The bioefficacy of a commercial formulation of temephos, Creek against Aedes aegypti larvae was studied in the laboratory. Earthen jars were filled with 10 L tap water each. One g of temephos (Creek) sand granule formulation was added into each earthen jar as recommended by the manufacturer. The final test concentration of Creek was 1 mg a.i./L. One earthen jar was filled with 10 L tap water and served as a test control (untreated). Thirty late 3(rd) or early 4(th) instar of lab-bred Ae. aegypti larvae were added into each earthen jar. Mortality of the larvae was recorded after 24 hours and percent mortality was calculated. Test was repeated every week. The results showed that complete larval mortality was achieved after 24 hours. The residual effect lasted 15 weeks (105 days), indicating that Creek is effective at the dosage recommended by the manufacturer which is 1 mg a.i./L.
Two new species of black flies, Simulium (Comphostilbia) terengganuense sp. nov. and Simulium (Gomphostilbia) aziruni sp. nov. (Diptera: Simuliidae), are described on the basis of reared adult, pupal, and larval specimens collected from Peninsular Malaysia. Both species are placed in the batoense species-group within the subgenus Gomphostilbia, one of two dominant subgenera of the genus Simulium in Peninsular Malaysia as well as in the Oriental Region. Strikingly, three morphological characteristics that rarely occur in the subgenus Gomphostilbia are found in these two new species: the very narrow female frons and the mushroom-like pupal terminal hooks in S. (G.) terengganuense sp. nov. and the pupal gill composed of an inflated horn-like structure and eight slender filaments in S. (G.) aziruni sp. nov.
The inhibitory activity of diflubenzuron, a chitin synthesis inhibitor, on the ecdysis of Aedes sp. larvae was evaluated in earthen jars and automobile tires. Two formulations of diflubenzuron were used in this study: Dimilin(R) WP (wettable powder), 25% and Dimilin GR (granular), 2%. The equivalent rate of 25 g/ha, 50 g/ha and 100 g/ha active ingredients for both WP and GR formulations were used in this study. Generally, at the higher dosage of 100 g/ha, both formulations were more effective against Aedes mosquitoes. On the whole, the WP formulation appeared to perform better than the GR formulation in terms of residual activity.
Photon (light) technology has already been widely used in make-up, medical treatment etc, but repelling mosquitoes by photon technology is an innovation. The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of a mosquito repelling lamp, E Da under indoor conditions. E Da lamp is a lamp coated with yellow luminous pigment on the inner part of the glass bulb of the lamp which is used to screen out the UV radiation, and when it is turned on, the yellow illuminating wavelength will drive the mosquitoes away. The tests were conducted inside 2 cabins measuring 8' X 8' X 20'. The mosquito population was estimated by using the Bare Leg Catch (BLC) techniques. For treated test, E Da lamp was placed indoor 2 - 3 meters away from a human bait. Another cabin without the lamp was used as untreated control. BLC was conducted in both sites simultaneously. The mosquitoes collected in this study were solely those of Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes albopictus. There was an 91.34% reduction of Cx. quinquefasciatus population in the treated test compared with the untreated cabin during the 4 hours catches (p < 0.05). E Da mosquito repelling lamp used in this study exerted repellency effect against the mosquitoes especially Cx. quinquefasciatus.
Larvae obtained from Taman Samudera (Gombak, Selangor), Kampung Banjar (Gombak, Selangor), Taman Lembah Maju (Cheras, Kuala Lumpur) and Kampung Baru (City centre, Kuala Lumpur) were bioassayed with diagnostic dosage (0.012 mg/L) and operational dosage (1 mg/L) of temephos. All strains of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus showed percentage mortality in the range of 16.00 to 59.05 and 6.4 to 59.50 respectively, after 24 hours. LT50 values for the 6 strains of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus were between 41.25 to 54.42 minutes and 52.67 to 141.76 minutes respectively, and the resistance ratio for both Aedes species were in the range of 0.68 to 1.82 when tested with operational dosage, 1 mg/L temephos. These results indicate that Aedes mosquitoes have developed some degree of resistance. However, complete mortality for all strains were achieved after 24 hours when tested against 1 mg/L temephos.
