Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 121 in total

  1. Chan YS, Mat Don M
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2013 Jan 1;33(1):282-8.
    PMID: 25428073 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2012.08.041
    Five species of white rot fungi were screened for their capability to synthesize Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs). Three modes of AgNP bioreduction were developed. Pycnoporus sanguineus is found as a potential candidate for the synthesis of AgNPs with a yield at 98.9%. The synthesized AgNPs were characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy, DLS, FTIR, TEM, and SEM. Results showed that AgNP absorption band was located at a peak of 420 nm. Both the SEM and TEM confirmed that the formation of AgNPs were mainly spherical with average diameters of 52.8-103.3 nm. The signals of silver atoms' presence in the mycelium were observed by SEM-EDS spectrum.
  2. Saidin S, Chevallier P, Abdul Kadir MR, Hermawan H, Mantovani D
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2013 Dec 1;33(8):4715-24.
    PMID: 24094179 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2013.07.026
    Hydroxyapatite (HA) coated implant is more susceptible to bacterial infection as the micro-structure surface which is beneficial for osseointegration, could also become a reservoir for bacterial colonisation. The aim of this study was to introduce the antibacterial effect of silver (Ag) to the biomineralised HA by utilising a polydopamine film as an intermediate layer for Ag and HA immobilisation. Sufficient catechol groups in polydopamine were required to bind chemically stainless steel 316 L, Ag and HA elements. Different amounts of Ag nanoparticles were metallised on the polydopamine grafted stainless steel by varying the immersion time in silver nitrate solution from 12 to 24 h. Another polydopamine layer was then formed on the metallised film, followed by surface biomineralisation in 1.5 Simulated Body Fluid (SBF) solution for 3 days. Several characterisation techniques including X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, Atomic Force Microscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy and Contact Angle showed that Ag nanoparticles and HA agglomerations were successfully immobilised on the polydopamine film through an element reduction process. The Ag metallisation at 24 h has killed the viable bacteria with 97.88% of bactericidal ratio. The Ag was ionised up to 7 days which is crucial to prevent bacterial infection during the first stage of implant restoration. The aged functionalised films were considered stable due to less alteration of its chemical composition, surface roughness and wettability properties. The ability of the functionalised film to coat complex and micro scale metal make it suitable for dental and orthopaedic implants application.
  3. Azman NZ, Siddiqui SA, Low IM
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2013 Dec 1;33(8):4952-7.
    PMID: 24094209 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2013.08.023
    Characteristics of X-ray transmissions were investigated for epoxy composites filled with 2-10 vol% WO3 loadings using synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) at 10-40 keV. The results obtained were used to determine the equivalent X-ray energies for the operating X-ray tube voltages of mammography and radiology machines. The results confirmed the superior attenuation ability of nano-sized WO3-epoxy composites in the energy range of 10-25 keV when compared to their micro-sized counterparts. However, at higher synchrotron radiation energies (i.e., 30-40 keV), the X-ray transmission characteristics were similar with no apparent size effect for both nano-sized and micro-sized WO3-epoxy composites. The equivalent X-ray energies for the operating X-ray tube voltages of the mammography unit (25-49 kV) were in the range of 15-25 keV. Similarly, for a radiology unit operating at 40-60 kV, the equivalent energy range was 25-40 keV, and for operating voltages greater than 60 kV (i.e., 70-100 kV), the equivalent energy was in excess of 40 keV. The mechanical properties of epoxy composites increased initially with an increase in the filler loading but a further increase in the WO3 loading resulted in deterioration of flexural strength, modulus and hardness.
  4. Ulum MF, Arafat A, Noviana D, Yusop AH, Nasution AK, Abdul Kadir MR, et al.
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2014 Mar 1;36:336-44.
