The bioefficacy of a commercial formulation of temephos, Creek against Aedes aegypti larvae was studied in the laboratory. Earthen jars were filled with 10 L tap water each. One g of temephos (Creek) sand granule formulation was added into each earthen jar as recommended by the manufacturer. The final test concentration of Creek was 1 mg a.i./L. One earthen jar was filled with 10 L tap water and served as a test control (untreated). Thirty late 3(rd) or early 4(th) instar of lab-bred Ae. aegypti larvae were added into each earthen jar. Mortality of the larvae was recorded after 24 hours and percent mortality was calculated. Test was repeated every week. The results showed that complete larval mortality was achieved after 24 hours. The residual effect lasted 15 weeks (105 days), indicating that Creek is effective at the dosage recommended by the manufacturer which is 1 mg a.i./L.
Two new species of black flies, Simulium (Comphostilbia) terengganuense sp. nov. and Simulium (Gomphostilbia) aziruni sp. nov. (Diptera: Simuliidae), are described on the basis of reared adult, pupal, and larval specimens collected from Peninsular Malaysia. Both species are placed in the batoense species-group within the subgenus Gomphostilbia, one of two dominant subgenera of the genus Simulium in Peninsular Malaysia as well as in the Oriental Region. Strikingly, three morphological characteristics that rarely occur in the subgenus Gomphostilbia are found in these two new species: the very narrow female frons and the mushroom-like pupal terminal hooks in S. (G.) terengganuense sp. nov. and the pupal gill composed of an inflated horn-like structure and eight slender filaments in S. (G.) aziruni sp. nov.
Human arboviral diseases transmitted by Aedes aegypti such as dengue, Zika, chikungunya and yellow fever remain global public health threats to date. Of these diseases, dengue fever is particularly prevalent in Southeast Asia. Relentless vector control efforts are performed to curtail disease transmissions through which pyrethroid insecticides are broadly used as the first line of defense to control Ae. aegypti, especially in the course of disease outbreaks. Here, we compile the largest contemporary database for susceptibility profiles and underlying mechanisms involved in Ae. aegypti resistant to pyrethroids in Southeast Asia. The extensive use of pyrethroids inevitably elicit different levels of resistance to numerous populations despite the presence of geographical isolation. The most common mechanisms of pyrethroid resistance that have been identified in Ae. aegypti includes mutations in the voltage sensitive sodium channel gene (Vssc gene) and metabolic-mediated insecticide resistance. Aedes aegypti develops resistance to pyrethroids by acquisition of one or several amino acid substitution(s) in this Vssc gene. Enzymes involved in metabolic-mediated detoxification (i.e. monooxygenases, glutathione-S-transferases and esterases) have been reported to be related to pyrethroid resistance but many specific contributory enzymes are not completely studied. An inadequate amount of data from some countries indicates an urgent need for further study to fill the knowledge gaps. Perspectives and future research needs are also discussed.
Aedes albopictus larvae obtained from different types of agricultural and non-agricultural localities in Peninsular Malaysia were subjected to several larvicides at World Health Organization (WHO) recommended dosages. Upon 24 h of WHO larval bioassay using two organochlorines and six organophosphates, high resistance against dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), temephos, chlorpyrifos and bromophos were demonstrated among all larval populations. Aedes albopictus larvae from both paddy growing areas (92.33% mortality) and rubber estates (97.00% mortality) were moderately resistant to dieldrin while only Ae. albopictus larvae from dengue prone residential areas (89.00% mortality) showed high resistance against dieldrin. All Ae. albopictus larval populations also developed either incipient or high resistance to both malathion (33.67%-95.33% mortality) and fenitrothion (73.00%-92.67% mortality). Only Ae. albopictus larvae from fogging-free residential areas that were tolerant to fenthion (97.33% mortality), whereas Ae. albopictus larvae from dengue prone residential areas were highly resistant to the same organophosphate (88.33% mortality). Cross resistance between intraclass and interclass larvicides of organochlorines and organophosphates were also exhibited in this study. The present study provided baseline data on various susceptibility levels of Ae. albopictus larval populations from different types of agricultural and non-agricultural localities against organochlorines and organophosphates at WHO recommended dosages. Nevertheless, further susceptibility investigations are suggested using revised doses of larvicides established from the local reference strain of Ae. albopictus to prevent the underestimation or overestimation of insecticide resistance level among Ae. albopictus field strains of larvae.
