Oleo gum resins are plant exudates commonly used in folk medicine for treating several disease
conditions. Anti-cariogenic properties of essential oil (E. oil) and crude extracts obtained from
Boswellia frereana (B. frereana), Boswellia carterii (B. carterii) and Commiphora myrrha
(C. myrrha) were investigated. Methanol and acetone extracts of the three plants inhibited
Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) and Lactobacillus spp. growth. Hexane extracts showed
low anti-microbial activity. The average microbial inhibition was 14.6 mm for S. mutans and
13.8 mm for Lactobacillus spp. regardless of solvent type. B. frereana produced 8% E. oil
while B. carterii and C. myrrha gave 5% and 6%. B. frereana E. oil inhibited S. mutans and
Lactobacillus spp. more than B. carterii and C. myrrha E. oils.
A study on the feasibility of using gel electrophoresis technique in grading the agarwood oil
quality was investigated. Prior to electrophoresis, the emulsified agarwood oil droplets were
screened by a diffuse layer of ions that have equal absolute charge to that of the droplets surface
charge in aqueous phase. The condition was obtained by varying the concentrations of nonionic
surfactant; Tween 80 until the critical aggregation concentration (CAC) value of 0.0167%
(v/v) was achieved. The prepared droplets suspended in the aqueous within nano-metre size and
had ability to migrate through the agarose gel with its own specific electrophoretic mobility.
However, due to the limitation of gel pore size, only large oil droplets (>200 nm) indicated
visible bands. Overall, a novel work for grading the emulsified agarwood oil droplet with its
own electrical properties was feasible.
Furan has been classified as a possible carcinogen and substantiated evidences have also shown
that conventional thermal treatment could stimulate furan development in food products.
Ultraviolet light (UVC) is currently known as an alternative method widely used in pasteurizing
juice. However, the effect of UVC in inducing furan development has not been studied
specifically on UVC-treated pummelo juice. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the
development of furan in UVC-treated pummelo juice and its relationships to the juice sugar
contents. Our results showed that furan development within the juice post-UVC treatment was
dose-dependent and inversely proportional to the amount of sugar and ascorbic acid (p
The physicochemical properties of Musa Acuminata cv. Berangan at different ripening stages
(1, 2 and 3) were evaluated in the study. A visual attribute such as colour usually leads to
misclassification as it can be subjected to different individual interpretation. Therefore, various
measurements were conducted to determine the relationship between ripening stages and
physicochemical properties of the fruit such as colour, pH, total soluble solids content (TSS)
and firmness. Results showed that there were significant changes in physicochemical properties
as ripening stages increased. Results also indicated that the correlations between ripening
stages and firmness and pH values were statistically significant compared to other parameters.
These relationships can be used to predict the related quality attributes of Berangan bananas.
Nowadays, the incidence rate of foodborne disease has increased and become one of the global burdens affecting all individual ages in South East Asia region. Foodborne disease is responsible for mortality and morbidity worldwide thus affecting socio-economic and quality of life. Major causes of foodborne hazards diseases include diarrheal and invasive infectious disease agent, helminthes and chemicals. However, in developing countries, data and record is insufficient with poor surveillance systems leading to incomplete information on the real burden of foodborne disease. The introduction of Actor Network Theory (ANT) as tools for assessing and analyzing the food safety issues has drawn attention from various researcher as it is proven to be able to point out and identify the human and non human actors which is directly and contingently involved. The interaction between the actors such as a worker in an organization, student in school, and peoples in public provide information that can be used to minimize the risk of foodborne disease. The ultimate use of ANT is it helps the researcher to draw a framework of the source of contamination, agent responsible, factors involved, and idea to control the spread.
Halal is a term that describes substances that are deemed ‘pure and clean’ which Muslims are
allowed to consume according to Islamic law. The industrialization of food processing in the
20th and 21st centuries has exposed Muslims community to various ingredients such as blood
plasma, transglutaminase and gelatin introduced in meatballs and surimi product. Muslims
are facing difficulties to ascertain which products are permitted or not under the Islamic law.