Larvae of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus obtained from 6 consecutive ovitrap surveillance (OS) in Taman Samudera and Kg. Banjar were evaluated for their susceptibility to temephos. Larval bioassays were carried out in accordance with WHO standard methods, with diagnostic dosage (0.012 mg/L) and operational dosage (1 mg/L) of temephos respectively. Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus obtained from six OS in Taman Samudera showed resistance to diagnostic dosage of temephos with percentage mortality between 5.3 to 72.0 and 9.3 to 56.0, respectively, while Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus obtained from Kg. Banjar showed resistance to temephos with percentage mortality between 16.0 to 72.0 and 0 to 50.6, respectively. Only two strains of Ae. aegypti from Kg. Banjar were susceptible to temephos with 93.3% (OS 2) and 100% (OS 3) mortality. The 50% mortality at lethal time (LT50) for all strains of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus tested against operational dosage of temephos showed range between 36.07 to 75.69 minutes and 58.65 to 112.50 minutes, respectively, and complete mortality was achieved after 24 hours. Our results indicated that there is weekly variations of the resistance status for Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. Aedes susceptibility to temephos is changing from time to time in these two study sites. It is essential to continue monitoring the resistance of this vector to insecticides in order to ensure the efficiency of program aimed at vector control and protection of human health.
Human arboviral diseases transmitted by Aedes aegypti such as dengue, Zika, chikungunya and yellow fever remain global public health threats to date. Of these diseases, dengue fever is particularly prevalent in Southeast Asia. Relentless vector control efforts are performed to curtail disease transmissions through which pyrethroid insecticides are broadly used as the first line of defense to control Ae. aegypti, especially in the course of disease outbreaks. Here, we compile the largest contemporary database for susceptibility profiles and underlying mechanisms involved in Ae. aegypti resistant to pyrethroids in Southeast Asia. The extensive use of pyrethroids inevitably elicit different levels of resistance to numerous populations despite the presence of geographical isolation. The most common mechanisms of pyrethroid resistance that have been identified in Ae. aegypti includes mutations in the voltage sensitive sodium channel gene (Vssc gene) and metabolic-mediated insecticide resistance. Aedes aegypti develops resistance to pyrethroids by acquisition of one or several amino acid substitution(s) in this Vssc gene. Enzymes involved in metabolic-mediated detoxification (i.e. monooxygenases, glutathione-S-transferases and esterases) have been reported to be related to pyrethroid resistance but many specific contributory enzymes are not completely studied. An inadequate amount of data from some countries indicates an urgent need for further study to fill the knowledge gaps. Perspectives and future research needs are also discussed.
Aedes albopictus larvae obtained from different types of agricultural and non-agricultural localities in Peninsular Malaysia were subjected to several larvicides at World Health Organization (WHO) recommended dosages. Upon 24 h of WHO larval bioassay using two organochlorines and six organophosphates, high resistance against dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), temephos, chlorpyrifos and bromophos were demonstrated among all larval populations. Aedes albopictus larvae from both paddy growing areas (92.33% mortality) and rubber estates (97.00% mortality) were moderately resistant to dieldrin while only Ae. albopictus larvae from dengue prone residential areas (89.00% mortality) showed high resistance against dieldrin. All Ae. albopictus larval populations also developed either incipient or high resistance to both malathion (33.67%-95.33% mortality) and fenitrothion (73.00%-92.67% mortality). Only Ae. albopictus larvae from fogging-free residential areas that were tolerant to fenthion (97.33% mortality), whereas Ae. albopictus larvae from dengue prone residential areas were highly resistant to the same organophosphate (88.33% mortality). Cross resistance between intraclass and interclass larvicides of organochlorines and organophosphates were also exhibited in this study. The present study provided baseline data on various susceptibility levels of Ae. albopictus larval populations from different types of agricultural and non-agricultural localities against organochlorines and organophosphates at WHO recommended dosages. Nevertheless, further susceptibility investigations are suggested using revised doses of larvicides established from the local reference strain of Ae. albopictus to prevent the underestimation or overestimation of insecticide resistance level among Ae. albopictus field strains of larvae.
