Recent advances in ultrasound (US) have shown its great potential in biomedical applications as diagnostic and therapeutic tools. The coupling of US-assisted drug delivery systems with nanobiomaterials possessing tailor-made functions has been shown to remove the limitations of conventional drug delivery systems. The low-frequency US has significantly enhanced the targeted drug delivery effect and efficacy, reducing limitations posed by conventional treatments such as a limited therapeutic window. The acoustic cavitation effect induced by the US-mediated microbubbles (MBs) has been reported to replace drugs in certain acute diseases such as ischemic stroke. This review briefly discusses the US principles, with particular attention to the recent advancements in drug delivery applications. Furthermore, US-assisted drug delivery coupled with nanobiomaterials to treat different diseases (cancer, neurodegenerative disease, diabetes, thrombosis, and COVID-19) are discussed in detail. Finally, this review covers the future perspectives and challenges on the applications of US-mediated nanobiomaterials.
Ultrasound (US) demonstrates remarkable potential in synthesising nanomaterials, particularly nanobiomaterials targeted towards biomedical applications. This review briefly introduces existing top-down and bottom-up approaches for nanomaterials synthesis and their corresponding synthesis mechanisms, followed by the expounding of US-driven nanomaterials synthesis. Subsequently, the pros and cons of sono-nanotechnology and its advances in the synthesis of nanobiomaterials are drawn based on recent works. US-synthesised nanobiomaterials have improved properties and performance over conventional synthesis methods and most essentially eliminate the need for harsh and expensive chemicals. The sonoproduction of different classes and types of nanobiomaterials such as metal and superparamagnetic nanoparticles (NPs), lipid- and carbohydrate-based NPs, protein microspheres, microgels and other nanocomposites are broadly categorised based on the physical and/or chemical effects induced by US. This review ends on a good note and recognises US-driven synthesis as a pragmatic solution to satisfy the growing demand for nanobiomaterials, nonetheless some technical challenges are highlighted.
Mangrove located near urban area is exposed to various industrial discharge including heavy metals. Mangrove soil is capable of accumulating and storing these heavy metals. Heavy metals are toxic and non-biodegradable, so their accumulations affect water quality, while bioaccumulation and bio-assimilation of heavy metals in mangrove organisms negatively impact the food chain. Bacteria-derived biosurfactants are compounds capable of removing heavy metals from soil and sediment. Furthermore, environmentally friendly properties, such as biodegradability and low toxicity, exhibited by biosurfactants make them a suitable replacement for chemical surfactants for remediation efforts. This study was conducted to investigate the lead- (Pb) and zinc- (Zn) removing capability of rhamnolipid (RL), a type of biosurfactant produced by marine bacterium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa UMTKB-5. Rhamnolipid solutions of three different concentrations (25 mg/L, 50 mg/L and 75 mg/L) were added to mangrove soil and incubated for 7 days. The removal of Pb from soils was up to 18.3% using 25 mg/L RL solution, while 50 mg/L RL solution removed 48.3%, and 75 mg/L RL solution removed 75.9% Pb over time. Meanwhile, zinc removal of 25 mg/L RL solution was up to 24.9%, while 50 mg/L removed 16.5%, and 75 mg/L RL removed 30.5% of Zn. The results showed that RL from P. aeruginosa UMTKB-5 could be a potential biomaterial to be used to remediate heavy metals in sediment.
