Graft selection remains the greatest challenge for surgeons performing rhinoplasty. The preferred choice thus far for nasal reconstruction would be autograft compared to allograft due to its lower rate of infection and extrusion as it does not induce an immune response. We have evaluated 26 patients who underwent open structured rhinoplasty at our center and compared our experience regarding the operative technique, graft availability, indications, and limitations. The racial distribution was 18 Indians, 5 Chinese, and 3 Malays with a mean age, hospitalization, and followup of 30.5 years, 16.9 months, and 4.4 days, respectively. Majority of the patients (57.6%) presented with twisted nose and 30.7% of the patients presented with history of nasal trauma. All the patients had deviated septum of varying severity. The most common graft used was quadrangular cartilage graft and the common complications noted were ala deformity and tip anaesthesia in 7.6% patients respectively.
Sinus surgery has the potential of allowing ENT surgeons to encroach the boundaries of our colleagues in ophthalmology and neurosurgery. The advent of nasal endoscope and lately powered instrumentation and computer-assisted navigational systems has avoided the use of the conventional and more radical approaches by the ENT surgeon for the treatment of inflammatory pathology or tumors of the orbit and skull base. As rhinologists have gained more experience in endoscopic surgery, more areas related to the orbit and the anterior skull base are accessible and surgery is safer.
The strong international demand for admission into medical schools make medical education a "seller's market", and increasingly a global market. Teaching of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery (ORL-HNS) has two primary goals. Firstly, a firm grasp of basic principles, recognition and treatment of common disorders, initial management of ORL-HNS emergencies and indications for specialist referral. Secondly, to provide sufficient exposure to the specialty to assist in career planning. Good communicative skills for optimal patient care are essential in the selection criteria of medical students. Proficiency in English is essential to obtain a disproportion share of opportunities in the new economy. The examination evaluation needs to be standardized between the various medical schools and the recommended lecturer-student ratio is maintained. The Joint National Evaluating Board has a very essential role to play in the maintenance of medical educational standards in Malaysia.
Different modalities of turbinate reduction procedures are available for treatment of vasomotor rhinitis not responding to appropriate medical therapy. Amongst these, conventional inferior turbinectomy (non-endoscopic) is the most widely performed procedure. With the advent of nasal endoscopes, inferior turbinoplasty has been gaining popularity worldwide. The purpose of this study was to compare the post-operative complaints and hospital stay of conventional versus endoscopic inferior turbinate reduction techniques performed non-randomly on 15 and 21 patients of vasomotor rhinitis respectively from January 1998 to December 1999 at Hospital Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (HUKM). A total of 36 patients (22 males and 14 females) with a mean age of 30.6 years underwent turbinate reduction procedures during this period with a post-operative follow up ranging from 3 months to 6.7 months (mean 3.8 months). There was a significant difference between the conventional and the endoscopic technique with regards to nasal discomfort (p = 0.05) and dry throat (p = 0.02) which was less severe when performed endoscopically. The average hospital stay in hours by the endoscopic technique was almost half compared to the conventional technique. Due to the improved visualisation and minimal post-operative complaints and reduced hospital stay, the technique of endoscopic inferior turbinoplasty is currently the procedure of choice at our center. In septoplasty when endoscopic instrument is not needed, the standard turbinate reduction procedure is still performed. The availability of pre and post-operative acoustic rhinomanometric evaluation will be helpful as an objective measurement of nasal symptoms in the near future.
The nasal profile and skin thickness in the Caucasian Indian vary from the Oriental Chinese or Malay noses. Reduction rhinoplasty is more common in the Caucasian Indian noses whereas augmentation rhinoplasty is more common in the Oriental Chinese or Malay noses. Graft selection remains the greatest challenge for surgeons performing rhinoplasty. However, the preferred choice as far as possible for nasal reconstruction would be autografts as compared to allografts due to their lower rate of infection, extrusion and they do not induce an immune response. We have evaluated 40 patients and compared our experience with the grafts available over a period of 46 months.
The purpose of this retrospective study is to determine whether there is a correlation among overweight, gender and the risk of development of spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhoea. The clinical data of eight patients diagnosed with spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhoea who had been treated at our tertiary referral centre between 1998 and 2007 were assessed. Demographically, seven patients were female and one male with ages ranging from 14 to 53 years with a mean age of 43.6 years. This observation revealed that all patients were overweight with a mean body mass index (BMI) of 32.5 kg/m2. This study suggests that there is a trend of increasing BMI to the risk of developing a spontaneous CSF rhinorrhoea.
