The study of lead exposure among workers in Selangor and the Federal Territory was carried out based on the delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) level in urine. Occupations which are expected to have higher lead exposure were chosen in this research. The ALA level in the workers' urine was linked to a few variables which may contribute to the lead level in the body. The result of this study showed that the ALA level of the urine of university students (0.352 +/- 0.038 mg/100 ml) < clerical staff (0.560 +/- 0.043 mg/100 ml) < traffic police (0.612 +/- 0.064 mg/100 ml) < vehicle workshop workers (0.673 +/- 0.099 mg/100 ml) < petrol kiosk workers (0.717 +/- 0.069 mg/100 ml) < bus drivers/conductors (0.850 +/- 0.055 mg/100 ml) which was similar to workers in the printing industry (0.852 +/- 0.110 mg/100 ml). The ALA levels in the urine of the exposed workers were significantly different from the control group (university students). However, results obtained from clerical staff revealed that they were also in the exposed group category. Analysis of variance showed that the exposed groups are in a population which is different from the control population. Correlation tests suggest that there is no significant connection between the ALA level in the urine and the variables tested. Furthermore, Duncan's Multiple Range Test showed no significant differences between the smoking/non smoking group, alcoholic/non-alcoholic group, race and sex (p > 0.05).
Hydrothermally synthesized TiO2nanotubes (TNTs) were first used as a filler for chitosan scaffold for reinforcement purpose. Chitosan-TNTs (CTNTs) scaffolds prepared via direct blending and freeze drying retained cylindrical structure and showed enhanced compressive modulus and reduced degradation rate compared to chitosan membrane which experienced severe shrinkage after rehydration with ethanol. Macroporous interconnectivity with pore size of 70-230μm and porosity of 88% were found in CTNTs scaffolds. Subsequently, the functionalization of CTNTs scaffolds with CaCl2solutions (0.5mM-40.5mM) was conducted at physiological pH. The adsorption isotherm of Ca2+ions onto CTNTs scaffolds fitted well with Freundlich isotherm. CTNTs scaffolds with Ca2+ions showed high biocompatibility by promoting adhesion, proliferation and early differentiation of MG63 in a non-dose dependent manner. CTNTs scaffolds with Ca2+ions can be an alternative for bone regeneration.