Photon (light) technology has already been widely used in make-up, medical treatment etc, but repelling mosquitoes by photon technology is an innovation. The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of a mosquito repelling lamp, E Da under indoor conditions. E Da lamp is a lamp coated with yellow luminous pigment on the inner part of the glass bulb of the lamp which is used to screen out the UV radiation, and when it is turned on, the yellow illuminating wavelength will drive the mosquitoes away. The tests were conducted inside 2 cabins measuring 8' X 8' X 20'. The mosquito population was estimated by using the Bare Leg Catch (BLC) techniques. For treated test, E Da lamp was placed indoor 2 - 3 meters away from a human bait. Another cabin without the lamp was used as untreated control. BLC was conducted in both sites simultaneously. The mosquitoes collected in this study were solely those of Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes albopictus. There was an 91.34% reduction of Cx. quinquefasciatus population in the treated test compared with the untreated cabin during the 4 hours catches (p < 0.05). E Da mosquito repelling lamp used in this study exerted repellency effect against the mosquitoes especially Cx. quinquefasciatus.
The inhibitory activity of diflubenzuron, a chitin synthesis inhibitor, on the ecdysis of Aedes sp. larvae was evaluated in earthen jars and automobile tires. Two formulations of diflubenzuron were used in this study: Dimilin(R) WP (wettable powder), 25% and Dimilin GR (granular), 2%. The equivalent rate of 25 g/ha, 50 g/ha and 100 g/ha active ingredients for both WP and GR formulations were used in this study. Generally, at the higher dosage of 100 g/ha, both formulations were more effective against Aedes mosquitoes. On the whole, the WP formulation appeared to perform better than the GR formulation in terms of residual activity.
Larvae obtained from Taman Samudera (Gombak, Selangor), Kampung Banjar (Gombak, Selangor), Taman Lembah Maju (Cheras, Kuala Lumpur) and Kampung Baru (City centre, Kuala Lumpur) were bioassayed with diagnostic dosage (0.012 mg/L) and operational dosage (1 mg/L) of temephos. All strains of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus showed percentage mortality in the range of 16.00 to 59.05 and 6.4 to 59.50 respectively, after 24 hours. LT50 values for the 6 strains of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus were between 41.25 to 54.42 minutes and 52.67 to 141.76 minutes respectively, and the resistance ratio for both Aedes species were in the range of 0.68 to 1.82 when tested with operational dosage, 1 mg/L temephos. These results indicate that Aedes mosquitoes have developed some degree of resistance. However, complete mortality for all strains were achieved after 24 hours when tested against 1 mg/L temephos.
Larvae of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus obtained from 6 consecutive ovitrap surveillance (OS) in Taman Samudera and Kg. Banjar were evaluated for their susceptibility to temephos. Larval bioassays were carried out in accordance with WHO standard methods, with diagnostic dosage (0.012 mg/L) and operational dosage (1 mg/L) of temephos respectively. Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus obtained from six OS in Taman Samudera showed resistance to diagnostic dosage of temephos with percentage mortality between 5.3 to 72.0 and 9.3 to 56.0, respectively, while Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus obtained from Kg. Banjar showed resistance to temephos with percentage mortality between 16.0 to 72.0 and 0 to 50.6, respectively. Only two strains of Ae. aegypti from Kg. Banjar were susceptible to temephos with 93.3% (OS 2) and 100% (OS 3) mortality. The 50% mortality at lethal time (LT50) for all strains of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus tested against operational dosage of temephos showed range between 36.07 to 75.69 minutes and 58.65 to 112.50 minutes, respectively, and complete mortality was achieved after 24 hours. Our results indicated that there is weekly variations of the resistance status for Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. Aedes susceptibility to temephos is changing from time to time in these two study sites. It is essential to continue monitoring the resistance of this vector to insecticides in order to ensure the efficiency of program aimed at vector control and protection of human health.
Four new species of black flies are described, and three others are reported as newly recorded, based on adults reared from pupae, pupae and larvae collected in and near Tam Dao National Park, Vinh Phuc Province, Vietnam. New species include Simulium (Gomphostilbia) hongthaii sp. nov., S. (G.) tamdaoense sp. nov. (both species placed in the asakoae species-group), S. (Simulium) taythienense sp. nov. and S. (S.) xuandai sp. nov. (the two latter species placed in the striatum species-group). Newly recorded species are S. (G.) brinchangense Takaoka, Sofian-Azirun & Hashim, S. (Nevermannia) aureohirtum Brunetti and S. (S.) brevipar Takaoka & Davies. These discoveries increase the number of species of black flies known in Vietnam from 21 to 28.