Thus, this paper is to give knowledge of non-halal ingredients being introduced in meatballs
and surimi products for consumers, researchers and policy makers. Local halal logo issued by
Department of Islamic Development Malaysia (JAKIM) is needed to imply that all ingredients
used in the food production and processing are Syariah compliance. The scientific evidence
to substantiate any claim on Halal issue was developed based on several methods including
PCR-based methods with different mitochondria and chromosomal DNA (MtDNA and cDNA)
primers, real-time PCR with different probes and DNA binding agent, loop-mediated isothermal
amplification (LAMP) with different primers developed, PCR- RFLP, ELISA and etc.
Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a halophilic Gram-negative bacterium that is considered among
gastrointestinal pathogens. Thirty isolates were tested for their susceptibility using 14 different
antibiotics. One V. parahaemolyticus isolate was resistant to 10 antibiotics (cefotaxime,
ceftazidime, tetracycline, amikacin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, ofloxacin, ampicillin,
amoxicillin-calv-acid, and cefepime). The V. parahaemolyticus isolates were resistant to
ampicillin (90%), amoxicillin–clavulanic acid (63.3%), cefotaxime (60%), ceftazidime (46.7%),
cefepime (50%), tetracycline (36.6%), and amikacin (26.7%). However, the isolates were highly
susceptible to imipenem (100%), and piperacillin and gentamicin (96.7%). Approximately
55% of the isolates showed a multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) index of >0.2, thereby
indicating the high risk of sources where these isolates originated. The occurrence of MAR
asserted the importance of determining drug susceptibility and monitoring the antimicrobial
resistance profile to improve and ensure food safety and public health.
The halal food production industry is gaining greater attention among Muslim and non-Muslim
majority countries, particularly due to the increase of global market demand. One of the critical
areas in issuing halal certified food is the determination of allowable alcohol content in food
and drinks. The level of alcohol content has not standardized in several standards and fatwa of
Islamic scholars. In Islam, the alcohol in several fruit products is produced through fermentation
process such as takhammur (wine making) and takhallul (vinegar making). The fermentation
process gives an impact to the status of the food products either permissible or prohibited.
Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to discuss on the determination of permissible alcohol
and vinegar by fermentation process content in selected food products from Shariah and science
perspectives. In doing so, the views of authentic of Islamic Law in this issue are supported by
lab work approached. As a result, in the first phase there are three types of by products from
takhammur, while two types of takhallul. All the products can be determine of the alcohol
content and give an implication of the status either permissible (halal) or prohibited (haram).
Hence, in juice considered as halal due to lower of alcohol content. While cider or alcoholic
beverage is haram due to above alcohol level permitted which is above of the 1%. Besides,
cider vinegar or vinegar is halal by the interpretation of hadith of permissible conversion from
alcoholic to vinegar itself.
Piper nigrum, commonly known as black pepper, is one of the most important spice crops
with high demand by the world market. However, diseases like foot rot and stem blight
cause by Phytophthora capsici have become the important production constraints in black
pepper industry. The frequent application of toxic fungicides to counter the diseases in pepper
plantations has raised certain environmental issues. In order to mitigate the use of fungicides,
biological approach to control P. capsici has been suggested. In this study, endophytic bacteria
were isolated from six P. nigrum roots and screened for in vitro antagonistic activity against P.
capsici through dual culture, mycelial growth, spore germination and double plate assay. The
antagonism testing involved the secretion of volatile and diffusible bioactive compounds by
the endophytic bacteria. Out of 19 isolates tested, two isolates DB(2)7 and SB(2)6 produced
volatile bioactive compounds and these two isolates showed highest antagonism against P.
capsici mycelia with the percentage of inhibition up to 47.63% and 43.33%, respectively.
Diffusible compounds from isolates DB(2)7, DB(2)9 and SB(2)6 produced clear zones in spore
germination test with radii measurements of 10.0-17.0 mm. Three isolates with promising
antifungal activity were further characterised through 16S rDNA sequencing. The analysis
of their sequences via National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) suggests close
identity towards Enterobacter cancerogenus, Enterobacter cloacae and Enterobacter asburiae.