    PMID: 24433920 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2013.12.022
    Biodegradable metals such as magnesium, iron and their alloys have been known as potential materials for temporary medical implants. However, most of the studies on biodegradable metals have been focusing on optimizing their mechanical properties and degradation behavior with no emphasis on improving their bioactivity behavior. We therefore investigated the possibility of improving iron biodegradation rate and bioactivity by incorporating various bioactive bioceramics. The iron-based bioceramic (hydroxyapatite, tricalcium phosphate and biphasic calcium phosphate) composites were prepared by mechanical mixing and sintering process. Degradation studies indicated that the addition of bioceramics lowered the corrosion potential of the composites and slightly increased their corrosion rate compared to that of pure iron. In vitro cytotoxicity results showed an increase of cellular activity when rat smooth muscle cells interacted with the degrading composites compared to pure iron. X-ray radiogram analysis showed a consistent degradation progress with that found in vivo and positive tissue response up to 70 days implantation in sheep animal model. Therefore, the iron-based bioceramic composites have the potential to be used for biodegradable bone implant applications.
  5. Jamuna-Thevi K, Saarani NN, Abdul Kadir MR, Hermawan H
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2014 Oct;43:253-63.
    PMID: 25175212 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2014.07.028
    This paper discusses the successful fabrication of a novel triple-layered poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)-based composite membrane using only a single step that combines the techniques of solvent casting and thermally induced phase separation/solvent leaching. The resulting graded membrane consists of a small pore size layer-1 containing 10 wt% non-stoichiometric nanoapatite (NAp)+1-3 wt% lauric acid (LA) for fibroblastic cell and bacterial inhibition, an intermediate layer-2 with 20-50 wt% NAp+1 wt% LA, and a large pore size layer-3 containing 30-100 wt% NAp without LA to allow bone cell growth. The synergic effects of 10-30 wt% NAp and 1 wt% LA in the membrane demonstrated higher tensile strength (0.61 MPa) and a more elastic behavior (16.1% elongation at break) in 3 wt% LA added membrane compared with the pure PLGA (0.49 MPa, 9.1%). The addition of LA resulted in a remarkable plasticizing effect on PLGA at 3 wt% due to weak intermolecular interactions in PLGA. The pure and composite PLGA membranes had good cell viability toward human skin fibroblast, regardless of LA and NAp contents.
  6. Jamlus SA, Jauhari I, Khalid HM
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2014 Oct;43:566-72.
    PMID: 25175251 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2014.06.034
    In this study, HA is superplastically embedded into Titanium substrate and the sample is subsequently deformed superplastically until 70% deformation degree. The former process is termed as superplastic embedment (SPE) while the later as superplastic deformation (SPD). After the SPE, HA is successfully embedded into the substrate, forming a layer with a thickness of about 249 nm. After the SPD the embedded HA layer thickness decreases to 111 nm. The SPD sample is then immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF) to evaluate its biological properties. A newly grown apatite is formed as a result of the immersion and the HA layer thickness increases with immersion time. The cohesion and adhesion strength within the HA coating and coating-substrate interface of the SPD samples before and after immersion in the SBF is evaluated through the nanoscratch test technique. The results indicate that the HA layer after SPD is still strong even though after being exposed in SBF environment for quite some time. The study suggests that the superplastically embedded HA nanolayer is still intact mechanically and functioning appropriately as biological activity base even after the SPD process.
  7. Rashid JI, Yusof NA, Abdullah J, Hashim U, Hajian R
    PMID: 25491829 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2014.09.010
    This work describes the incorporation of SiNWs/AuNPs composite as a sensing material for DNA detection on indium tin-oxide (ITO) coated glass slide. The morphology of SiNWs/AuNPs composite as the modifier layer on ITO was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The morphological studies clearly showed that SiNWs were successfully decorated with 20 nm-AuNPs using self-assembly monolayer (SAM) technique. The effective surface area for SiNWs/AuNPs-modified ITO enhanced about 10 times compared with bare ITO electrode. SiNWs/AuNPs nanocomposite was further explored as a matrix for DNA probe immobilization in detection of dengue virus as a bio-sensing model to evaluate its performance in electrochemical sensors. The hybridization of complementary DNA was monitored by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) using methylene blue (MB) as the redox indicator. The fabricated biosensor was able to discriminate significantly complementary, non-complementary and single-base mismatch oligonucleotides. The electrochemical biosensor was sensitive to target DNA related to dengue virus in the range of 9.0-178.0 ng/ml with detection limit of 3.5 ng/ml. In addition, SiNWs/AuNPs-modified ITO, regenerated up to 8 times and its stability was up to 10 weeks at 4°C in silica gel.