Three new species of black flies, Simulium (Nevermannia) langbiangense, S. (N.) phami, and S. (N.) bachmaense, are described on the basis of females, males, pupae and larvae collected in Vietnam. All three species are assigned to the Simulium feuerborni species-group of Simulium (Nevermannia). Simulium (N.) langbiangense sp. nov. is characterized by the female sensory vesicle with a large opening, and a short common basal stalk of the six pupal gill filaments, S. (N.) phami sp. nov. is most striking in having the pupal gill with five filaments, a character not reported in species of the S. feuerborni species-group, and S. (N.) bachmaense sp. nov. is characterized by the female genital fork with a triangular lobe-like projection pointed posteromedially on each arm, and the small larval postgenal cleft. This represents the first record of the S. feuerborni species-group from Vietnam.
A nationwide investigation was performed to detect the presence of 1014 mutation(s) in voltage gated sodium channel (kdr) gene of Culex quinquefasciatus from 14 residential areas across 13 states and a federal territory in Malaysia. Molecular genotyping of kdr mutation was performed via a modified three tubes allele-specific-polymerase chain reaction (AS-PCR) and direct sequencing of kdr gene. Based on the results of AS-PCR, homozygous susceptible (SS) genotype was found in nine out of 14 populations with 38 individuals from a total sample size of 140. Heterozygous (RS) genotype was most predominant (99 individuals) and distributed across all study sites. Homozygous resistance (RR) genotype was detected in Perak (one individual) and Selangor (two individuals). The resistance kdr allele frequencies ranged from 0.1 to 0.55, with the highest being detected in Cx. quinquefasciatus population from Selangor. This study has documented the first field-evolved instance of 1014F mutation in Malaysian mosquitoes and the findings of this study could be utilized in the implementation of strategic measures in vector control programs in Malaysia.
The field bioefficacy of a wettable granule (WG) formulation of Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti), VectoBac WG (Bti strain AM65-52) against dengue vectors, Aedes aegypti and Ae albopictus; was evaluated in a suburban residential area (TST) and in a temporary settlement site (KB) in the state of Selangor, Malaysia. Pre-control ovitrap surveillance of the trial sites indicated a high population of both types of Aedes mosquitoes. The populations were monitored continuously by weekly ovitrapping. Bti was sprayed biweekly at a dosage of 500 g/ha by using a mist-blower. The spray application was targeted into outdoor larval habitats. If required, Bti formulation was also applied directly into indoor water-holding containers at 8 g/1,000 l. Based on ovitrap surveillance, a significant reduction in Aedes populations was evident 4 weeks after initiating the first Bti treatment. The ovitrap index (OI) and the larvae density decreased drastically in both trial sites. In TST, the indoor OI was significantly reduced from 57.50 +/- 7.50% to 19.13 +/- 5.49% (p<0.05), while the outdoor OI decreased from 38.89 +/- 11.11% to 15.36 +/- 5.93%. In KB, similarly, the OI was significantly reduced by more than half, from 66.66 +/- 6.67% to 30.26 +/- 2.99% (p< 0.05). In all cases, the reduction in OI was paralleled by reduction in larval density.
A nationwide investigation was carried out to determine the current susceptibility status of Culex quinquefasciatus Say populations against four active ingredients representing four major insecticide classes: DDT, propoxur, malathion, and permethrin. Across 14 study sites, both larval and adult bioassays exhibited dissimilar trends in susceptibility. A correlation between propoxur and malathion resistance and between propoxur and permethrin resistance in larval bioassays was found. The results obtained from this study provide baseline information for vector control programs conducted by local authorities. The susceptibility status of this mosquito should be monitored from time to time to ensure the effectiveness of current vector control operations in Malaysia.
Simulium (Gomphostilbia) merapiense sp. nov. is described based on females, males, pupae, and mature larvae from Yagyakarta, Java, Indonesia. This new species is placed in the Simulium epistum species-group, and is characterized by the pupal gill with eight short filaments all arising at the same level from a short stalk, somewhat enlarged basal fenestra, entirely bare pupal head and thoracic integument, and small and short larval postgenal cleft. These characters rarely are found in the subgenus. Taxonomic notes are given to separate this new species from related species of the S. epistum species-group.
