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  1. Hamizan AW, Rimmer J, Alvarado R, Sewell WA, Kalish L, Sacks R, et al.
    Int Forum Allergy Rhinol, 2017 09;7(9):868-877.
    PMID: 28727909 DOI: 10.1002/alr.21988
    BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of allergic rhinitis (AR) is based on cutaneous and serological assessment to determine immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated disease. However, discrepancies between these tests and nasal provocation exist. Patients diagnosed as non-allergic rhinitis (NAR) but with positive nasal allergen provocation test (NAPT) may represent a local allergic condition or entopy, still suitable to allergy interventions. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of nasal reactivity toward allergens among AR and NAR patients, and to describe the diagnostic characteristics of NAPT methodologies.

    METHODS: EMBASE (1947-) and Medline (1946-) were searched until December 8, 2015. A search strategy was used to identify studies on AR or NAR patients subjected to diagnostic local nasal provocation. All studies providing original NAPT data among the AR or NAR population were included. Meta-analysis of proportion data was presented as a weighted probability % (95% confidence interval [CI]).

    RESULTS: The search yielded 4504 studies and 46 were included. The probability of nasal allergen reactivity for the AR population was 86.3% (95% CI, 84.4 to 88.1) and in NAR was 24.7% (95% CI, 22.3 to 27.2). Reactivity was high with pollen for both AR 97.1% (95% CI, 94.2 to 99.2) and NAR 47.5% (95% CI, 34.8 to 60.4), and lowest with dust for both AR 79.1% (95% CI, 76.4 to 81.6) and NAR 12.2% (95% CI, 9.9 to 14.7). NAPT yielded high positivity when defined by subjective end-points: AR 91.0% (95% CI, 86.6 to 94.8) and NAR 30.2% (95% CI, 22.9 to 37.9); and lower with objective end-points: AR 80.8% (95% CI, 76.8 to 84.5) and NAR 14.1% (95% CI, 11.2 to 17.2).

    CONCLUSION: Local allergen reactivity is demonstrated in 26.5% of patients previously considered non-allergic. Similarly, AR, when defined by skin-prick test (SPT) or serum specific IgE (sIgE), may lead to 13.7% of patients with inaccurate allergen sensitization or non-allergic etiologies.

    Matched MeSH terms: Rhinitis/immunology*
  2. Wong HT, Shahrizal TA, Prepageran N, Lim WK, Raman R
    Ear Nose Throat J, 2007 May;86(5):292-4.
    PMID: 17580811
    We conducted a prospective study of 60 patients in a tertiary care referral center to ascertain the status of cell-mediated immunity as determined by delayed hypersensitivity reactions in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) or allergic rhinitis. Delayed hypersensitivity as detected by Mantoux testing is generally accepted as a reflection of the level of cell-mediated immunoactivity-the less hypersensitivity reaction that occurs, the lower the level of immunoactivity is, and vice versa. Our study population was made up of three groups: 20 newly diagnosed patients with NPC (pretreatment), 20 age- and sex-matched patients with allergic rhinitis, and 20 matched controls without either disease. A negative Mantoux test (0- to 5-mm induration) was seen in 13 patients with NPC (65.0%), in 17 patients with allergic rhinitis (85.0%), and in 16 controls (80.0%); none of these differences was statistically significant. However, it is interesting that while the NPC group had the lowest percentage of negative Mantoux results overall, it had the highest percentage of patients who had no reaction at all (i.e., 0-mm induration); a complete absence of any reaction was seen in 7 of the 13 Mantoux-negative NPC patients (53.8%), compared with 2 of the 17 Mantoux-negative allergic rhinitis patients (11.8%) and 3 of the 16 Mantoux-negative controls (18.8%). An absence of a reaction generally indicates a very limited degree of cell-mediated immunoactivity. Therefore, we conclude that patients with NPC appear to have significantly less cell-mediated immunity than do patients with allergic rhinitis and normal controls; no statistically significant difference was noted between the latter two groups.
    Study site: ENT clinic, University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Rhinitis/immunology*
  3. Liam CK, Loo KL, Wong CM, Lim KH, Lee TC
    Respirology, 2002 Dec;7(4):345-50.
    PMID: 12421243 DOI: 10.1046/j.1440-1843.2002.00409.x
    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of skin prick test (SPT) reactivity to common aeroallergens among Malaysian asthmatic patients with and without rhinitis.
    METHODOLOGY: An SPT using eight aeroallergens (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae, cat fur, cockroach, Acacia sp., Bermuda grass, Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus niger) was performed on 206 asthmatic patients.
    RESULTS: One hundred and forty patients (68%) were reactive to at least one of the aeroallergens. Among the SPT-positive patients, a positive prick test reaction to the house dust mites, D. pteronyssinus (93.6%), and D. farinae (81.4%) was most common, followed by cat fur (20.0%), cockroach (7.9%), Bermuda grass (7.9%), Acacia sp. (7.9%), A. fumigatus (0.7%) and A. niger (0.7%). A history of rhinitis was elicited in 111 (53.9%) patients and 95 (85.3%) of these patients were SPT-positive compared with only 45 (47.4%) of 95 patients with asthma symptoms alone (P < 0.001). The presence of rhinitis and a young age of onset of asthma were independent factors for positive SPT reaction to at least one of the aeroallergens.
    CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of SPT reactivity to common aeroallergens is high among Malaysian asthmatics, particularly in those with an early age of onset and in those with coexisting rhinitis.
    Study site: Asthma Clinic, University of Malaya Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Rhinitis/immunology*
  4. Hamizan AW, Christensen JM, Ebenzer J, Oakley G, Tattersall J, Sacks R, et al.
    Int Forum Allergy Rhinol, 2017 01;7(1):37-42.
    PMID: 27530103 DOI: 10.1002/alr.21835
    BACKGROUND: Middle turbinate edema could be a characteristic feature of aeroallergen sensitization. In this study we sought to determine the diagnostic characteristics of middle turbinate edema as a marker of inhalant allergy.

