Displaying all 6 publications

  1. Balami AD, Salmiah MS, Nor Afiah MZ
    Pre-hypertension increased the risk of morbidity and mortality from non-communicable diseases. Whereas, psychological factors such as depression, anxiety and stress have been associated with increased in blood pressure. However, previous studies more focuses on psychological determinants of hypertension than prehypertension. Thus, this study aims to determine the association between these psychological factors with pre-hypertension. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2012 among first year students of a public Malaysian university. A random cluster sampling was used to select 5 out of 15 faculties and a total of 495 students participated in this study. The Malay version of DASS-21 was used to elicit their levels of depression, anxiety and stress. Blood pressures were measured twice using sphygmomanometer and the averages were taken. Data analyses used chi-square test and binary multiple logistic regression. The prevalence of pre-hypertension was 30.1%. The percentage of severe and extremely severe depression was 3.8% and 1.2%; both severe and extremely severe anxiety was 16.4%; and severe and extremely severe stress was 4.2% and 0.2% respectively. Severe/extremely severe depression had more than 3 times higher in getting pre-hypertension than no depression. In conclusions, almost one third of respondents had pre-hypertension and only severe/extremely depression was associated with pre-hypertension.
  2. Balami AD, Said SM, Zulkefli NAM, Norsa'adah B, Audu B
    Malar. J., 2018 Oct 12;17(1):359.
    PMID: 30314438 DOI: 10.1186/s12936-018-2518-8
    BACKGROUND: Despite the high prevalence of malaria among pregnant women and its associated complications, the level of compliance with insecticide-treated nets (ITN) remains very low. Motivation and self-efficacy have been reported as important determinants of health behaviour, and may be important factors to consider in developing health intervention programmes. The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge, motivation and self-efficacy of ITN use, and their association with its practice, among pregnant women in a secondary health centre in Maiduguri.

    METHODS: The study utilized a cross-sectional study design, using a structured and pre-tested questionnaire to obtain information from 380 respondents. Respondents were classified as ITN users if they slept under an ITN for at least 3 days in a week, while those who did not at all, or slept under it less frequently were classified as ITN non-users. Chi squared test was performed to test the bivariate association between ITN use and each of the items of the questionnaire. A further multivariate logistic regression was performed to determine the predictors of ITN use.

    RESULTS: The respondents' ages ranged from 15 to 45 years, with median (interquartile range) age of 25 (8) years. Eighty percent of them were aware of ITN, but 50.5% believed ITNs could be dangerous. Only 5.5% and 0.8% respectively felt that sleeping under and ITN was either just bad or very bad for their health. Thirty-five percent of the respondents were ITN users. Not having a previous miscarriage (OR = 2.38; 95% CI 1.41-4.03, p = 0.001), knowledge that ITNs were not to be washed after every 1 month (OR = 3.60; 95% CI 1.18-11.06), significant others thinking they should sleep under an ITN (OR = 3.06; 95% CI 1.35-6.96), ability to effectively persuade others to sleep under an ITN (OR = 2.37; 95% CI 1.14-4.94) were significantly associated with ITN use.

    CONCLUSIONS: A large proportion of pregnant women in this study were not sleeping under ITNs. The development of health promotion interventions aimed at boosting their self-efficacies for ITN use, and improving social support from their spouses are, therefore, recommended. Health education on ITN use should also be incorporated into post-abortal management.

  3. Balami AD, Said SM, Zulkefli NAM, Bachok N, Audu B
    Malar. J., 2019 Feb 20;18(1):41.
    PMID: 30786906 DOI: 10.1186/s12936-019-2676-3
    BACKGROUND: The levels of insecticide-treated net use among pregnant women and uptake of intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy, have been sub-optimal in Nigeria. Previous studies have reported positive correlations between knowledge, attitude and practice of malaria preventive measures. It has also been reported that information and motivation, act through a mediator (behavioural skills), to cause a health behaviour change. The aim of this study was as such to develop, implement, and assess the effects of a health educational intervention based on the information-motivation-behavioural skills (IMB) model on the levels of knowledge, motivation, and behavioural skills for ITN use and IPTp uptake among pregnant women in a hospital in north-eastern Nigeria.

    METHODS: This was a randomized controlled parallel-group trial in which 372 antenatal care attendees were randomly assigned to either an intervention or control group after collecting baseline data using a structured questionnaire. The intervention group received a 4-h health education on malaria, guided by a module developed based on the IMB theory, while the control group received health education on breastfeeding for a similar duration and by the same facilitator. Follow-up data were subsequently collected at 2 months and at 4 months post-intervention using the same questionnaire. The generalized linear mixed models analysis was used to determine the between-group and within-group effects of the intervention. The intention-to-treat analysis was used after missing data had been replaced. This was followed by a sensitivity analysis, where the analyses were repeated without replacing the missing values.