Biopolymer chitosan (beta-1,4-d-glucosamine) comprises the copolymer mixture of N-acetylglucosamine and glucosamine. The natural biocompatibility and biodegradability of chitosan have recently highlighted its potential use for applications in wound management. Chemical and physical modifications of chitosan influence its biocompatibility and biodegradability, but it is unknown as to what degree. Hence, the biocompatibility of the chitosan porous skin regenerating templates (PSRT 82, 87 and 108) was determined using an in vitro toxicology model at the cellular and molecular level on primary normal human epidermal keratinocytes (pNHEK). Cytocompatibility was accessed by using a 3-[4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay from 24 to 72h. To assess the genotoxicity of the PSRTs, DNA damage to the pNHEK was evaluated by using the Comet assay following direct contact with the various PSRTs. Furthermore, the skin pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha and IL-8 were examined to evaluate the tendency of the PSRTs to provoke inflammatory responses. All PSRTs were found to be cytocompatible, but only PSRT 108 was capable of stimulating cell proliferation. While all of the PSRTs showed some DNA damage, PSRT 108 showed the least DNA damage followed by PSRT 87 and 82. PSRT 87 and 82 induced a higher secretion of TNF-alpha and IL-8 in the pNHEK cultures than did PSRT 108. Hence, based on our experiments, PSRT 108 is the most biocompatible wound dressing of the three tested.
Fabrication of composite scaffolds is one of the strategies proposed to enhance the functionality of tissue-engineered scaffolds for improved tissue regeneration. By combining multiple elements together, unique biomimetic scaffolds with desirable physical and mechanical properties can be tailored for tissue-specific applications. Despite having a highly porous structure, the utility of electrospun fibers (EF) as scaffold is usually hampered by their insufficient mechanical strength. In this study, we attempted to produce a mechanically competent scaffold with cell-guiding ability by fabricating aligned poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) fibers on decellularized human amniotic membrane (HAM), known to possess favorable tensile and wound healing properties. Decellularization of HAM in 18.75 μg/mL of thermolysin followed by a brief treatment in 0.25 M sodium hydroxide efficiently removed the amniotic epithelium and preserved the ultrastructure of the underlying extracellular matrix. The electrospinning of 20% (w/v) PLGA 50:50 polymer on HAM yielded beadless fibers with straight morphology. Subsequent physical characterization revealed that EF-HAM scaffold with a 3-min fabrication had the most aligned fibers with the lowest fiber diameter in comparison with EF-HAM 5- and 7-min scaffolds. Hydrated EF-HAM scaffolds with 3-min deposition had a greater tensile strength than the other scaffolds despite having thinner fibers. Nevertheless, wet HAM and EF-HAMs regardless of the fiber thicknesses had a significantly lower Young's modulus, and hence, a higher elasticity compared with dry HAM and EF-HAMs. Biocompatibility analysis showed that the viability and migration rate of skeletal muscle cells on EF-HAMs were similar to control and HAM alone. Skeletal muscle cells seeded on HAM were shown to display random orientation, whereas cells on EF-HAM scaffolds were oriented along the alignment of the electrospun PLGA fibers. In summary, besides having good mechanical strength and elasticity, EF-HAM scaffold design decorated with aligned fiber topography holds a promising potential for use in the development of aligned tissue constructs.
Tuberculosis is a lethal epidemic, difficult to control disease, claiming thousands of lives every year. We have developed a nanodelivery formulation based on para-aminosalicylic acid (PAS) and zinc layered hydroxide using zinc nitrate salt as a precursor. The developed formulation has a fourfold higher efficacy of PAS against mycobacterium tuberculosis with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) found to be at 1.40 μg/mL compared to the free drug PAS with a MIC of 5.0 μg/mL. The newly developed formulation was also found active against Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, and Candida albicans. The formulation was also found to be biocompatible with human normal lung cells MRC-5 and mouse fibroblast cells-3T3. The in vitro release of PAS from the formulation was found to be sustained in a human body simulated phosphate buffer saline (PBS) solution at pH values of 7.4 and 4.8. Most importantly the nanocomposite prepared using zinc nitrate salt was advantageous in terms of yield and free from toxic zinc oxide contamination and had higher biocompatibility compared to one prepared using a zinc oxide precursor. In summary, these promising in vitro results are highly encouraging for the continued investigation of para-aminosalicylic acid and zinc layered hydroxide nanocomposites in vivo and eventual preclinical studies.