  8. Fallahiarezoudar E, Ahmadipourroudposht M, Idris A, Mohd Yusof N
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2015 Mar;48:556-65.
    PMID: 25579957 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2014.12.016
    The four heart valves represented in the mammalian hearts are responsible for maintaining unidirectional, non-hinder blood flow. The heart valve leaflets synchronically open and close approximately 4 million times a year and more than 3 billion times during the life. Valvular heart dysfunction is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality around the world. When one of the valves malfunctions, the medical choice is may be to replace the original valves with an artificial one. Currently, the mechanical and biological artificial valves are clinically used with some drawbacks. Tissue engineering heart valve concept represents a new technique to enhance the current model. In tissue engineering method, a three-dimensional scaffold is fabricated as the template for neo-tissue development. Appropriate cells are seeded to the matrix in vitro. Various approaches have been investigated either in scaffold biomaterials and fabrication techniques or cell source and cultivation methods. The available results of ongoing experiments indicate a promising future in this area (particularly in combination of bone marrow stem cells with synthetic scaffold), which can eliminate the need for lifelong anti-coagulation medication, durability and reoperation problems.
  9. Ardeshirzadeh B, Anaraki NA, Irani M, Rad LR, Shamshiri S
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2015 Mar;48:384-90.
    PMID: 25579938 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2014.12.039
    Polyethylene oxide (PEO)/chitosan (CS)/graphene oxide (GO) electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds were successfully developed via electrospinning process for controlled release of doxorubicin (DOX). The SEM analysis of nanofibrous scaffolds with different contents of GO (0.1, 0.2, 0.5 and 0.7wt.%) indicated that the minimum diameter of nanofibers was found to be 85nm for PEO/CS/GO 0.5% nanofibers. The π-π stacking interaction between DOX and GO with fine pores of nanofibrous scaffolds exhibited higher drug loading (98%) and controlled release of the DOX loaded PEO/CS/GO nanofibers. The results of DOX release from nanofibrous scaffolds at pH5.3 and 7.4 indicated strong pH dependence. The hydrogen bonding interaction between GO and DOX could be unstable under acidic conditions which resulted in faster drug release rate in pH5.3. The cell viability results indicated that DOX loaded PEO/CS/GO/DOX nanofibrous scaffold could be used as an alternative source of DOX compared with free DOX to avoid the side effects of free DOX. Thus, the prepared nanofibrous scaffold offers as a novel formulation for treatment of lung cancer.
  10. Murni NS, Dambatta MS, Yeap SK, Froemming GRA, Hermawan H
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2015 Apr;49:560-566.
    PMID: 25686984 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2015.01.056
    The recent proposal of using Zn-based alloys for biodegradable implants was not supported with sufficient toxicity data. This work, for the first time, presents a thorough cytotoxicity evaluation of Zn-3Mg alloy for biodegradable bone implants. Normal human osteoblast cells were exposed to the alloy's extract and three main cell-material interaction parameters: cell health, functionality and inflammatory response, were evaluated. Results showed that at the concentration of 0.75mg/ml alloy extract, cell viability was reduced by ~50% through an induction of apoptosis at day 1; however, cells were able to recover at days 3 and 7. Cytoskeletal changes were observed but without any significant DNA damage. The downregulation of alkaline phosphatase protein levels did not significantly affect the mineralization process of the cells. Significant differences of cyclooxygenase-2 and prostaglandin E2 inflammatory biomarkers were noticed, but not interleukin 1-beta, indicating that the cells underwent a healing process after exposure to the alloy. Detailed analysis on the cell-material interaction is further discussed in this paper.
