Displaying all 10 publications

  1. Karami A, Courtenay SC
    Environ Monit Assess, 2015 Nov;187(11):681.
    PMID: 26452505 DOI: 10.1007/s10661-015-4906-7
    Glutathione S-transferases (GST) are considered among the most controversial biomarkers of water pollutants in fish with little known about factors influencing their activities. The objective of this study was to investigate how gender, dose, ploidy, and sampling time alter hepatic GST activities in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) following β-naphthoflavone (β-NF) injection. Newly matured male and female diploid and triploid fish were intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected with 0, 15, or 75 mg/kg of β-NF, and livers were excised 24, 48, and 72 h post-injection. Results showed that hepatic GST activities were significantly inhibited by both doses of β-NF. Inhibition was greater in females than males, but no significant differences were observed between diploid and triploid fish. Enzymatic activities differed over time with lowest levels 72 h post-injection. These results extend our understanding of GST activity in fish and highlight the necessity of considering confounding factors when comparing different studies.
  2. Karami A, Teh SJ, Zakaria MP, Courtenay SC
    J Environ Sci (China), 2015 Dec;38:95-102.
    PMID: 26702972 DOI: 10.1016/j.jes.2015.05.009
    Naturally-occurring and artificially-induced polyploids have been documented in various fish species but to date no comparison has been reported of the impacts of ploidy on fish biomarker responses to organic pollutants. This study describes effects of ploidy, gender, and dose on biliary fluorescent aromatic compound (FAC) concentrations, hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities in one of the most commonly cultured warm-water species, the African catfish Clarias gariepinus. Recently matured male and female diploid and triploid fish were intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected with 0, 5 or 25mg/kg benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and liver and gallbladder were sampled 48hr later. No significant differences were found between ploidies in bile concentrations of 7,8 dihydrodiolbenzo[a]pyrene (7,8D BaP), 1-hydroxybenzo[a]pyrene (1-OH BaP) or 3-hydroxybenzo[a]pyrene (3-OH BaP). However, concentrations of the biliary FACs did differ between males and females at different dose of injection with generally higher concentrations in females at the low dose of BaP and higher concentrations in males at the higher BaP concentration. Hepatic EROD activity did not exhibit gender-dependent difference, whereas it was significantly higher in triploids than diploids. GST activities were not significantly influenced by any of the tested factors. This work advanced our understanding of the role of ploidy, gender, and dose in biotransformation of pollutants in fish.
  3. Karami A, Keiter S, Hollert H, Courtenay SC
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2013 Mar;20(3):1586-95.
    PMID: 22752811 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-012-1027-5
    This study represents a first attempt at applying a fuzzy inference system (FIS) and an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) to the field of aquatic biomonitoring for classification of the dosage and time of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) injection through selected biomarkers in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Fish were injected either intramuscularly (i.m.) or intraperitoneally (i.p.) with BaP. Hepatic glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities, relative visceral fat weights (LSI), and four biliary fluorescent aromatic compounds (FACs) concentrations were used as the inputs in the modeling study. Contradictory rules in FIS and ANFIS models appeared after conversion of bioassay results into human language (rule-based system). A "data trimming" approach was proposed to eliminate the conflicts prior to fuzzification. However, the model produced was relevant only to relatively low exposures to BaP, especially through the i.m. route of exposure. Furthermore, sensitivity analysis was unable to raise the classification rate to an acceptable level. In conclusion, FIS and ANFIS models have limited applications in the field of fish biomarker studies.
  4. Karami A, Christianus A, Bahraminejad B, Gagné F, Courtenay SC
    Ecotoxicol Environ Saf, 2012 Mar;77:28-34.
    PMID: 22101109 DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2011.10.026
    This study examined the potential of artificial neural network (ANN) modeling to infer timing, route and dose of contaminant exposure from biomarkers in a freshwater fish. Hepatic glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity and biliary concentrations of BaP, 1-OH BaP, 3-OH BaP and 7,8D BaP were quantified in juvenile Clarias gariepinus injected intramuscularly or intraperitoneally with 10-50 mg/kg benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) 1-3 d earlier. A feedforward multilayer perceptron (MLP) ANN resulted in more accurate prediction of timing, route and exposure dose than a linear neural network or a radial basis function (RBF) ANN. MLP sensitivity analyses revealed contribution of all five biomarkers to predicting route of exposure but no contribution of hepatic GST activity or one of the two hydroxylated BaP metabolites to predicting time of exposure and dose of exposure. We conclude that information content of biomarkers collected from fish can be extended by judicious use of ANNs.