The in vivo biocompatibility and toxicity of PVA/NOCC scaffold were tested by comparing them with those of a biocompatible inert material HAM in a rat model. On Day 5, changes in the blood parameters of the PVA/NOCC-implanted rats were significantly higher than those of the control. The levels of potassium, creatinine, total protein, A/G, hemoglobulin, erythrocytes, WBC, and platelets were not significantly altered in the HAM-implanted rats, when compared with those in the control. On Day 10, an increase in potassium, urea, and GGT levels and a decrease in ALP, platelet, and eosinophil levels were noted in the PVA/NOCC-implanted rats, when compared with control. These changes were almost similar to those noted in the HAM-implanted rats, except for the unaltered potassium and increased neutrophil levels. On Day 15, the total protein, A/G, lymphocyte, monocyte, and eosinophil levels remained unaltered in the PVA/NOCC-implanted rats, whereas urea, A/G, WBC, lymphocyte, and monocyte levels remained unchanged in the HAM-implanted rats. Histology and immunohistochemistry analyses revealed inflammatory infiltration in the PVA/NOCC-implanted rats, but not in the HAM-implanted rats. Although a low toxic tissue response was observed in the PVA/NOCC-implanted rats, further studies are necessary to justify the use of this material in tissue engineering applications.
Response surface methodology was used to optimize preparation of biocomposites based on poly(lactic acid) and durian peel cellulose. The effects of cellulose loading, mixing temperature, and mixing time on tensile strength and impact strength were investigated. A central composite design was employed to determine the optimum preparation condition of the biocomposites to obtain the highest tensile strength and impact strength. A second-order polynomial model was developed for predicting the tensile strength and impact strength based on the composite design. It was found that composites were best fit by a quadratic regression model with high coefficient of determination (R (2)) value. The selected optimum condition was 35 wt.% cellulose loading at 165°C and 15 min of mixing, leading to a desirability of 94.6%. Under the optimum condition, the tensile strength and impact strength of the biocomposites were 46.207 MPa and 2.931 kJ/m(2), respectively.
The sintering behaviour of a commercial HA and synthesized HA was investigated over the temperature range of 700 degrees C to 1400 degrees C in terms of phase stability, bulk density, Young's modulus and Vickers hardness. In the present research, a wet chemical precipitation reaction was successfully employed to synthesize a submicron, highly crystalline, high purity and single phase stoichiometric HA powder that is highly sinteractive particularly at low temperature regimes below 1100 degrees C. It has been revealed that the sinterability of the synthesized HA was significantly greater than that of the commercial HA. The temperature for the onset of sintering and the temperature required to achieve densities above 98% of theoretical value were approximately 150 degrees C lower for the synthesized HA than the equivalent commercial HA. Nevertheless, decomposition of HA phase upon sintering was not observed in the present work for both powders.
This study was conducted based on the hypothesis that mineral and physicochemical properties of cockle shells similarly resemble the properties of corals (Porites sp.). Hence, the mineral and physicochemical evaluations of cockle shells were conducted to support the aforementioned hypothesis. The results indicated that cockle shells and coral exoskeleton shared similar mineral and physicochemical properties.
The incorporation of magnesium ions into the calcium phosphate structure is of great interest for the development of artificial bone implants. This paper investigates the preparation of magnesium-doped biphasic calcium phosphate (Mg-BCP) via sol gel method at various concentrations of added Mg. The effect of calcinations temperature (ranging from 500 degrees C to 900 degrees C) and concentrations of Mg incorporated into BCP has been studied by the aid of XRD, TGA and infrared spectroscopy (IR) in transmittance mode analysis. The study indicated that the powder was pure BCP and Mg-BCP with 100% purity and high crystallinity. The results also indicated that beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP) phase can be observed when the powder was calcined at 800 degrees C and above.
Tricalcium phosphate ceramic microcarrier has been developed and introduced to a new possibility for the culture of anchorage dependent animal cells of DF1. It was observed that the number of attached cells was increased with shorter time for both spinner vessel and stirred tank (ST) bioreactor. For those bioreactors, the total viable cell number that had been obtained is about 1.2 x 10(5) cell/ml.
