 20th century as seller resorted to a more conventional way of selling ‘nasi kandar’. The ‘nasi kandar’ business in Malaysia has evolved from being sold as a street food into a multi-million dollar franchise business rivalling the fast food business. It is available 24 hours and enjoyed by Malaysians from all walks of life. This study aims to compare ‘nasi kandar’ eating pattern among patrons in the Klang Valley and Penang. Three hundred sets of questionnaires were answered and collected. Data from the questionnaires were analyzed in PASW 18.0 using descriptive statistics and chi-square test for association. Klang Valley patrons (72%) would consume ‘nasi kandar’ once a week. More than half (53.3%) of the patrons from Penang consumed ‘nasi kandar’ more than twice a week. A significant relationship exists between patron’s region and frequency of ‘nasi kandar’ consumption where p = <0.0001 and r = 0.277. A significant but moderate relationship between patron’s region and consumption of ‘nasi kandar’ during breakfast (p = <0.001, r = 0.250), lunch (p = <0.0001, r = 264) and dinner (p = <0.0001, r = 0.336). Patrons in Penang consumed ‘nasi kandar’ more often than their Klang Valley counterparts. Klang Valley patrons were more particular than Penang patrons when it comes to cleanliness, menu pricing, friendly service, air-condition and separate smoking area. Klang Valley patrons tend to consume more chicken based dishes while Penang patrons tend to consume more meat, fish, and squid based dishes.
It is well known that there is a significant increased in the quantity of Municipal Solid Waste
(MSW) generated every year. Therefore, the management of MSW must be handled carefully
by experts. Malaysia as one of the developing country with population nearly 30 millions
also facing problems related to MSW management and this issue is quite critical. Even though
various programmes were established and few model technologies were introduced by the
government to manage MSW effectively, but the impact remain unsatisfaction. For example,
the energy facility recovery project which use MSW gathered around Kajang as an alternative
fuel still not successful to provide energy according to the design capacity of that particular
facility. This failure was observed due to the impact composition of MSW collected which
consists huge amount of food waste (57%), 16% plastic, 15% diaper, 9% mixed papers and
the remaining 3% textile. The existing process technology at Refused Derived Fuel (RDF)
facility is no designed to create a new economic benefit from abundant incoming food waste
to the facility. Therefore in this paper, the analysis and suggestion of technology on existing
RDF recovery energy facility will be discussed especially on how to overcome the abundant
composition of food waste.
The present work aimed at obtaining the optimum combination of stabilisers used in an
instant ice cream formulation. Instant ice cream mixes were formulated using milk protein,
fat, sucrose, stabilisers, emulsifiers and water. A basic formulation for ice cream mix was
prepared according to the process flow of instant ice cream. Three different stabilisers
mixtures, which were carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), carrageenan, and sodium alginate
used in 14 formulations were studied using mixture design methodology. Physical analyses on
meltdown rate, hardness, melted ice cream viscosity, and overrun were performed. The results
were compared with those of commercial instant ice cream to determine the acceptability and
quality of the final products. From the optimisation study, the recommended combination of
stabilisers was found to be 0.151% CMC and 0.149% sodium alginate. The optimised sample
had a higher viscosity of 0.17 Pa.s than the commercial one (0.16 Pa.s), which corresponded to
higher hardness thus indicating slower melting rate, which is a good texture for ice cream. The
overrun of the optimised sample was 108.33%, which is considered high. The high amount of
air, viscosity, and hardness resulted in a low melting rate of 0.22 g/min, which is desirable for
ice cream consumption. Based on sensory evaluation, the optimised instant ice cream was the
most preferred by panellists as compared to commercial sample.
Bahulu, a popular traditional food in Malaysia is produced mainly by the Small and Medium
Entrepreneurs (SMEs) who are often micro in size and function as both producers and sellers
of the food in the marketplace. A problem usually faced by these enterprises is on matching
their bahulu offer with consumers’ preferences that eventually will lead to loss of sales volume,
loss of customers and stunted business growth. This study attempts to find out how consumers
evaluate bahulu using various aspects of the food product offer. A survey on 671 consumers
from three different states in Malaysia (Penang, Perlis and Kedah) revealed that consumers
in general prioritize the product aspect more than on how it is packaged, priced and branded.
Overall, halal (label) is the most critical component expected by consumers, followed by
its color and softness (product), and manufacturer’s address (label). Interestingly, branding,
packaging and health aspect of the food were amongst the lowest ranked by consumers for this
product. Some similarities and slight differences in how each consumer group evaluates the
bahulu components were also found. The findings provide some insights for the bahulu micro
entrepreneurs (BMEs) on what to focus on when marketing the food.
Foodborne disease has been associated with microorganisms like bacteria, fungi, viruses and parasites. Most commonly, the outbreaks take place due to the ingestion of pathogenic bacteria like Salmonella Typhi, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio cholera, Campylobacter jejuni, and Listeria monocytogenes. The disease usually happens as a result of toxin secretion of the microorganisms in the intestinal tract of the infected person. Usually, the level of hygiene in the food premises reflect the quality of the food item, hence restaurant or stall with poor sanitary condition is said to be the contributor to food poisoning outbreak. In Malaysia, food poisoning cases are not rare because the hot and humid climate of this country is very suitable for the growth of the foodborne bacteria. The government is also implementing strict rules to ensure workers and owners of food premises prioritize the cleanliness of their working area. Training programme for food handlers can also help them to implement hygiene as a routine in a daily basis. A lot of studies have been done to reduce foodborne diseases. The results can give information about the types of microorganisms, and other components that affect their growth. The result is crucial to determine how the spread of foodborne bacteria can be controlled safely and the outbreak can be reduced.