Allergic rhinitis is the single most common chronic allergic disease affecting an estimated four million people in Malaysia. House dust mites, grass pollens and fungal spores play has been identified to play a major role in the pathogenesis of allergic rhinitis. However, sensitization to pollen and spores in Malaysia is not well documented. On the basis of the results of an aerobiological survey of the common mold spores and pollens in the Klang Valley, twelve local extracts of molds and two local extracts of grass pollens were prepared by the Institute for Medical Research for this study. The study evaluated the prevalence of skin prick test (SPT) reactivity to the extracts of those airborne molds and pollens in allergic rhinitis patients in the Klang Valley. A total of 85 allergic rhinitis patients were recruited. All molds and grass pollens extracts tested, elicited positive response to SPT. Among the molds extracts, Fusarium was observed to have the highest prevalence of SPT reactivity (23.5%), followed by Aspergillus flavum (21.2%), Dreselera orysae (18.8%), Alternaria sp (17.6%), Curvularis eragrostidis (17.6%), Penicillium oxa (16.5%), Pestolotriopsis gtuepini (16.5%), Rhizopphus arrhi (16.5%), Aspergilluls nigus (15.3%). Penicillium choy (12.9%), Aspergillus fumigatus (11.8%), and Cladosporium sp (4.7%). In the grass pollen, the SPT reactivity to Ischaemum and Enilia is 14.1% and 5.9% respectively. However, the prevalence of SPT reactivity was not influenced by the age, sex, ethnicity, symptomatology and concurrent allergic condition. We have documented the prevalence of skin prick test reactivity to common molds and grass pollens in the Klang valley, which is comparable to the neighboring countries. Its prevalence in our allergic rhinitis patients suggests that it has a role in pathogenesis of allergic diseases. A larger representative sample involving multi-centric centers in Malaysia should be encouraged in the near future.
Study site: ENT
Department, Pusat Perubatan University Kebangsaan Malaysia
Extra nodal NK/T cell lymphoma, 'nasal type' is a rare clinicopathological entity. The prevalence of nasal lymphoma is estimated at 0.17-1.5% for all non -Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL), of which 45% originate from the NK/T cell. It is more commonly encountered in Asian countries. The main clinical features are nasal congestion and epistaxis due to local aggressive destruction. It has a distinct immunophenotypic profile of CD2+, CD56+ and CD3-. The tumor often shows polymorphic lymphoreticular infiltrates and necrosis. We present a case of a 50-year-old male who presented with lateral nasal wall infection following endoscopic sinonasal surgery and later proven to be extranodal NK/T cell 'nasal type' lymphoma with immunophenotypic features.
Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) remains a prevalent disease and a major cause of morbidity for many patients and functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) is the gold standard for the treatment of CRS. Many factors contribute to the development of CRS, among others nasal anatomic variation. The authors aim to study the association of concha bullosa and deviated nasal septum with CRS patients requiring FESS amongst the diversified multiethnic Malaysian race. The records of 137 patients with CRS who had undergone FESS between March 2002 and October 2006 at the Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery of the Hospital Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (HUKM), Kuala Lumpur were retrospectively reviewed. The data revealed that deviated nasal septum (DNS) and concha bullosa (CB) were the two commonest anatomical variations in the nasal cavity. In this study, CB was statistically significant amongst the females and in the Chinese and Indian ethnic groups. DNS is also prevalent but has no significant statistical relationship with sex, age, ethnic group in the local context. CB and DNS are coincidental variations and this study disprove that DNS is associated with CB in its development and pathogenesis of CRS. The mere presence of both these conditions also does not predispose the patients to CRS in the adjacent paranasal sinuses.
Empty Nose Syndrome (ENS) is a rare and controversial sequelae from previous radical turbinate surgery. We report on a 50-year-old Chinese gentleman with long-standing nasal problems who has had radical turbinate surgery many years prior to presenting at the ENT clinic with mucoid nasal discharge and chronically blocked nose. His nasal cavities were ironically very patent and there were only minor remnants of his turbinates bilaterally. We treated him medically for several years with nasal steroids, antihistamines and leukotriene receptor antagonists and his nasal symptoms have reduced significantly.
Study site: ENT clinic, Pusat Perubatan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (PPUKM), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Adenoidectomy is a common ENT procedure performed in hospitals in Malaysia. Adenoidectomy is indicated in patients with recurrent adenoiditis, nasal obstruction or sleep apnoea secondary to adenoid hypertrophy when conservative management has failed. Over the years, there are advances in the techniques of adenoidectomy, from the conventional transoral to endoscopic transnasal/transoral adenoidectomy. The purpose of this article is to describe the technique and emphasize the advantages of this procedure to that of the conventional technique.
In this case series, the senior author details his series of patients who had undergone open septorhinoplasty for functional and/or aesthetic purposes in the Otorhinolaryngology Department at the Hospital Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (HUKM), Kuala Lumpur between January 2003 and September 2005. There were 23 patients, consisting of 15 men and 8 women from different Malaysian ethnic groups. Discussion on open septorhinoplasty with regards to operative technique, grafts and implants is presented from an otorhinolaryngologist's point of view.