    METHODS: A cross-sectional diagnostic study was performed on patients who had undergone nasal endoscopy and allergy testing. Allergy status was determined by positive serology or epicutaneous testing. Endoscopy was reviewed by blinded assessors for middle turbinate head edema. Appearance was graded as either normal, focal, multifocal, diffuse, or polypoid edema. Receiver-operator (ROC) analysis, likelihood ratio (LR), sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value (PPV) were determined.

    RESULTS: One hundred eighty-seven patients representing 304 nasal cavities were assessed (42% female, age 39.74 ± 14.7 years, 57% allergic). Diffuse edema (PPV 91.7%/LR = 8) and polypoid edema (PPV 88.9%/LR = 6.2) demonstrated the strongest association with inhalant allergy. Multifocal edema was used as a cut-off to represent inhalant allergy from ROC analysis, which demonstrated 94.7% specificity and 23.4% sensitivity. The PPV for multifocal was 85.1% and LR = 4.4.

    CONCLUSION: Middle turbinate edema is a useful nasal endoscopic feature to predict presence of inhalant allergy and, although not sensitive, has excellent PPV.

    Matched MeSH terms: Rhinitis/immunology
  5. Yeoh SM, Kuo IC, Wang DY, Liam CK, Sam CK, De Bruyne JA, et al.
    Int Arch Allergy Immunol, 2003 Nov;132(3):215-20.
    PMID: 14646382 DOI: 10.1159/000074302
    BACKGROUND: The house dust mites Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p) and Blomia tropicalis (Blo t) are the most common house dust mite species in Southeast Asia. To date, there have only been a few studies on the sensitization profile of the general populations in Southeast Asia to house dust mites. The aim of this study was to determine the profiles of Der p and Blo t sensitization among Singaporean and Malaysian subjects.

    METHODS: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect specific IgE to Der p and Blo t mite crude extracts as well as purified Der p 1, Der p 2 and Blo t 5 allergens. Sera used were from 229 Singaporean subjects (124 with rhinitis, 105 without rhinitis) and 143 Malaysian subjects (94 adults and 49 children with asthma).

    RESULTS: The sensitization profile of rhinitis subjects to the dust mite allergens used in this study was as follows: Blo t extract positive: 91/124 (73%); Blo t 5 positive: 62/124 (50%); Der p extract positive: 61/124 (49%); Der p 1 positive: 53/124 (43%); Der p 2 positive: 45/124 (36%). The nonrhinitis subjects' sensitization profile was as follows: Blo t extract positive: 60/105 (57%); Blo t 5 positive: 24/105 (23%); Der p extract positive: 38/105 (36%); Der p 1 positive: 14/105 (13%); Der p 2 positive: 17/105 (16%). The study of Malaysian asthmatic adults showed that 39% of them were sensitized to Der p 1, 32% to Der p 2 and 37% to Blo t 5. Among the asthmatic children, sensitization to Blo t 5, Der p 1 and Der p 2 was 90, 57 and 39%, respectively.

    CONCLUSION: This study clearly revealed that dual sensitization to B. tropicalis and D. pteronyssinus is common in the general populations of Singapore and Malaysia. Sensitization to Blo t 5 is more prevalent than to Der p 1 and Der p 2.
    Matched MeSH terms: Rhinitis/immunology
  6. Hamizan AW, Azer M, Alvarado R, Earls P, Barham HP, Tattersall J, et al.
    Am J Rhinol Allergy, 2019 Sep;33(5):524-530.
    PMID: 31106562 DOI: 10.1177/1945892419850750
    Matched MeSH terms: Rhinitis/immunology
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