  5. Karami A, Christianus A, Ishak Z, Syed MA, Courtenay SC
    Ecotoxicol Environ Saf, 2011 Sep;74(6):1558-66.
    PMID: 21636131 DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2011.05.012
    This study investigated the dose-dependent and time-course effects of intramuscular (i.m.) and intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) on the biomarkers EROD activity, GST activity, concentrations of BaP metabolites in bile, and visceral fat deposits (Lipid Somatic Index, LSI) in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Intraperitoneal injection resulted in 4.5 times higher accumulation of total selected biliary FACs than i.m. injection. Hepatic GST activities were inhibited by BaP via both injection methods. Dose-response relationships between BaP injection and both biliary FAC concentrations and hepatic GST activities were linear in the i.p. injected group but nonlinear in the i.m. injected fish. Hepatic EROD activity and LSI were not significantly affected by BaP exposure by either injection route. We conclude that i.p. is a more effective route of exposure than i.m. for future ecotoxicological studies of PAH exposure in C. gariepinus.
  6. Karami A, Syed MA, Christianus A, Willett KL, Mazzeo JR, Courtenay SC
    J Hazard Mater, 2012 Jul 15;223-224:84-93.
    PMID: 22608400 DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2012.04.051
    In this study we sought to optimize recovery of fluorescent aromatic compounds (FACs) from the bile of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) injected with 10mg/kg benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). Fractions of pooled bile were hydrolyzed, combined with ten volumes of methanol, ethanol, acetonitrile, or acetone, centrifuged and supernatants were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescent detection (HPLC/FL). As well, to test whether FACs were being lost in solids from the centrifugation, pellets were resuspended, hydrolyzed and mixed with six volumes of the organic solvent that produced best FAC recovery from the supernatant, and subjected to HPLC/FL. Highest FAC concentrations were obtained with 2000μl and 1250μl acetone for supernatants and resuspended pellets respectively. FACs concentrations were negatively correlated with biliary protein content but were unaffected by addition of bovine serum albumin (BSA) followed by no incubation indicating that the presence of proteins in the biliary mixture does not simply interfere with detection of FACs. In another experiment, efficiency of acetone addition was compared to two different liquid-liquid extractions (L-LEs). Acetone additions provided significantly higher biliary FACs than the L-LE methods. The new two-stage bile preparation with acetone is an efficient, inexpensive and easily performed method.
  7. Karami A, Christianus A, Ishak Z, Shamsuddin ZH, Masoumian M, Courtenay SC
    J Hazard Mater, 2012 May 15;215-216:108-14.
    PMID: 22417397 DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2012.02.038
    This study examined the potential of Pseudomonas aeruginosa abundance in the intestines of fish as an indicator of exposure to benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). P. aeruginosa populations were enumerated in juvenile African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) injected intramuscularly three days previous with 0, 10, 30, 40, 50 or 70mg/kg of BaP. Hepatic EROD and GST activities and biliary fluorescent aromatic compounds (FACs) 1-OH BaP, 3-OH BaP, 7,8-D BaP and BaP were quantified to investigate agreements between the new indicator and established fish biomarkers. The shape of bacterial population (logarithm of colony-forming unit) dose-response curve generally matched those of biliary FACs concentrations. Conversely, the EROD and GST dose-response curves were generally the mirror images of the bacterial population curve. Changes in intestinal P. aeruginosa population appear to be an indirect effect of BaP exposure because exposure to 0-100μg/ml BaP had no effect on P. aeruginosa populations grown on agar plates containing BaP. Using intestinal P. aeruginosa population of fish as a universal indicator of BaP pollution in aquatic environments is discussed.Conversely, the EROD and GST dose-response curves were generally the mirror images of the bacterial population curve.
  8. Karami A, Goh YM, Jahromi MF, Lazorchak JM, Abdullah M, Courtenay SC
    Sci Total Environ, 2016 07 01;557-558:204-11.