  11. AbdulQader ST, Kannan TP, Rahman IA, Ismail H, Mahmood Z
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2015 Apr;49:225-233.
    PMID: 25686943 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2014.12.070
    Calcium phosphate (CaP) scaffolds have been widely and successfully used with osteoblast cells for bone tissue regeneration. However, it is necessary to investigate the effects of these scaffolds on odontoblast cells' proliferation and differentiation for dentin tissue regeneration. In this study, three different hydroxyapatite (HA) to beta tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) ratios of biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) scaffolds, BCP20, BCP50, and BCP80, with a mean pore size of 300μm and 65% porosity were prepared from phosphoric acid (H2PO4) and calcium carbonate (CaCO3) sintered at 1000°C for 2h. The extracts of these scaffolds were assessed with regard to cell viability and differentiation of odontoblasts. The high alkalinity, more calcium, and phosphate ions released that were exhibited by BCP20 decreased the viability of human dental pulp cells (HDPCs) as compared to BCP50 and BCP80. However, the cells cultured with BCP20 extract expressed high alkaline phosphatase activity and high expression level of bone sialoprotein (BSP), dental matrix protein-1 (DMP-1), and dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) genes as compared to that cultured with BCP50 and BCP80 extracts. The results highlighted the effect of different scaffold ratios on the cell microenvironment and demonstrated that BCP20 scaffold can support HDPC differentiation for dentin tissue regeneration.
  12. Hajian R, Mehrayin Z, Mohagheghian M, Zafari M, Hosseini P, Shams N
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2015 Apr;49:769-775.
    PMID: 25687007 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2015.01.072
    In this study, an electrochemical sensor was fabricated based on gold nanoparticles/ ethylenediamine/ multi-wall carbon-nanotubes modified gold electrode (AuNPs/en/MWCNTs/AuE) for determination of valrubicin in biological samples. Valrubicin was effectively accumulated on the surface of AuNPs/en/MWCNTs/AuE and produced a pair of redox peaks at around 0.662 and 0.578V (vs. Ag/AgCl) in citrate buffer (pH4.0). The electrochemical parameters including pH, buffer, ionic strength, scan rate and size of AuNPs have been optimized. There was a good linear correlation between cathodic peak current and concentration of valrubicin in the range of 0.5 to 80.0μmolL(-1) with the detection limit of 0.018μmolL(-1) in citrate buffer (pH4.0) and 0.1molL(-1) KCl. Finally, the constructed sensor was successfully applied for determination of valrubicin in human urine and blood serum. In further studies, the different sequences of single stranded DNA probes have been immobilized on the surface of AuNPs decorated on MWCNTs to study the interaction of oligonucleotides with valrubicin.
  13. Baradaran S, Moghaddam E, Nasiri-Tabrizi B, Basirun WJ, Mehrali M, Sookhakian M, et al.
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2015 Apr;49:656-668.
    PMID: 25686995 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2015.01.050
    The effect of the addition of an ionic dopant to calcium phosphates for biomedical applications requires specific research due to the essential roles played in such processes. In the present study, the mechanical and biological properties of Ni-doped hydroxyapatite (HA) and Ni-doped HA mixed with graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) were evaluated. Ni (3wt.% and 6wt.%)-doped HA was synthesized using a continuous precipitation method and calcined at 900°C for 1h. The GNP (0.5-2wt.%)-reinforced 6% Ni-doped HA (Ni6) composite was prepared using rotary ball milling for 15h. The sintering process was performed using hot isostatic pressing at processing conditions of 1150°C and 160MPa with a 1-h holding time. The results indicated that the phase compositions and structural features of the products were noticeably affected by the Ni and GNPs. The mechanical properties of Ni6 and 1.5Ni6 were increased by 55% and 75% in hardness, 59% and 163% in fracture toughness and 120% and 85% in elastic modulus compared with monolithic HA, respectively. The in-vitro biological behavior was investigated using h-FOB osteoblast cells in 1, 3 and 5days of culture. Based on the osteoblast results, the cytotoxicity of the products was indeed affected by the Ni doping. In addition, the effect of GNPs on the growth and proliferation of osteoblast cells was investigated in Ni6 composites containing different ratios of GNPs, where 1.5wt.% was the optimum value.