Four new species of black flies are described, and three others are reported as newly recorded, based on adults reared from pupae, pupae and larvae collected in and near Tam Dao National Park, Vinh Phuc Province, Vietnam. New species include Simulium (Gomphostilbia) hongthaii sp. nov., S. (G.) tamdaoense sp. nov. (both species placed in the asakoae species-group), S. (Simulium) taythienense sp. nov. and S. (S.) xuandai sp. nov. (the two latter species placed in the striatum species-group). Newly recorded species are S. (G.) brinchangense Takaoka, Sofian-Azirun & Hashim, S. (Nevermannia) aureohirtum Brunetti and S. (S.) brevipar Takaoka & Davies. These discoveries increase the number of species of black flies known in Vietnam from 21 to 28.
The resistance status of riceland Culex vishnui against four major groups of insecticides (i.e., organochlorines, carbamates, organophosphates and pyrethroids) was investigated. Biochemical assays (ESTα, ESTβ, MFO and GST) were also conducted to detect the resistance levels. Throughout a 12-month study period, multiple insecticide resistance was observed in both larvae and adult Cx vishnui. Culex vishnui larvae exhibited low resistance against malathion, temephos and permethrin with resistance ratio (RR) values < 5. In adult bioassay, Cx. vishnui were highly resistant against all tested adulticides with 24h post-treatment mortality < 70%. Correlations between permethrin and malathion resistance, as well as between deltamethrin and cyfluthrin resistance were found in Cx. vishnui. The results indicated that mixed function oxidases activity of Cx. vishnui was the highest compared to ESTα, ESTβ and GST. Spearman rank-order analysis showed that ESTα, ESTβ and GST were involved in multiple resistances in Cx. vishnui. The findings of this study established a baseline of insecticide susceptibility and revealed the effects of agricultural insecticide pressure on the vectors of Japanese encephalitis in Malaysia.
Three new species of black flies, Simulium (Nevermannia) langbiangense, S. (N.) phami, and S. (N.) bachmaense, are described on the basis of females, males, pupae and larvae collected in Vietnam. All three species are assigned to the Simulium feuerborni species-group of Simulium (Nevermannia). Simulium (N.) langbiangense sp. nov. is characterized by the female sensory vesicle with a large opening, and a short common basal stalk of the six pupal gill filaments, S. (N.) phami sp. nov. is most striking in having the pupal gill with five filaments, a character not reported in species of the S. feuerborni species-group, and S. (N.) bachmaense sp. nov. is characterized by the female genital fork with a triangular lobe-like projection pointed posteromedially on each arm, and the small larval postgenal cleft. This represents the first record of the S. feuerborni species-group from Vietnam.
A nationwide investigation was performed to detect the presence of 1014 mutation(s) in voltage gated sodium channel (kdr) gene of Culex quinquefasciatus from 14 residential areas across 13 states and a federal territory in Malaysia. Molecular genotyping of kdr mutation was performed via a modified three tubes allele-specific-polymerase chain reaction (AS-PCR) and direct sequencing of kdr gene. Based on the results of AS-PCR, homozygous susceptible (SS) genotype was found in nine out of 14 populations with 38 individuals from a total sample size of 140. Heterozygous (RS) genotype was most predominant (99 individuals) and distributed across all study sites. Homozygous resistance (RR) genotype was detected in Perak (one individual) and Selangor (two individuals). The resistance kdr allele frequencies ranged from 0.1 to 0.55, with the highest being detected in Cx. quinquefasciatus population from Selangor. This study has documented the first field-evolved instance of 1014F mutation in Malaysian mosquitoes and the findings of this study could be utilized in the implementation of strategic measures in vector control programs in Malaysia.