Solvent-extracted Moringa oleifera seed oil was transesterified using immobilized lipase (Lipozyme IM 60) (Novozymes Bagsvaerd Denmark) at 1% (w/w) concentration, shaken at 60oC and 200 rpm for up to 24h. After transesterification, the oil was fractionated with acetone at -18oC and without acetone at 10oC to obtain two fractions, stearin and olein fractions. Incubation of the transesterified oil at 10oC for 24 h resulted in the formation of fat crystals, which settled at the bottom of the flask in sample transesterified for 24 h, while the control (0 h) sample became rather viscous with fat crystals in suspension. Transesterification resulted in a change in the triacylglycerol (TAG) profile of the oil, which in turn affected its solid fat content (SFC) and thermal behavior. The SFC value at 0oC after 24 h of reaction was 10.35% and significantly (P
HyperDSC™(fast scan rate) was used to study the melting behavior of canola (CLO), sunflower (SFO), palm olein (PO), rice bran oils (RBO), and cocoa butter (CB), and was compared to the melting behaviors using conventional DSC. There was an increase in sensitivity with increase in scan rate. Slow scan rate (5 to 20C/min) gave low sensitivity, which increased when the scan rates were increased to 50, 100 and 200C/min. Peak resolution was affected by scan rate depending on the sample weight. Increase in the size of sample coupled with the use of fast scan rate decreased the peak resolution. Generally small sample sizes gave better peak resolution. Results of the effect of scan rate on glass transition (Tg) shows that Tg, which is a weak transition especially in crystalline and low amorphous materials was not detected using conventional scan rates (5 to 20oC/min). It was however detected using of hyperDSC™ scan rates (100 to 200oC/min). Increasing the scan rate resulted in an increase in the peak temperature and the elimination of shoulder peaks, which were caused due to the polymorphic behavior of the triacylglycerols in the oils. The increase in peak temperature caused a shift in the peak position towards a higher temperature value. There is a positive correlation between the peak temperature and scan rate. The correlation coefficients (r) for CLO, SFO, PO, RBO and CB were 0.96, 0.95, 0.97, 0.96 and 0.96 respectively.
Although one of the major users of flocculants are water and wastewater treatment industries, flocculants are also used in various food industries. The chemical flocculants are preferred widely in these industries due to low production cost and fast production ability. However, the negative effects of the chemical flocculants should not be neglected to gain the economic benefits only. Therefore, the researchers are working to discover efficient and economical flocculants from biological sources. Several attempts have been made and are still being made to extract or produce bioflocculants from natural sources such as plants, bacteria, fungi, yeast, algae, etc. The review revealed that significant amount of work have been done in the past, in search of bioflocculant. However, commercially viable bioflocculants are yet to be marketed widely. With the advent of new biotechnologies and advances in genetic engineering, the researchers are hopeful to discover or develop commercially viable, safe and environmentfriendly bioflocculants.
This study describes the development of a rapid and sensitive Loop-mediated isothermal
amplification assay for detection of swine DNA in adulterated meat and meat products. The
need to protect consumer’s right to eat foods of their choices, has made it imperative for
researchers to develop efficient means of screening and certification of food products. Six sets
of LAMP primers designed based on porcine tRNA lysine gene and ATPase subunit 8 genes
were used for the assay. Amplification was carried out under constant temperature (630C), using
a simple laboratory water bath. Average time spent in amplification and detection of results was
25 min. All results were visually detected and confirmed by electrophoresis. Detection limit of
the assay was 0.03 femtogram (fg) much high than the PCR assay, and detection probability of
the assay was 100%. Detection of 0.5% of pork spiked with 99.5% of cattle beef is indicative
of the sensitivity and robustness of the assay. This could serve as a prototype for development
of a sensitive and inexpensive Swine DNA LAMP detection kit.
The domestic demand for broiler meat is one of the highest in the Malaysian markets. The
industry requires continuous evaluation to identify the existing problems and improves its
competitive advantage. Thus, economic analysis of this sort will continue to update current
statistics on production cost, output and profitability. Following this, the study, therefore, aims
to assess the existing financial condition of farmers, marginal cost of production, total net
income and input-output ratio of broiler production in different regions in Peninsular Malaysia.
The study used multi-stage sampling in selecting 310 operators from Southern, Northern, East
Coast and Centeral regions. The analytical tools include descriptive statistics and farm budget.
The findings disclosed that the broiler farm incurs major cost from acquiring operating inputs
especially feed. The operations in the East Coast region was almost unprofitable for the reason
that feed conversion rate is more than 2 resulting in higher production cost. But the other three
regions indicate positive returns based on the estimated input-output ratios of 1:1.09, 1:1.17
and 1: 1.23 for Northern, Southern and Central regions, respectively.The study advocates for
both managerial and policy measures that will help cut the cost of production to attract more
investors and increase export.