Susceptibility status of Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus Skuse larvae obtained from 12 states in Malaysia were evaluated against five insect growth regulators (IGRs), namely, pyriproxyfen, methoprene, diflubenzuron, cyromazine, and novaluron under laboratory conditions. Field populations of Ae. aegypti exhibited moderate resistance toward methoprene and low resistance toward pyriproxyfen, with resistance ratios of 12.7 and 1.4, respectively, but susceptibility to diflubenzuron, cyromazine, and novaluron. On the other hand, field populations of Ae. albopictus exhibited low resistance against diflubenzuron and novaluron, with resistance ratio of 2.1 and 1.0, respectively, but susceptibility to other tested IGRs. Our study concluded that the tested IGRs provide promising results and can be used to control field population of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, especially cyromazine. The use of IGR should be considered as an alternative when larvae develop resistance to conventional insecticides.
A new simuliid species, Simulium kalimantanense sp. nov., is described on the basis of females, males, pupae, and mature larvae from East Kalimantan, Indonesia, and is assigned to the Simulium banauense species-group of Simulium (Gomphostilbia). This new species has close similarities to S alienigenum Takaoka from the Philippines, in many characters including the adult antennal color pattern and pupal gill with four long filaments arranged in two pairs each bearing a long stalk, but is distinguished from the latter in the female by the longer sensory vesicle and in the pupa by the gill with an elongate common basal stalk. Simulium kalimantanense sp. nov. is the first member of the S. banauense group in Borneo, and marks the most southerly distribution of the group. Keys to identify 19 Bornean species of the subgenus Gomphostilbia are provided.
Species of the Simulium (Simulium) melanopus species-group in Sabah are taxonomically revised by examining type specimens of S. (S.) crassimanum S. (S.) laterale, and S. (S.) nigripilosum, all described from females by Edwards in 1933, and newly collected samples from the vicinity of Mt. Kinabalu. The females of these three species are redescribed, and their males and pupae are described for the first time based on adults reared from pupae. Simulium (S.) liewi Takaoka, 2007 and S. (S.) kinabaluense Smart & Clifford, 1969 are synonymized with S. (S.) crassimanum and S. (S.) laterale, respectively. Simulium (S.) cheedhangi Takaoka, Sofian-Azirun & Ya'cob, 2015 is newly recorded from Sabah. Two new related species, S. (S.) lardizabalae and S. (S.) timpohonense, are described from males reared from pupae. Keys to identify eight species of the S. melanopus species-group in Sabah are provided for females, males, pupae and mature larvae.
Surveys of pupae and larvae of black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) were carried out in Thua Thien Hue Province of central Vietnam, and Lam Dong Province of southern Vietnam in 2014. A total of 26 species belonging to the genus Simulium were collected, consisting of eight known species, one newly recorded species, and 17 new species (of which three species of the subgenus Nevermannia were described in 2014). The remaining 14 new species (nine of the subgenus Gomphostilbia and five of the subgenus Simulium) are described here based on females, males, pupae and mature larvae. The total number of species of black flies in Vietnam is now 46. Keys to identify all 26 species recorded from the two provinces of Vietnam are given for females, males, pupae and mature larvae.
A multi-locus approach was used to examine the DNA sequences of 10 nominal species of blackfly in the Simulium subgenus Gomphostilbia (Diptera: Simuliidae) in Malaysia. Molecular data were acquired from partial DNA sequences of the mitochondria-encoded cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI), 12S rRNA and 16S rRNA genes, and the nuclear-encoded 18S rRNA and 28S rRNA genes. No single gene, nor the concatenated gene set, resolved all species or all relationships. However, all morphologically established species were supported by at least one gene. The multi-locus sequence analysis revealed two distinct evolutionary lineages, conforming to the morphotaxonomically recognized Simulium asakoae and Simulium ceylonicum species groups.
The susceptibility status of Aedes albopictus (Skuse; Diptera: Culicidea) larvae collected from 13 districts in Sarawak state, Malaysia was evaluated against five insect growth regulators (IGRs) namely, methoprene, pyriproxyfen, diflubenzuron, cyromazine, and novaluron. Field populations of Ae. albopictus were susceptible to methoprene, pyriproxyfen, cyromazine and novaluron with resistance ratios (RRs) ranging from 0.19-0.38, 0.05-0.14, 0.50-0.95, and 0.75-1.00, respectively. Nevertheless, tolerance towards diflubenzuron (0.33-1.33) was observed in this study. In general, these IGRs exhibited promising results and can be used as alternative control agents against field populations of Ae. albopictus in Sarawak, Malaysia.