  14. Ahmadipourroudposht M, Fallahiarezoudar E, Yusof NM, Idris A
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2015 May;50:234-41.
    PMID: 25746266 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2015.02.008
    Magnetic nanofibers are composed of good dispersion of magnetic nanoparticles along an organic material. Magnetic nanofibers are potentially useful for composite reinforcement, bio-medical and tissue engineering. Nanofibers with the thinner diameter have to result in higher rigidity and tensile strength due to better alignments of lamellae along the fiber axis. In this study, the performance of electrospinning process was explained using response surface methodology (RSM) during fabrication of magnetic nanofibers using polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as a shelter for (γ-Fe2O3) nanoparticles where the parameters investigated were flow rate, applied voltage, distance between needle and collector and collector rotating speed. The response variable was diameter distribution. The two parameters flow rate and applied voltage in primary evaluation were distinguished as significant factors. Central composite design was applied to optimize the variable of diameter distribution. Quadratic estimated model developed for diameter distribution indicated the optimum conditions to be flow rate of 0.25 ml/h at voltage of 45 kV while the distance and rotating speed are at 8 cm and 1500 rps respectively. The obtained model was verified successfully by the confirmation experiments.
  15. Amin Yavari S, Chai YC, Böttger AJ, Wauthle R, Schrooten J, Weinans H, et al.
    PMID: 25842117 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2015.02.050
    Anodizing could be used for bio-functionalization of the surfaces of titanium alloys. In this study, we use anodizing for creating nanotubes on the surface of porous titanium alloy bone substitutes manufactured using selective laser melting. Different sets of anodizing parameters (voltage: 10 or 20V anodizing time: 30min to 3h) are used for anodizing porous titanium structures that were later heat treated at 500°C. The nanotopographical features are examined using electron microscopy while the bioactivity of anodized surfaces is measured using immersion tests in the simulated body fluid (SBF). Moreover, the effects of anodizing and heat treatment on the performance of one representative anodized porous titanium structures are evaluated using in vitro cell culture assays using human periosteum-derived cells (hPDCs). It has been shown that while anodizing with different anodizing parameters results in very different nanotopographical features, i.e. nanotubes in the range of 20 to 55nm, anodized surfaces have limited apatite-forming ability regardless of the applied anodizing parameters. The results of in vitro cell culture show that both anodizing, and thus generation of regular nanotopographical feature, and heat treatment improve the cell culture response of porous titanium. In particular, cell proliferation measured using metabolic activity and DNA content was improved for anodized and heat treated as well as for anodized but not heat-treated specimens. Heat treatment additionally improved the cell attachment of porous titanium surfaces and upregulated expression of osteogenic markers. Anodized but not heat-treated specimens showed some limited signs of upregulated expression of osteogenic markers. In conclusion, while varying the anodizing parameters creates different nanotube structure, it does not improve apatite-forming ability of porous titanium. However, both anodizing and heat treatment at 500°C improve the cell culture response of porous titanium.
  16. Nordin JA, Prajitno DH, Saidin S, Nur H, Hermawan H
    PMID: 25842138 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2015.03.019
    Hydroxyapatite (HAp) is an attractive bioceramics due to its similar composition to bone mineral and its ability to promote bone-implant interaction. However, its low strength has limited its application as load bearing implants. This paper presented a work focusing on the improvement of HAp mechanical property by synthesizing iron (Fe)-reinforced bovine HAp nanocomposite powders via mechanosynthesis method. The synthesis process was performed using high energy milling at varied milling time (3, 6, 9, and 12h). The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Its mechanical properties were investigated by micro-Vicker's hardness and compression tests. Results showed that milling time directly influenced the characteristics of the nanocomposite powders. Amorphous BHAp was formed after 9 and 12h milling in the presence of HPO4(2-) ions. Continuous milling has improved the crystallinity of Fe without changing the HAp lattice structure. The nanocomposite powders were found in spherical shape, agglomerated and dense after longer milling time. The hardness and Young's modulus of the nanocomposites were also increased at 69% and 66%, respectively, as the milling time was prolonged from 3 to 12h. Therefore, the improvement of the mechanical properties of nanocomposite was attributed to high Fe crystallinity and homogenous, dense structure produced by mechanosynthesis.