    RESULTS: The intervention was significant in achieving a 12.75% (p 

  4. Balami AD, Said SM, Zulkefli NAM, Bachok N, Balami EL
    BMC Med Res Methodol, 2019 07 18;19(1):157.
    PMID: 31319810 DOI: 10.1186/s12874-019-0803-z
    BACKGROUND: Sleeping under a long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN) is recommended for all pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa, due to the high prevalence of malaria infection and its associated complications in the region. Despite this, LLIN use has still remained sub-optimal among pregnant women in Maiduguri, Nigeria. Understanding the interplay of factors influencing this important health behaviour would guide the development of interventions to promote its adoption.

    METHODS: Data was collected from 380 randomly selected antenatal care attendees of a hospital in Maiduguri, using structured questionnaires. This data was then used to test the Information-Motivation-Behavioural Skills (IMB) model, for model fit, and interrelations among the constructs, using the structural equation modelling analysis with Smart-PLS.

    RESULTS: Information and motivation were significantly related to behavioural skills (r = 0.29, p 

  5. Balami AD, Said SM, Zulkefli NM, Bachok N, Audu BM
    BMC Public Health, 2020 Mar 24;20(1):384.
    PMID: 32204704 DOI: 10.1186/s12889-020-08513-y
    BACKGROUND: Many studies on malaria knowledge, attitude and practice among pregnant women have been conducted in Hausa speaking communities in Nigeria. Despite this, no standard and uniform instrument for assessing this important public health problem has been developed in the Hausa language, even though it is widely spoken. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a questionnaire in Hausa language assessing information, motivation, and behavioural skills for malaria prevention during pregnancy.

    METHODS: The questionnaire was first developed in English language, and then assessed for its contents by a team of experts. It was then forwardly translated to Hausa, and backwardly translated again to English by independent language experts. These two English versions were then compared by a Public Health expert, following which the questionnaire was administered to 190 Hausa speaking antenatal care attendees. Exploratory factor analysis was performed on the data collected. Sixty three out of the 190 respondents were invited after 2 weeks to answer the same questionnaire, following which reliability tests were performed.

    RESULTS: The questionnaire showed good internal consistency, with Cronbach's alpha values of 0.859, 0.890 and 0.773 for information, motivation and behavioural skills constructs respectively. The motivation and behavioural skills constructs were able to delineate their items into three and two sub-sections respectively. The factor loadings for the two constructs ranged from 0.610 to 0.965. As for test retest reliability, the Krippendorff's alpha values for the items of the motivation section ranged from 0.941 to 0.996; that for behavioural skills ranged from 0.810 to 0.953, while for frequency of ITN use, it was 0.988. The Cohen's kappa values for the information section ranged from 0.689-0.974, except the item for 'fever' (zazzabi) which was 0.382, and was as such reworded to a simpler terminology 'hotness of the body' (zafin jiki).

    CONCLUSIONS: The Hausa language IMB questionnaire on malaria in pregnancy demonstrated good validity, and a high level of reliability. It is as such recommended for use among Hausa speaking communities to ensure uniformity and objectivity.

  6. Fish-Low CY, Balami AD, Than LTL, Ling KH, Mohd Taib N, Md Shah A, et al.
    J Infect Public Health, 2020 Feb;13(2):216-220.
    PMID: 31455598 DOI: 10.1016/j.jiph.2019.07.021
    BACKGROUND: Underestimation of leptospirosis cases is happening in many countries. The most common factor of underreporting is misdiagnosis. Considering the limitations of direct detection of pathogen and serological diagnosis for leptospirosis, clinical features and blood tests though non-specific are usually referred in making presumptive diagnosis to decide disease management.

    METHODS: In this single-centre retrospective study, comparative analysis on clinical presentations and laboratory findings was performed between confirmed leptospirosis versus non-leptospirosis cases.

    RESULTS: In multivariate logistic regression evidenced by a Hosmer-Lemeshow significance value of 0.979 and Nagelkerke R square of 0.426, the predictors of a leptospirosis case are hypocalcemia (calcium <2.10mmol/L), hypochloremia (chloride <98mmol/L), and eosinopenia (absolute eosinophil count <0.040×109/L). The proposed diagnostic scoring model has a discriminatory power with area under the curve (AUC) 0.761 (p<0.001). A score value of 6 reflected a sensitivity of 0.762, specificity of 0.655, a positive predictive value of 0.38, negative predictive value of 0.91, a positive likelihood ratios of 2.21, and a negative likelihood ratios of 0.36.

    CONCLUSION: With further validation in clinical settings, implementation of this diagnostic scoring model is helpful to manage presumed leptospirosis especially in the absence of leptospirosis confirmatory tests.

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