This research study demonstrated that these endophytic bacteria isolates are potentially to be
used as biocontrol agent in pepper cultivation.
This study evaluated the effects of Averrhoa bilimbi juice extract and storage temperature
on lipid oxidation and microbial spoilage of spent chicken meat. Ten, 80 weeks old spent
chickens were slaughtered, eviscerated and aged for 24 h at 4oC. Thereafter, the Pectoralis
major muscles and right thighs were excised and marinated in either A. bilimbi juice extract,
pure distilled water, or no marination (control) for either 4 or 9 h at room temperature or 9 or 24
h at 4°C. Lipid oxidation was monitored on the Pectoralis major muscles while the right thighs
were assessed for Enterobacteriacea counts. Lipid oxidation was not significantly affected
by the type or duration of marination. Marination showed a temperature dependent effect on
Enterobacteriacea counts. At room temperature, samples that were marinated by distilled water
showed significantly higher Enterobacteriacea counts than the control while those that were
marinated with A. bilimbi juice extract showed no growth at both 4 and 9 h of marination. At
chilled temperature, marination had no significant effects on the growth of Enterobacteriacea
during the 9 or 24 h storage. These results indicated that A. bilimbi juice extract marinade has
some antibacterial activities but works better when combined with refrigerated storage.
Bahulu, a popular traditional food in Malaysia is produced mainly by the Small and Medium
Entrepreneurs (SMEs) who are often micro in size and function as both producers and sellers
of the food in the marketplace. A problem usually faced by these enterprises is on matching
their bahulu offer with consumers’ preferences that eventually will lead to loss of sales volume,
loss of customers and stunted business growth. This study attempts to find out how consumers
evaluate bahulu using various aspects of the food product offer. A survey on 671 consumers
from three different states in Malaysia (Penang, Perlis and Kedah) revealed that consumers
in general prioritize the product aspect more than on how it is packaged, priced and branded.
Overall, halal (label) is the most critical component expected by consumers, followed by
its color and softness (product), and manufacturer’s address (label). Interestingly, branding,
packaging and health aspect of the food were amongst the lowest ranked by consumers for this
product. Some similarities and slight differences in how each consumer group evaluates the
bahulu components were also found. The findings provide some insights for the bahulu micro
entrepreneurs (BMEs) on what to focus on when marketing the food.
Marine fungi are potential source of bioactive compounds as indicated by the increasing statistic
of research findings. However similar research in Malaysia is still lacking. Hence, this study
is undertaken to determine the antibacterial activity of four marine fungal isolates (PR1T4,
PP2L4, PR3T13 and PR5T4) from Pulau Redang and Pulau Payar Marine Parks, Malaysia
against Salmonella Typhi, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia
coli. Fungal isolates were first macroscopically and microscopically characterized and later
molecularly identified as Penicillium citrinum, Sacroladium strictum, Aspergillus sydowii and
Aspergillus sp. respectively. Solid and broth fermentation of fungi were carried out to produce
crude extracts and these extracts were screened for antibacterial activity. In general, solid
fermentation extracts (SFE) showed significantly higher antibacterial activity (p
The aim of this study is to examine the consistency between the Balassa index and Vollrath
indices in measuring comparative advantages of the Malaysian shrimp products with other
major shrimp exporting nations as comparator. The study uses Balassa index and Vollrath
indices to measure comparative advantages of the Malaysian shrimp products. The indices then
are compared by consistency tests. Malaysia was generally not competitive in shrimp trade;
however, revealed comparative advantage (RCA) and relative export advantage (RXA) indices
show some extent of competitiveness on non-frozen shrimp product. Thailand had a remarkable
competitiveness in shrimp trade as compared to other major exporting countries. Although we
found that double-counting problem in the Balassa index is insignificant in measuring export
performance of the Malaysian shrimp sector, import could be an important variable in accessing
its trade competitiveness. Marginal import of a sector may lead to relative trade advantage (RTA)
index consistent with RCA and RXA indices. Considering exports and imports of a particular
commodity in measuring competitiveness is more consistent with the real world phenomenon
of two-way trade. Selecting measurement of comparative advantage should rigorously base
on trade behaviour of a sector as well as theoretical constructs. The competitiveness of the
Malaysian shrimp products remains unclear due to the lack of contemporary analyses backed
by formal testing procedures. The results and policy implications of this study provide
stakeholders insights into comparative advantage as well as trade position of the products.
