Displaying all 6 publications

  1. Aziz HA, Puat NNA, Alazaiza MYD, Hung YT
    PMID: 30104522 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph15081734
    In this study, a sequential batch reactor (SBR) with different types of fibers was employed for the treatment of poultry slaughterhouse wastewater. Three types of fibers, namely, juite fiber (JF), bio-fringe fiber (BF), and siliconised conjugated polyester fiber (SCPF), were used. Four SBR experiments were conducted, using the fibers in different reactors, while the fourth reactor used a combination of these fibers. The treatment efficiency of the different reactors with and without fibers on biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonia-nitrogen (NH₃-N), phosphorus (P), nitrite (NO₂), nitrate (NO₃), total suspended solids (TSS), and oil-grease were evaluated. The removal efficiency for the reactors with fibers was higher than that of the reactor without fibers for all pollutants. The treated effluent had 40 mg/L BOD₅ and 45 mg/L COD with an average removal efficiency of 96% and 93%, respectively, which meet the discharge limits stated in the Environmental Quality Act in Malaysia.
  2. Alazaiza MYD, Ramli MH, Copty NK, Ling MC
    J Contam Hydrol, 2021 Mar;238:103769.
    PMID: 33465656 DOI: 10.1016/j.jconhyd.2021.103769
    Laboratory-scale column experiments were carried out to assess the influence of water infiltration on pooled light non-aqueous phase liquid (LNAPL) redistribution in porous media. A simplified image analysis method (SIAM) was used to evaluate the saturation distributions of the LNAPL and water in the entire domain under dynamic conditions. The experiments were conducted for high/low LNAPL volumes LNAPL volumes differentiated as low and high volumes. High resolution SIAM images of the soil column during LNAPL migration and water infiltration events were captured and analyzed. Results indicated that the capillary fringe is about 6-7 cm which was consistent with the capillary height derived from empirical equations. Moreover, SIAM provided an estimate of the field capacity (30%) of the sand. Once the LNAPL infiltration stage was started, the LNAPL was observed to rapidly migrate through the vadose zone. For the case of large LNAPL volume, the LNAPL penetrated further into capillary fringe zone. Analysis of SIAM images showed that the LNAPL redistribution was observed to vary significantly with the rate of infiltration. For higher water infiltration intensity, the injected water exerted a larger hydrodynamic force on the entrapped LNAPL forcing it move further downward into the capillary zone and the saturated zone. Overall, this study demonstrated that the SIAM technique is an accurate and cost-effective tool for the visualization of the time-dependent NAPL/water movement in laboratory-scale experiments and dynamic changes in fluid saturation in porous media.
  3. Zakaria SNF, Aziz HA, Alazaiza MYD
    Water Environ Res, 2022 Jan;94(1):e1672.
    PMID: 34860438 DOI: 10.1002/wer.1672
    Landfill leachate can threaten the environment and human life. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the efficiency of ozone (O3 ), O3 with zirconium tetrachloride (O3 /ZrCl4 ), and O3 with tin tetrachloride (O3 /SnCl4 ) in remediating the stabilized anaerobic landfill leachate (SAL) from Alor Pongsu, Perak. Hydroxyl radical (OH•) is an important oxidizing agent in the ozonation process. Its presence was tested using tert-butyl alcohol. Results showed that using ZrCl4 and SnCl4 in ozonation boosted the generation of hydroxyl radical, thereby enhancing the oxidation process and pollutant removal inside the sample. The O3 /ZrCl4 mix at chemical oxygen demand (COD) to ZrCl4 ratio of 1:1.5, pH 8-9, and 90-min reaction time resulted in the highest reduction rates of COD and color at 91.9% and 99.6%, respectively. All results demonstrated that the optimum performance occurred at alkaline conditions (pH > 8), proving that OH radicals primarily oxidized the pollutants through an indirect reaction pathway. The biodegradability (biochemical oxygen demand/COD) ratio was also considerably improved from 0.02 (raw) to 0.37 using O3 /ZrCl4 , compared with using O3 alone and using O3 /SnCl4 , which only recorded 0.23 and 0.28, respectively, after the treatment. The study demonstrated that O3 /ZrCl4 was the most efficient combination. PRACTITIONER POINTS: The O3 /ZrCl4 recorded the highest COD and color removals. The O3 /ZrCl4 combination also recorded higher OH• concentrations. The biodegradability of leachate (BOD5 /COD ratio) improved from 0.02 to 0.37.
