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  1. Liew SK, Fong TS, Teh KK
    J Hand Surg Asian Pac Vol, 2021 Mar;26(1):103-106.
    PMID: 33559570 DOI: 10.1142/S2424835521720048
    Chronic embedded-ring injury is a rare and uncommon presentation. This is also known as "chronic ring erosion" or "embedded ring syndrome" in the literature. Injury of this type has been associated with psychological impairment causing neglect of such injury. We herein describe a case of double embedded rings on the right ring finger in a 30-year-old healthy construction worker. A primary amputation at the metacarpophalangeal joint was performed in view of the chronicity of his condition and associated neurovascular damage. Early removal of ring is of paramount importance in any ring-associated injuries. However, fear of losing a digit has been the reason of delay in seeking medical treatment, which in turn ended up in dire consequences.
  2. Tan YX, Cheong WL, Fong TS
    Cureus, 2021 Apr 09;13(4):e14388.
    PMID: 33981508 DOI: 10.7759/cureus.14388
    Lower back pain is a common presentation in clinical practice. Although most are musculoskeletal in nature, occult spine infection such as spondylodiscitis is commonly missed due to its insidious onset and non-specific symptoms. We report a case of a 63-year-old diabetic woman who presented to our institution's emergency department with altered mental status, nausea, and vomiting. She had a fall one month prior with persistent lower back-pain of increasing intensity. Initial laboratory data revealed an elevated leukocyte count with neutrophil predominance. Plain radiographs showed extensive gas shadows over the chest wall, abdomen, left thigh, and left knee. CT scan revealed L2 compression fracture with spondylodiscitis at L1/L2, left psoas abscess, and extensive subcutaneous emphysema. Open abscess drainage with extensive wound debridement was performed. Intra-operative pus, as well as blood cultures, yielded Escherichia coli. Unfortunately, the patient succumbed to the infection on the seventh day of admission secondary to multi-organ failure.
  3. Afshar R, Fong TS, Latifi MH, Kanthan SR, Kamarul T
    J Hand Surg Eur Vol, 2012 Jun;37(5):396-401.
    PMID: 22019989 DOI: 10.1177/1753193411424557
    The use of bicortical screws to fix metacarpal fractures has been suggested to provide no added biomechanical advantage over unicortical screw fixation. However, this was only demonstrated in static loading regimes, which may not be representative of biological conditions. The present study was done to determine whether similar outcomes are obtained when cyclic loading is applied. Transverse midshaft osteotomies were created in 20 metacarpals harvested from three cadavers. Fractures were stabilised using 2.0 mm mini fragment plates fixed with either bicortical or unicortical screw fixation. These fixations were tested to failure with a three-point bending cyclic loading protocol using an electromechanical microtester and a 1 kN load cell. The mean load to failure was 370 N (SD 116) for unicortical fixation and 450 N (SD 135) for bicortical fixation. Significant differences between these two constructs were observed. A biomechanical advantage was found when using bicortical screws in metacarpal fracture plating.
  4. Wan Hazmy CH, Chia WY, Fong TS, Ganendra P
    Med J Malaysia, 2006 Feb;61 Suppl A:3-9.
    PMID: 17042220
    The post-operatve course of amputees is poorly documented. This cross-sectional survey was unertaken to determine functional outcomes of 213 patients who had undergone either a below-knee or above-knee amputation from 2000 to 2002 in a state-hospital setting. The study comprises a self-constructed questionnaire and interview conducted by phone. Of the 213 amputees, 41 out of 61 documented telephone numbers of the patients were useful for contact. Only 30 amputees were available for the study as the remaining 11 had passed away. Included in the questionnaire was the modified Barthel Index, a measurement to assess the amputees' ability to carry out activities of daily living (ADL). It contains ten questions pertaining to ADL with a total score of 20 points. Two-thirds of the respondents (67%) use their prosthesis for less than six hours per day. The Barthel Index of 30 patients ranged from 9-20 (mean 17.7). However, the mean Barthel Index in those with and without prosthesis was 18.4 and 15.2 respectively, but this difference was not significant. Half of the respondents were unable to maintain their pre-amputation jobs, while the remaining 50% were still able to work. Forty seven percent of amputees took less than a year to return to their activities, while 33% took between one to two years. Regarding the adequacy of preamputation information provided by the doctors, 73% amputees responded in the affirmative, while 27% felt otherwise. Amputees were still facing substantial disabilities following major amputation of the lower limb. Although 80% of respondents surveyed own prosthesis, the full use of prosthesis is suboptimal due to prosthetic-related problems. Most amputees had a good functional outcome based on the modified Barthel Index. Some amputees were unhappy as they felt that they were insufficiently informed regarding post-amputation expectation prior to the amputation. Despite good support from family, the community support for amputees is still lacking.
  5. Lee YS, Lee SH, Lee ES, Fong TS
    BMC Musculoskelet Disord, 2019 Mar 20;20(1):118.
    PMID: 30894158 DOI: 10.1186/s12891-019-2505-4
    BACKGROUND: We report a case of hardware failure after distal femoral osteotomy (DFO) with a broken screw pulled out from the locking hole and positioned within the knee joint.

    CASE PRESENTATION: A 57-year-old man presented to our orthopedic outpatient department with 3-months history of an unusual painful swelling at the operated area following DFO. The leakage of joint fluid from the penetrated suprapatellar pouch was assumed to be the reason for this complication.

    CONCLUSIONS: The overall aim of this case report is to provide a lesson to budding surgeons who might experience a similar situation that cannot be easily explained, like the unexpected complication in the present case.

  6. Fong TS, Kim SC, Kim JE, Lee ES, Kim TW, Lee YS
    J Arthroplasty, 2019 09;34(9):1929-1937.
    PMID: 31138501 DOI: 10.1016/j.arth.2019.04.061
    BACKGROUND: This study aimed at assessing the morphometry of resected femurs in Korean patients during total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and comparing these measurements with current Western-designed femoral component dimensions.

    METHODS: This single-blind, prospective, randomized, controlled trial involved intraoperative measurements for 271 femoral component implantations from 3 contemporary TKA systems, with 2 systems offering narrow sizing options. The difference between femoral component dimensions and the resected surface of distal femur was measured in millimeters at 5 distinct zones.

    RESULTS: Overhang of standard femoral component was common in the anterior-medial condyle and anterior-lateral condyle ranging from 50.8% to 99.0% and 21.5% to 88.0%, respectively. With narrow femoral components, the rate of overhang reduced to 21.5%-30.2% and 9.2%-32.1%. Conversely, underhang rates were higher over the anterior flange width, middle medial-lateral and posterior medial-lateral zones. Standard components displayed higher underhang rates at these zones compared to narrow components. The good fit rate for femoral component was low among the 3 systems ranging from 1.0% to 56.0%. System with narrow option sizing increases the underhang rates in males, while improving the component fit among females at similar zones with rate ranging from 5.2% to 52.9%.

    CONCLUSION: Currently available TKA implant designs may not provide a perfect match for the distal femoral shape of the Korean population. The availability of implants with standard and narrow options can substantially improve the optimal fitting of femoral components in the Korean population.

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