    PMID: 26994807 DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.03.030
    The impacts of environmental stressors on polyploid organisms are largely unknown. This study investigated changes in morphometric, molecular, and biochemical parameters in full-sibling diploid and triploid African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) in response to chlorpyrifos (CPF) exposures. Juvenile fish were exposed to three concentrations of CPF (mean measured μg/L (SD): 9.71 (2.27), 15.7 (3.69), 31.21 (5.04)) under a static-renewal condition for 21days. Diploid control groups had higher hepatosomatic index (HSI), plasma testosterone (T), and brain GnRH and cyp19a2 expression levels than triploids. In CPF-exposed groups, changes in HSI, total weight and length were different between the diploid and triploid fish. In contrast, condition factor did not alter in any of the treatments, while visceral-somatic index (VSI) changed only in diploids. In diploid fish, exposure to CPF did not change brain 11β-hsd2, ftz-f1, foxl2, GnRH or cyp19a2 mRNA levels, while reduced tph2 transcript levels compared to the control group. In contrast, 11β-hsd2 and foxl2 expression levels were changed in triploids following CPF exposures. In diploids, plasma T levels showed a linear dose-response reduction across CPF treatments correlating with liver weight and plasma total cholesterol concentrations. In contrast, no changes in plasma cholesterol and T concentrations were observed in triploids. Plasma cortisol and 17-β estradiol (E2) showed no response to CPF exposure in either ploidy. Results of this first comparison of biomarker responses to pesticide exposure in diploid and polyploid animals showed substantial differences between diploid and triploid C. gariepinus.
  9. Karami A, Karbalaei S, Zad Bagher F, Ismail A, Simpson SL, Courtenay SC
    Environ Pollut, 2016 Aug;215:170-177.
    PMID: 27182978 DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2016.05.014
    Skin is a major by-product of the fisheries and aquaculture industries and is a valuable source of gelatin. This study examined the effect of triploidization on gelatin yield and proximate composition of the skin of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). We further investigated the effects of two commonly used pesticides, chlorpyrifos (CPF) and butachlor (BUC), on the skin gelatin yield and amino acid composition in juvenile full-sibling diploid and triploid African catfish. In two separate experiments, diploid and triploid C. gariepinus were exposed for 21 days to graded CPF [mean measured: 10, 16, or 31 μg/L] or BUC concentrations [Mean measured: 22, 44, or 60 μg/L]. No differences in skin gelatin yield, amino acid or proximate compositions were observed between diploid and triploid control groups. None of the pesticide treatments affected the measured parameters in diploid fish. In triploids, however, gelatin yield was affected by CPF treatments while amino acid composition remained unchanged. Butachlor treatments did not alter any of the measured variables in triploid fish. To our knowledge, this study is the first to investigate changes in the skin gelatin yield and amino acid composition in any animal as a response to polyploidization and/or contaminant exposure.
  10. Karami A, Omar D, Lazorchak JM, Yap CK, Hashim Z, Courtenay SC
    Environ Res, 2016 Nov;151:313-320.
    PMID: 27522569 DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2016.08.006
    Influence of waterborne butachlor (BUC), a commonly used pesticide, on morphometric, biochemical, and molecular biomarkers was evaluated in juvenile, full sibling, diploid and triploid African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Fish were exposed for 21 days to one of three concentrations of BUC [mean measured µg/L: 22, 44 or 60]. Unexposed (control) triploids were heavier and longer and had higher visceral-somatic index (VSI) than diploids. Also, they had lighter liver weight (HSI) and showed lower transcript levels of brain gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), aromatase (cyp191b) and fushi tarazu-factor (ftz-f1), and plasma testosterone levels than diploids. Butachlor treatments had no effects, in either diploid or triploid fish, on VSI, HSI, weight or length changes, condition factor (CF), levels of plasma testosterone, 17-β estradiol (E2), cortisol, cholesterol, or mRNA levels of brain tryptophan hydroxylase (tph2), forkhead box L2 (foxl2), and 11 β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-hsd2). Expressions of cyp191b and ftz-f1 in triploids were upregulated by the two highest concentrations of BUC. In diploid fish, however, exposures to all BUC concentrations decreased GnRH transcription and the medium BUC concentration decreased ftz-f1 transcription. Substantial differences between ploidies in basal biomarker responses are consistent with the reported impaired reproductive axis in triploid C. gariepinus. Furthermore, the present study showed the low impact of short term exposure to BUC on reproductive axis in C. gariepinus.
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