  4. Aziz HA, Rahmat NS, Alazaiza MYD
    PMID: 35010685 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph19010420
    Chemical-based coagulants and flocculants are commonly used in the coagulation-flocculation process. However, the drawbacks of using these chemical materials have triggered researchers to find natural materials to substitute or reduce the number of chemical-based coagulants and flocculants. This study examines the potential application of Nephelium lappaceum seeds as a natural coagulant-coagulant aid with Tin (IV) chloride (SnCl4) in eliminating suspended solids (SS), colour, and chemical oxygen demand (COD) from landfill leachate. Results showed that the efficiency of Nephelium lappaceum was low when used as the main coagulant in the standard jar test. When SnCl4 was applied as a single coagulant, as much as 98.4% of SS, 96.8% of colour and 82.0% of COD was eliminated at an optimal dose of 10.5 g/L and pH 7. The higher removal efficiency of colour (88.8%) was obtained when 8.40 g/L of SnCl4 was applied with a support of 3 g/L of Nephelium lappaceum. When SnCl4 was utilised as a coagulant, and Nephelium lappaceum seed was used as a flocculant, the removal of pollutants generally improved. Overall, this research showed that Nephelium lappaceum seed is a viable natural alternative for treating landfill leachate as a coagulant aid.
  5. Zainal SFFS, Aziz HA, Omar FM, Alazaiza MYD
    Chemosphere, 2021 Dec;285:131484.
    PMID: 34261011 DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.131484
    Stabilised leachate usually contains lower concentration of organic compounds than younger leachate; it has low biodegradability and generally unsuitable for biological treatment. The effectiveness of tetravalent metal salts in a coagulation-flocculation (C-F) process is still inclusive. Application of natural coagulants as an alternative to the chemical could reduce chemical usage, is less costly, and environmentally friendly. Hence, the objective of the current research is to examine the possibility of reducing the amount of Tin (IV) chloride (SnCl4) as a primary coagulant by adding Jatropha curcas (JC) as a flocculant as a sole treatment through the C-F process in treating concentrated suspended solids (SS) (547 mg/L), colour (19,705 Pt-Co) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) (4202 mg/L) in stabilised landfill leachate. The work also aims to evaluate the sludge properties after treatment. Functional groups, such as carboxylic acids, hydroxyl and amine/amino compounds (protein contents), were detected in the JC seed to facilitate the C-F process by neutralising the charge pollutant in water and cause the possibility of hydrogen bonding interaction between molecules. The combination of JC seed (0.9 g/L) as a flocculant reduced the dosage of SnCl4 as a coagulant from 11.1 g/L to 8.5 g/L with removals of 99.78%, 98.53% and 74.29% for SS, colour and COD, respectively. The presence of JC improved the sludge property with good morphology; the particles were in a rectangular shape, had clumps and strong agglomeration. These properties of sludge proved that JC seed could enhance the adsorption and bridging mechanism in the C-F procedure.
  6. Alazaiza MYD, Albahnasawi A, Ahmad Z, Bashir MJK, Al-Wahaibi T, Abujazar MSS, et al.
    J Environ Manage, 2022 Dec 15;324:116415.
    PMID: 36206653 DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2022.116415
    Remediation by algae is a very effective strategy for avoiding the use of costly, environmentally harmful chemicals in wastewater treatment. Recently, industries based on biomass, especially the bioenergy sector, are getting increasing attention due to their environmental acceptability. However, their practical application is still limited due to the growing cost of raw materials such as algal biomass, harvesting and processing limitations. Potential use of algal biomass includes nutrients recovery, heavy metals removal, COD, BOD, coliforms, and other disease-causing pathogens reduction and production of bioenergy and valuable products. However, the production of algal biomass using the variable composition of different wastewater streams as a source of growing medium and the application of treated water for subsequent use in agriculture for irrigation has remained a challenging task. The present review highlights and discusses the potential role of algae in removing beneficial nutrients from different wastewater streams with complex chemical compositions as a biorefinery concept and subsequent use of produced algal biomass for bioenergy and bioactive compounds. Moreover, challenges in producing algal biomass using various wastewater streams and ways to alleviate the stress caused by the toxic and high concentrations of nutrients in the wastewater stream have been discussed in detail. The technology will be economically feasible and publicly accepted by reducing the cost of algal biomass production and reducing the loaded or attached concentration of micropollutants and pathogenic microorganisms. Algal strain improvement, consortium development, biofilm formation, building an advanced cultivation reactor system, biorefinery concept development, and life-cycle assessment are all possible options for attaining a sustainable solution for sustainable biofuel production. Furthermore, producing valuable compounds, including pharmaceutical, nutraceutical and pigment contents generated from algal biomass during biofuel production, could also help reduce the cost of wastewater management by microalgae.
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