METHODS: The study utilized a cross-sectional study design, using a structured and pre-tested questionnaire to obtain information from 380 respondents. Respondents were classified as ITN users if they slept under an ITN for at least 3 days in a week, while those who did not at all, or slept under it less frequently were classified as ITN non-users. Chi squared test was performed to test the bivariate association between ITN use and each of the items of the questionnaire. A further multivariate logistic regression was performed to determine the predictors of ITN use.
RESULTS: The respondents' ages ranged from 15 to 45 years, with median (interquartile range) age of 25 (8) years. Eighty percent of them were aware of ITN, but 50.5% believed ITNs could be dangerous. Only 5.5% and 0.8% respectively felt that sleeping under and ITN was either just bad or very bad for their health. Thirty-five percent of the respondents were ITN users. Not having a previous miscarriage (OR = 2.38; 95% CI 1.41-4.03, p = 0.001), knowledge that ITNs were not to be washed after every 1 month (OR = 3.60; 95% CI 1.18-11.06), significant others thinking they should sleep under an ITN (OR = 3.06; 95% CI 1.35-6.96), ability to effectively persuade others to sleep under an ITN (OR = 2.37; 95% CI 1.14-4.94) were significantly associated with ITN use.
CONCLUSIONS: A large proportion of pregnant women in this study were not sleeping under ITNs. The development of health promotion interventions aimed at boosting their self-efficacies for ITN use, and improving social support from their spouses are, therefore, recommended. Health education on ITN use should also be incorporated into post-abortal management.
METHODS: This was a randomized controlled parallel-group trial in which 372 antenatal care attendees were randomly assigned to either an intervention or control group after collecting baseline data using a structured questionnaire. The intervention group received a 4-h health education on malaria, guided by a module developed based on the IMB theory, while the control group received health education on breastfeeding for a similar duration and by the same facilitator. Follow-up data were subsequently collected at 2 months and at 4 months post-intervention using the same questionnaire. The generalized linear mixed models analysis was used to determine the between-group and within-group effects of the intervention. The intention-to-treat analysis was used after missing data had been replaced. This was followed by a sensitivity analysis, where the analyses were repeated without replacing the missing values.
RESULTS: The intervention was significant in achieving a 12.75% (p
METHODS: Data was collected from 380 randomly selected antenatal care attendees of a hospital in Maiduguri, using structured questionnaires. This data was then used to test the Information-Motivation-Behavioural Skills (IMB) model, for model fit, and interrelations among the constructs, using the structural equation modelling analysis with Smart-PLS.
RESULTS: Information and motivation were significantly related to behavioural skills (r = 0.29, p
METHODS: The questionnaire was first developed in English language, and then assessed for its contents by a team of experts. It was then forwardly translated to Hausa, and backwardly translated again to English by independent language experts. These two English versions were then compared by a Public Health expert, following which the questionnaire was administered to 190 Hausa speaking antenatal care attendees. Exploratory factor analysis was performed on the data collected. Sixty three out of the 190 respondents were invited after 2 weeks to answer the same questionnaire, following which reliability tests were performed.
RESULTS: The questionnaire showed good internal consistency, with Cronbach's alpha values of 0.859, 0.890 and 0.773 for information, motivation and behavioural skills constructs respectively. The motivation and behavioural skills constructs were able to delineate their items into three and two sub-sections respectively. The factor loadings for the two constructs ranged from 0.610 to 0.965. As for test retest reliability, the Krippendorff's alpha values for the items of the motivation section ranged from 0.941 to 0.996; that for behavioural skills ranged from 0.810 to 0.953, while for frequency of ITN use, it was 0.988. The Cohen's kappa values for the information section ranged from 0.689-0.974, except the item for 'fever' (zazzabi) which was 0.382, and was as such reworded to a simpler terminology 'hotness of the body' (zafin jiki).
CONCLUSIONS: The Hausa language IMB questionnaire on malaria in pregnancy demonstrated good validity, and a high level of reliability. It is as such recommended for use among Hausa speaking communities to ensure uniformity and objectivity.
METHODS: In this single-centre retrospective study, comparative analysis on clinical presentations and laboratory findings was performed between confirmed leptospirosis versus non-leptospirosis cases.
RESULTS: In multivariate logistic regression evidenced by a Hosmer-Lemeshow significance value of 0.979 and Nagelkerke R square of 0.426, the predictors of a leptospirosis case are hypocalcemia (calcium <2.10mmol/L), hypochloremia (chloride <98mmol/L), and eosinopenia (absolute eosinophil count <0.040×109/L). The proposed diagnostic scoring model has a discriminatory power with area under the curve (AUC) 0.761 (p<0.001). A score value of 6 reflected a sensitivity of 0.762, specificity of 0.655, a positive predictive value of 0.38, negative predictive value of 0.91, a positive likelihood ratios of 2.21, and a negative likelihood ratios of 0.36.
CONCLUSION: With further validation in clinical settings, implementation of this diagnostic scoring model is helpful to manage presumed leptospirosis especially in the absence of leptospirosis confirmatory tests.