Better measurement for revealed comparative advantage, particularly for shrimp products, is
discussed in this paper.
This study aimed to investigate the susceptibility pattern of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from
human and environmental surfaces in a research laboratory. A total of 320 samples from nostril
(n=80), hand (n=80), door knob (n=80) and table surface (n=80) were collected for 16 weeks,
before and after work. A total number of 256 samples were found positive for Staphylococcus
aureus. Out of 80 randomly selected isolates, 50 (62.5%) isolates were resistant to methicillin
(MRSA). Hence, the precautionary measures should be taken on self and environmental
hygiene as MRSA may be transferred from humans and environmental surfaces.
Agriculture residues are a promising feedstock for value-added products from lignocellulosic waste. However, pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials is essential to facilitate enzymatic
hydrolysis and improve sugar yield. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of acid or alkali during microwave-assisted pretreatment of dragon fruit foliage (DFF) that
would make hydrolysis process more efficient. In the present study, distilled water and three chemicals were examined for their effects on releasing monomeric sugar during microwave
treatment. Microwave-assisted pretreatment namely microwave-distilled water (M-H2O) (control); microwave-sulfuric acid (M-H2SO4); microwave-sodium hydroxide (M-NaOH); and
microwave-sodium bicarbonate (M-NaHCO3) pretreatment were performed using 5% (w/v) of DFF as substrate at 800 watt microwave power for 5 minutes exposure time. Highest yield
of monomeric sugar was found at 15.56 mg/g using M-NaOH pretreatment at 0.1N NaOH. For M-H2SO4 pretreatment, 0.1N H2SO4 produced 8.2 mg/g of monomeric sugar. Application
of M-NaHCO3 pretreatment using 0.05N NaHCO3 solution released 6.45 mg/g of monomeric sugar. While, soaking DFF in distilled water and subjecting to microwave irradiation released
6.6 mg/g of monomeric sugar. Treatments with the lowest concentration (0.01 N) of the three chemicals released only small quantities of total monomeric sugars and less than that with distilled water. The changes in the physical structure of DFF prior to and after the microwaveassisted pretreatment are also reported.
The Nigerian hog plum (Spondias mombin) seed kernel was studied for its possible antioxidative
potential and its proximate and nutrient compositions measured. The fruits were
submitted to washing, pulp removal and drying to facilitate fibre separation from the seed
kernel. Seeds were Milled to obtain samples, while analysis was carried out using standard
Association of Analytical Communities (AOAC) methods and phytochemical assays. The seed
kernel contains carbohydrate (40.56%), ash (8.09%), crude fibre (31.86%), moisture content
(8.48%), crude protein (7.73%), crude fat (3.28%), calcium (1317 mg/kg), iron (839.08 mg/
kg), magnesium (494.71 mg/kg), manganese (17.93 mg/kg), zinc (15.27 mg/kg), and copper
(7.68 mg/kg). Phytochemical analyses indicated the presence of tannins (0.06%) and phytate
(0.0022%), but did not indicate the presence of flavonoids, oxalate and saponins. The free
radical scavenging activity against the 2, 2–diphenyl–1–picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical
was at the level of 15.09%, while total antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content were
856.7±5.84 mgAAE/100g and 573.32±11.5 mgGAE/100g respectively. The seed kernel of
Spondias mombin is a potential source of nutritious food, good anti-anaemic and anti-diabetic
agent as a result of iron and zinc content, and potential chemo-protective agent with the ability
to offer possible protection against the activities of the toxic Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS)
from the results of total phenolic content, antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities.