  17. Goh YF, Akram M, Alshemary AZ, Hussain R
    PMID: 26042687 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2015.04.013
    Calcium sulfate-bioactive glass (CSBG) composites doped with 5, 10 and 20 mol% Fe were synthesized using quick alkali sol-gel method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) data of samples heated at 700 °C revealed the presence of anhydrite, while field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) characterization confirmed the formation of nano-sized CSBGs. The UV-vis studies confirmed that the main iron species in 5% Fe and 10% Fe doped CSBGs were tetrahedral Fe(III) whereas that in 20% Fe doped CSBG were extra-framework FeOx oligomers or iron oxide phases. Measurement of magnetic properties of the samples by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) showed very narrow hysteresis loop with zero coercivity and remanence for 10% Fe and 20% Fe doped CSBG, indicating that they are superparamagnetic in nature. All samples induced the formation of apatite layer with Ca/P ratio close to the stoichiometric HA in simulated body fluid (SBF) assessment.
  18. Zeimaran E, Pourshahrestani S, Djordjevic I, Pingguan-Murphy B, Kadri NA, Towler MR
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2015 Aug;53:175-88.
    PMID: 26042705 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2015.04.035
    Biodegradable elastomers have clinical applicability due to their biocompatibility, tunable degradation and elasticity. The addition of bioactive glasses to these elastomers can impart mechanical properties sufficient for hard tissue replacement. Hence, a composite with a biodegradable polymer matrix and a bioglass filler can offer a method of augmenting existing tissue. This article reviews the applications of such composites for skeletal augmentation.
  19. Ayatollahi MR, Yahya MY, Karimzadeh A, Nikkhooyifar M, Ayob A
    PMID: 26046269 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2015.05.004
    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of temperature change and immersion in two common beverages on the mechanical and tribological properties for three different types of dental restorative materials. Thermocycling procedure was performed for simulating temperature changes in oral conditions. Black tea and soft drink were considered for beverages. Universal composite, universal nanohybrid composite and universal nanofilled composite, were used as dental materials. The nanoindentation and nanoscratch experiments were utilized to determine the elastic modulus, hardness, plasticity index and wear resistance of the test specimens. The results showed that thermocycling and immersion in each beverage had different effects on the tested dental materials. The mechanical and tribological properties of nanohybrid composite and nanocomposite were less sensitive to temperature change and to immersion in beverages in comparison with those of the conventional dental composite.
  20. Akram M, Alshemary AZ, Goh YF, Wan Ibrahim WA, Lintang HO, Hussain R
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2015 Nov 1;56:356-62.
    PMID: 26249601 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2015.06.040
    We have successfully used continuous microwave flow synthesis (CMFS) technique for the template free synthesis of mesoporous hydroxyapatite. The continuous microwave flow reactor consisted of a modified 2.45GHz household microwave, peristaltic pumps and a Teflon coil. This cost effective and efficient system was exploited to produce semi-crystalline phase pure nano-sized hydroxyapatite. Effect of microwave power, retention time and the concentration of reactants on the phase purity, degree of crystallinity and surface area of the final product was studied in detail. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to study the phase purity and composition of the product, while transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to study the effect of process parameters on the morphology of hydroxyapatite. The TEM analysis confirmed the formation of spherical particles at low microwave power; however the morphology of the particles changed to mesoporous needle and rod-like structure upon exposing the reaction mixture to higher microwave power and longer retention time inside the microwave. The in-vitro ion dissolution behavior of the as synthesized hydroxyapatite was studied by determining the amount of Ca(2+) ion released in SBF solution.
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