Larvae of Aedes albopictus obtained from dengue endemic areas in Selangor, Malaysia were evaluated for their susceptibility to operational dosage of temephos (1 mg/L). Larval bioassays were carried out in accordance to modified WHO standard methods. Biochemical microassay of enzymes in Ae. albopictus was conducted to detect the emergence of insecticide resistance and to define the mechanisms involved in temephos resistance. The 50% mortality lethal time (LT50) for Ae. albopictus tested against temephos ranged between 58.65 to 112.50 minutes, with resistance ratio ranging from 0.75 - 1.45. This study addressed the fluctuation of time-related susceptibility status of Ae. albopictus towards insecticide. Significant difference on the weekly enzyme levels of non-specific esterases, mixed function oxidases and glutathione S-transferases was detected (p ≤ 0.05). No significant correlation was found between temephos resistance and enzyme activity (p > 0.05). Only glutathione S-transferases displayed high level of activity, indicating that Ae. albopictus may be resistant to other groups of insecticide. The insensitive acetylcholinesterase was detected in some field collected Ae. albopictus populations, indicating the possibility of emergence of carbamate or other organophosphate resistance in the field populations. Continuous resistance monitoring should be conducted regularly to confirm the efficacy of insecticides for dengue control.
A standardized larval dipping method was used to determine the infestation rates of Culex and other species of mosquitoes in stagnant water at 20 residential areas. This study also examined the associations between Culex distribution and various habitat characteristics across all states in Malaysia. Identification of 7,848 specimens yielded 6 species dominated by Culex quinquefasciatus (82.74%), followed by Cx. vishui (14.39%), Cx. gelidus (2.70%), Lutzia fuscanus (0.11%), Armigeres subalbatus (0.05%), and Anopheles separatus (0.01%). The Culex larvae occurred in stagnant water with pH ranging from 6.4 to 8.2; conductivity, 139.7 to 6635.2 micros/cm; salinity, 0.07 to 3.64 ppt; total dissolved solids, 0.09 to 4.27g/liter; and dissolved oxygen, 5.11 to 8.11 mg/liter. The mean number of Culex larvae was positively correlated with pH, conductivity, salinity, and total dissolved solids. In contrast, the elevation and dissolved oxygen were found negatively correlated with mean number of Culex larvae. This study documented baseline information on the habitat characteristics of Culex species for the 1st time at different residential areas in Malaysia. The findings of this study will be a timely reminder to local authorities that effective control measures should be monitored regularly in order to reduce the nuisance of these mosquitoes and the risks of disease transmission.
The aim of the present study was to determine the vertical distribution and abundance of Aedes mosquitoes in multiple storey buildings in Selangor and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Ovitrap surveillance was conducted for 4 continuous weeks in multiple storey buildings in 4 residential areas located in Selangor [Kg. Baiduri (KB)] and Kuala Lumpur [Student Hostel of University of Malaya (UM), Kg. Kerinchi (KK) and Hang Tuah (HT)]. The results implied that Aedes mosquitoes could be found from ground floor to highest floor of multiple storey buildings and data from different elevation did not show significant difference. Ovitrap index for UM, KB, HT and KK ranged from 0 - 29.17%, 0 - 55.56%, 8.33 - 83.33% and 0 - 91.17% respectively. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus were found breeding in HT, KK and KB; while only Ae. albopictus was obtained from UM. The results indicate that the invasion of Aedes mosquitoes in high-rise apartments could facilitate the transmission of dengue virus and new approaches to vector control in this type of residential area should be developed.
A study on insect succession of monkey carcass in a forested area in Ulu Gombak, Selangor, Malaysia was conducted from 9 May to 18 June 2007. The third instar of the housefly, Musca domestica (Linnaeus) (Diptera: Muscidae) were only found on dry stage of a decomposed (Day-33) monkey carcass (Macaca fascicularis Raffles). This observation revealed that M. domestica maggots were found together with other muscid fly maggots, Hydrotaea (=Ophyra) spinigera (Stein) (Diptera: Muscidae) on dry stage of a carcass. However, the role of M. domestica on forensic entomological study remains unknown. This study recorded the first finding of M. domestica maggots on primate carcass in Malaysia.
The bioefficacy of nine commercial formulations of temephos against Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus larvae were evaluated in the laboratory. WHO larval bioassay with operational dosage of temephos at 1 mg/L was performed. The larval mortality was recorded every 5 minutes until complete mortality was achieved. All formulations of temephos exhibited various toxicity level against Ae. aegypti, Ae. albopictus and Cx. quinquefasciatus. Generally, larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus was susceptible to all formulations of temephos, followed by Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus.
