Displaying all 3 publications

  1. Al Qabbani A, Rani KGA, Syarif J, AlKawas S, Sheikh Abdul Hamid S, Samsudin AR, et al.
    PLoS One, 2023;18(4):e0283922.
    PMID: 37018321 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0283922
    Current immunological issues in bone grafting regarding the transfer of xenogeneic donor bone cells into the recipient are challenging the industry to produce safer acellular natural matrices for bone regeneration. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of a novel decellularization technique for producing bovine cancellous bone scaffold and compare its physicochemical, mechanical, and biological characteristics with demineralized cancellous bone scaffold in an in-vitro study. Cancellous bone blocks were harvested from a bovine femoral head (18-24 months old) subjected to physical cleansing and chemical defatting, and further processed in two ways. Group I was subjected to demineralization, while Group II underwent decellularization through physical, chemical, and enzymatic treatments. Both were then freeze-dried, and gamma radiated, finally producing a demineralized bovine cancellous bone (DMB) scaffold and decellularized bovine cancellous bone (DCC) scaffold. Both DMB and DCC scaffolds were subjected to histological evaluation, scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS), fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), quantification of lipid, collagen, and residual nucleic acid content, and mechanical testing. The osteogenic potential was investigated through the recellularization of scaffolds with human osteoblast cell seeding and examined for cell attachment, proliferation, and mineralization by Alizarin staining and gene expression. DCC produced a complete acellular extracellular matrix (ECM) with the absence of nucleic acid content, wider pores with extensive interconnectivity and partially retaining collagen fibrils. DCC demonstrated a higher cell proliferation rate, upregulation of osteogenic differentiation markers, and substantial mineralized nodules production. Our findings suggest that the decellularization technique produced an acellular DCC scaffold with minimal damage to ECM and possesses osteogenic potential through the mechanisms of osteoconduction, osteoinduction, and osteogenesis in-vitro.
  2. Al Qabbani A, Al Kawas S, Enezei H, Razak NHA, Al Bayatti SW, Samsudin AR, et al.
    Dent Res J (Isfahan), 2018 12 12;15(6):420-429.
    PMID: 30534170
    Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the stability of immediate implant placement for alveolar bone augmentation and preservation with bovine bone graft following atraumatic tooth extraction.

    Materials and Methods: This was a prospective interventional study with convenient sampling (n = 10). Thirty patients aged between 18 and 40 years, who needed noncomplicated tooth extraction of mandibular premolar tooth, were sequentially divided equally into three groups. In Group I, simple extraction was done and the empty extraction socket left to heal conventionally. In Group II, extraction sockets were filled with lyophilized bovine granules only. In Group III, immediate implants were placed into extraction sockets, and the buccal gap was also filled with bovine granules. All groups were subjected to cone beam computed tomography scan for radiological evaluation. Assessment of biomechanical stability (radiofrequency analysis [RFA] was performed at 9 months postoperative for Group III to assess the degree of secondary stability of the implants using Osstell. Repeated measure analysis of variance (ANOVA) test was applied when comparing within each group at three different time intervals, whereas one-way ANOVA was applied followed by post hoc-tukey test when comparing between groups. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

    Results: Radiological assessment reveals a significant difference of bone resorption in alveolar dimension within Group I; 1.49 mm (P = 0.002), and 0.82 mm (P = 0.005), respectively, between day 0 and 3 months. Comparison between Group I and III showed a highly significant difference of bone resorption in ridge width at 3 months 2.56 mm (P = 0.001) and at 9 months interval 3.2 mm (P < 0.001). High RFA values demonstrating an excellent biomechanical stability were observed in Group III at 9 months postoperatively.

    Conclusion: The insertion of immediate implants in extraction sockets with bovine bone augmentation of the buccal gap was able to preserve a greater amount of alveolar ridge volume.

  3. Al Qabbani A, Al Kawas S, A Razak NH, Al Bayatti SW, Enezei HH, Samsudin AR, et al.
    J Craniofac Surg, 2018 Mar;29(2):e203-e209.
    PMID: 29303859 DOI: 10.1097/SCS.0000000000004263
    INTRODUCTION: Alveolar bone is critical in supporting natural teeth, dental implants as well as a removable and fixed prosthesis. Alveolar bone volume diminishes when its associated natural tooth is lost.

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of bovine bone granules on alveolar bone socket augmentation for ridge preservation following atraumatic tooth extraction.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty medically fit patients (12 males and 8 females aged between 18 and 40 years) who needed noncomplicated tooth extraction of 1 mandibular premolar tooth were divided randomly and equally into 2 groups. In control group I, the empty extraction socket was left untreated and allowed to heal in a conventional way. In group II, the empty extraction socket wound was filled with lyophilized bovine bone xenograft granules 0.25 to 1 mm of size, 1 mL/vial. A resorbable pericardium membrane was placed to cover the defect. Clinical and 3-dimensional radiological assessments were performed at day 0, 3 months, and 9 months postoperative.

    RESULTS: There were no clinical differences in general wound healing between the groups. Comparisons within the groups showed a significant difference of bone resorption of 1.49 mm (95% confidence interval, 0.63-2.35) at 3 months, and further resorption of 1.84 mm (P ≤ 0.05) at 9 months in the control group. No significant changes of bone resorption were observed in group II during the same time interval. Comparison between groups showed a significant difference of bone resorption at 3 and 9 months (2.40 and 2.88 mm, respectively).

    CONCLUSION: The use of lyophilized demineralized bovine bone granules in socket preservation to fill in the extraction socket seems essential in preserving the alveolar bone dimension as it showed excellent soft and hard tissue healing. This study concludes that the alveolar bone socket exhibited a dynamic process of resorption from the first day of tooth extraction. Evidence shows the possibility of using bovine bone granules routinely in socket volume preservation techniques following tooth extraction.

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