Reported cases of acquired posterior choanal atresia are very few in the English literature. A case of acquired posterior choanal atresia post radiotherapy is reported which was treated by endonasal endoscopic repair using microdebrider with untoward effect.
Cholesterol granuloma in the paranasal sinuses is rare. It is more common in the mastoid antrum and temporal bone air cells in chronic middle ear disease. A case of bilateral maxillary sinus cholesterol granuloma that mimics chronic maxillary sinusitis is reported. This is the first reported case of cholesterol granuloma of the maxillary sinus in the Malaysian Literature.
We studied nine cases of SNUCs presented to the Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Hospital University Kebangsaan Malaysia from 1999 to 2003. There were 8 males and 1 female with ages ranging from 24 to 78 years (mean 46.5y). The racial distribution consisted of 5 Chinese (55.5%), 3 Malays (33.3%) and 1 Indian (11.1%). Three patients were Kadish B (33.3%) and six were Kadish C (66.6%) by classification. In our series 2 years survival was 26.3% and median survival time was 14.2 months.
Rhinosinusitis is a common disorder with various etiological factors. In our clinical practice allergy seems to be a predominant cause followed by other less common causes like infection, drugs and aspirin hypersensitivity. We present a case of chronic rhinosinusitis secondary to hypothyroidism. Although hormonal causes like hypothyroidism have been proven to cause nasal congestion and rhinosinusitis, this is the first reported case of chronic rhinosinusitis in Hashimoto's thyroiditis in our center. This is a diagnosis of exclusion for chronic rhinosinusitis not responding to optimal medical therapy.
Allergic rhinitis causes an impairment of the mucociliary function in the nose. It is hoped that treatment of perennial allergic rhinitis would be able to revert mucociliary function to normal. This study aims to compare pre and post treatment mucociliary transport time in 3 different treatment modalities. Ninety-two newly diagnosed patients with allergic rhinitis were randomised into 3 groups and started on different treatment regimes. At the end of 8 weeks, the group treated with only intranasal beclomethasone showed some, though not significant, improvement in the mucociliary function. There were no changes in the mucociliary function in the other two groups treated with beclomethasone and loratidine or loratidine alone.
Study site: ENT clinic in Pusat Perubatan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (PPUKM)
A prospective single blinded interventional study was held in Otorhinolaryngology Clinic, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre in August 2010 until November 2012 to evaluate the functional outcome of septorhinoplasty objectively and subjectively. Objective assessment was done using rhinomanometry and subjective assessment using Nasal Obstruction Symptoms Evaluation (NOSE) scale and Health-Related Quality of Life Questionnaires (HRQOL) in Rhino Surgery. All measurements were taken preoperatively and 3 months postoperatively. A total of 29 patients were enrolled and completed the study. Septorhinoplasty was commonly performed in Malays and Indians and rare amongst Chinese, with age ranged from 18 to 54 years. Majority had no history of trauma. Twisted nose was the most common external nose abnormality followed by crooked and saddle nose. All patients had internal valve insufficiency. There were significant improvement of the total and of all the parameters in the NOSE scale post septorhinoplasty (p 0.05). Significant correlations were noted in the improvement between the two subjective assessments (NOSE scale and HRQOL score). However, there was no significant correlation in the improvement between the subjective (NOSE scale and HRQOL score) with objective (rhinomanometry score) assessments. Septorhinoplasty improves the nasal airflow and quality of life of patients with nasal obstruction.
Study site: Otorhinolaryngology Clinic, Pusat Perubatan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (PPUKM), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Nasal polyposis (NP) has a great impact on quality of life (QOL) and its management involves a combination of medical therapy and surgery. To the authors' knowledge, no publication has extensively examined NP after optimal medical treatment based on subjective evaluations. The aim of this prospective study was designed to evaluate the QOL in NP patients after (1) a short course of oral steroids, (2) initial 3-month course of macrolide, and (3) long-term treatment with intranasal steroids. A total of 55 patients with grades I and II NP were consecutively treated with oral prednisolone at 25 mg in a single dose for 2 weeks, macrolide at 250 mg daily for the first 3 months, and long-term intranasal steroids. Patients were followed up and evaluated at baseline and 3, 6, and 12 months for QOL measure. At baseline, patients with grade I and grade II NP showed significantly worse QOL scores on all Rhinosinusitis Disability Index domains, particularly for physical function (4.59 ± 1.41) and were significantly higher in social function (3.16 ± 1.17). At 3, 6, and 12 months of treatment, patients showed a significant improvement in all impaired QOL domains compared with baseline after optimal medical therapy (p < 0.05). These results suggest that the optimal medical treatment to improve QOL incorporates medical polypectomy with a short course of oral steroids in addition to macrolide and this can be maintained by long-term intranasal steroid therapy.