Biofilms are adherent, multi-layered colonies of bacteria that are typically more resistant to the host immune response and routine antibiotic therapy. HA biomaterial comprises of a single-phased hydroxyapatite scaffold with interconnected pore structure. The device is designed as osteoconductive space filler to be gently packed into bony voids or gaps following tooth extraction or any surgical procedure. Gentamycin-coated biomaterial (locally made hydroxyapatite) was evaluated to reduce or eradicate the biofilm on the implant materials. The results indicated that the HA coated with gentamycin was biocompatible to human osteoblast cell line and the biofilm has been reduced after being treated with different concentrations of gentamycin-coated hydroxyapatite (HA).
Chondrocytes were isolated from articular cartilage biopsy and were cultivated in vitro. Approximately 30 million of cultured chondrocytes per ml were incorporated with autologous plasma-derived fibrin to form three-dimensional construct. Full-thickness punch hole defects were created in lateral and medial femoral condyles. The defects were implanted either with the autologous 'chondrocytes-fibrin' construct (ACFC), autologous chondrocytes (ACI) or fibrin blank (AF). Sheep were euthanized after 12 weeks. The gross morphology of all defects treated with ACFC implantation, ACI and AF exhibited median scores which correspond to a nearly normal appearance according to the International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS) classification. ACFC significantly enhanced cartilage repair compared to ACI and AF in accordance with the modified O'Driscoll histological scoring scale. The relative sulphated glycosaminoglycans content (%) was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in ACFC when compared to control groups; ACI vs. fibrin only vs. untreated (blank). Results showed that ACFC implantation exhibited superior cartilage-like tissue regeneration compared to ACI. If the result is applicable to the human, it possibly will improve the existing treatment approaches for cartilage restoration in orthopaedic surgery.
Selections of collagen available commercially were tested for their biocompatibility as scaffold to promote cell growth in vitro via simple collagen fast test and cultivation of mammalian cells on the selected type of collagen. It was found that collagen type C9791 promotes the highest degree of aggregation as well as cells growth. This preliminary study also indicated potential use of collagen as scaffold in engineered tissue.
Hydroxyapatite powder was mechanochemically synthesized from calcium pyrophosphate (Ca2P2O7) and calcium carbonate (CaCO3) using a solid-state reaction. The two powders were mixed in distilled water, milled for 8 hours, dried and calcined at 1100 degrees C for 1 hour. The phase(s) formed was analyzed by x-ray diffraction (XRD). It was found that hydroxyapatite was not the only one formed. This result will be used as the starting point to produce a single-phase hydroxyapatite in terms of excess hydroxyl group in a mechanochemical reaction.
A mixture with different compositions of HA and TCP were synthesize in this work by precipitation method using Ca(NO3)2 4H2 and (NH4)2HPO4 as the starting materials. A mixture with HA and TCP phases in different ratios were produced. The powders were sintered from 1000 degrees C to 1250 degrees C. The phase compositions of the mixtures were then studied via XRD. This work shows that the pH value determines the different phase compositions of the HA-TCP mixture. Chemical analyses were carried out by FTIR. The microstructure was observed under SEM.
Biomaterials intended for end-use application as bone-graft substitutes have to undergo safety evaluation. In this study, we investigated the in vitro cytotoxic effects especially to determine the mode of death of two hydroxyapatite compounds (HA2, HA3) which were synthesized locally. The methods used for cytotoxicity was the standard MTT assay whereas AO/PI staining was performed to determine the mode of cell death in HA treated L929 fibroblasts. Our results demonstrated that both HA2 and HA3 were not significantly cytotoxic as more than 75% cells after 72 hours treatment were viable. Furthermore, we found that the major mode of cell death in HA treated cells was apoptosis. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that these hydroxyapatite compounds are not cytotoxic where the mode of death was primarily via apoptosis.