An observational study was conducted in an oil palm plantation in Tanjung Sepat, Selangor, Malaysia on August until September 2007 to note the decomposition process of pigs and their related faunal succession. We collected six species of ants (Formicidae) from 3 subfamilies: Formicinae (Oecophylla smaragdina and Anoplolepis gracilipes), Myrmicinae (Tetramorium sp. and Pheidologeton sp.) and Ponerinae (Odontoponera sp. and Diacamma sp.) that were associated with pig carcasses placed on the ground. Oecophylla smaragdina, Pheidologeton sp. and Tetramorium sp. were found on a partially burnt pig carcass whereas the other species were recovered from unburned pig carcass. These ants predated on fly eggs, larvae, pupae and adults. Ants could be found at all stages of decomposition starting from fresh until dry stage. Predatory ants can reduce fly population and thus may affect the rate of carcass decomposition but this was not seen in our study. Even though O. smaragdina was seen at all stages of decomposition of the burnt pig, this did not alter much the decomposition process by fly larvae.
Ovitrap surveillance was initiated for eight continuous weeks to determine the distribution and abundance of Aedes sp. mosquitoes in the University of Malaya campus, Kuala Lumpur, and the impact of meteorological conditions on the Aedes populations. Two study areas within the campus were selected: Varsity Lake and Seventh Residential College. The abundance of Aedes populations in Varsity Lake was indicated by ovitrap index (OI) which ranged from 60.00%-90.00%. The mean number of larvae per ovitrap of Aedes albopictus in Varsity Lake ranged from 11.23+/-2.42-43.80+/-6.22. On the other hand, the outdoor OI for Seventh Residential College ranged from 73.33%-93.33%, respectively, while the mean number larvae per ovitrap for this area ranged from 19.33+/-4.55-35.27+/-5.46, respectively. In addition, the indoor OI of Seventh Residential College ranged from 0.00%-30.00%, while the mean number of larvae per ovitrap for Ae. albopictus ranged from 0-5.90+/-3.55. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) of Ae. albopictus population between Varsity Lake and Seventh Residential College. The studies showed a correlation between OI and mean number of larvae per ovitrap for outdoor Ae. albopictus populations in Varsity Lake and Seventh Residential College (r=0.794). There was also a correlation between the mean larvae number per ovitrap of Ae. albopictus obtained from eight weeks indoor ovitrap surveillance in Seventh Residential College with rainfall (r=0.584). However, there was no correlation between the mean larvae number per ovitrap of Ae. albopictus in both study areas with temperature and relative humidity. Aedes aegypti mosquitoes were found neither indoor nor outdoor in both study areas. This study indicated that the principal dengue vector in the university campus was most likely Ae. albopictus.
The field bioefficacy of a wettable granule (WG) formulation of Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti), VectoBac WG (Bti strain AM65-52) against dengue vectors, Aedes aegypti and Ae albopictus; was evaluated in a suburban residential area (TST) and in a temporary settlement site (KB) in the state of Selangor, Malaysia. Pre-control ovitrap surveillance of the trial sites indicated a high population of both types of Aedes mosquitoes. The populations were monitored continuously by weekly ovitrapping. Bti was sprayed biweekly at a dosage of 500 g/ha by using a mist-blower. The spray application was targeted into outdoor larval habitats. If required, Bti formulation was also applied directly into indoor water-holding containers at 8 g/1,000 l. Based on ovitrap surveillance, a significant reduction in Aedes populations was evident 4 weeks after initiating the first Bti treatment. The ovitrap index (OI) and the larvae density decreased drastically in both trial sites. In TST, the indoor OI was significantly reduced from 57.50 +/- 7.50% to 19.13 +/- 5.49% (p<0.05), while the outdoor OI decreased from 38.89 +/- 11.11% to 15.36 +/- 5.93%. In KB, similarly, the OI was significantly reduced by more than half, from 66.66 +/- 6.67% to 30.26 +/- 2.99% (p< 0.05). In all cases, the reduction in OI was paralleled by reduction in larval density.