Natural products are useful for delaying the ripening process, preserving quality and reducing biochemical changes in fruits. Effect of gum arabic (GA) 10% and chitosan (CH) 1% edible coatings on physiological and biochemical properties of mango (Mangifera indica L. cv. Choke Anan) fruit were investigated. Mango fruit were stored at 13°C and 80% relative humidity for 28 days. Significant (P≤0.05) differences were observed in fruits treated with GA 10% and CH 1% as compared to the control. The results showed that GA 10% and CH 1% treatments significantly reduced weight loss than the control fruits. The application of CH 1% coating effectively inhibited the increase in soluble solid concentration (SSC), respiration rate and ethylene production. But no significant differences were observed in terms of ascorbic acid loss between treated fruits and control during the entire storage period. Furthermore, the combined application of GA 10% + CH 1% alleviated decay incidence and retained high firmness of mango fruit. These results suggested that application of GA 10% coating combined with CH 1% as a bio preservative might be a simple and effective technique for delaying ripening and maintaining quality of mango fruit during cold storage without the use of fungicides.
This study was conducted to determine the influence of raw material variation, equipment
process variables and device stability on the drying process of rambutan seed using oven and
microwave drying equipments. The raw material variations studied were skin colour (yellow
and fully red), storage period (fresh and stored) and seed mass (5 and 10 g). The important
equipment process variables studied were oven temperature (40 and 60°C) and microwave
power (250 and 1000 W).The output power and drying distribution in the drying chamber were
studied to examine the device stability. Results indicated that the seed mass, oven temperature
and microwave power influenced the drying time. The skin colour and storage period were
negatively correlated with drying time due to drying time speculate to relay on time required for
moisture removal that associated to initial moisture content and seed mass. It is also observed
that the drying time will be shorten if the sample was located at the central of the microwave
drying chamber. In contrast, the oven exhibited higher stability compared to microwave due
to its ability to provide similar level of heating at each location in the drying chamber. This
information will aid researchers and industrial operators to design an effective drying process
using microwave and oven thus reducing cost and time.
Rambutan seed waste has become a noteworthy problem in rambutan canning industry that
need to be solved. Previous finding showed that rambutan seed could be utilized by extracting
the fat that could be utilized as confectionery fat with improved characteristic by fermentation
and roasting treatment. The study to evaluate the cocoa-like flavor compounds development
as the effect of these process was carried out. The rambutan seed was fermented for 3, 6, and
9 days followed/unfollowed by roasting process at 150°C for 30 min. The browning index of
the powder, the Maillard Reaction Products (MRPs) and the volatile flavor compounds of the
rambutan seed fat were analysed. The study found that the fermentation treatment followed by
roasting treatment significantly increase the browning index and melanoidin content in powder
and fat, respectively. Six and 9 days fermentation followed by roasting possessed highest value
of browning index (1.4875 and 1.5485 AU, respectively) and melanoidin content (0.318 and
0.295 AU, respectively). The result also showed that fermentation of rambutan seed followed
by roasting process could successfully developed desired pyrazine compounds, in which the
contribution of the pyrazine content could be as much as 42.69% of total flavor compound of
rambutan seed fat.
Guava (Psidium guajava L.) is a rich source of vitamin C (ascorbic acid) having high water
content (above 80%) which makes it extremely perishable, but storage, handling, processing
and transporting becomes difficult due to high moisture content. Therefore, guava needs
dehydration process by upholding its natural colour and minimum ascorbic acid losses. We
have carried out a comprehensive study to examine the influence of different drying treatments;
under direct sunlight, freezing, convection oven (50, 60, 70, 80 and 90°C) and microwave
oven (100, 250, 440, 600 and 1000 watts) on ascorbic acid concentration and colour quality
of guava. The mean values of ascorbic acid concentration of dried guava slices were changed
significantly (P < 0.05) as compared to fresh guava slices. The colour of guava slices became
yellowish with an increase in temperature and power of conventional and microwave ovens,
respectively. We found freeze drying as the best method for the dehydration of guava in terms
of ascorbic acid and natural colour preservation.