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  1. Wjidan K, Ibrahim E, Caszo B, Gnanou J, Singh H
    J Clin Diagn Res, 2015 Dec;9(12):OF06-9.
    PMID: 26816939 DOI: 10.7860/JCDR/2015/15594.7003
    Impaired glucose utilization is seen in chronic hyperleptinaemia associated conditions such as obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. It is unclear if this impaired glucose utilization is due to the effect of persistent hyperleptinaemia on insulin secretion from the beta cells of pancreas.
  2. Almabhouh FA, Osman K, Siti Fatimah I, Sergey G, Gnanou J, Singh HJ
    Andrologia, 2015 Sep;47(7):751-8.
    PMID: 25269426 DOI: 10.1111/and.12325
    Altered epididymal sperm count and morphology following leptin treatment has been reported recently. This study examined the effects of 42 days of leptin treatment on sperm count and morphology and their reversibility during a subsequent 56-day recovery period. Twelve-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomised into four leptin and four saline-treated control groups (n = 6). Intraperitoneal injections of leptin were given daily (60 μg Kg(-1) body weight) for 42 days. Controls received 0.1 ml of 0.9% saline. Leptin-treated animals and their respective age-matched controls were euthanised on either day 1, 21, 42 or 56 of recovery for collection of epididymal spermatozoa. Sperm concentration was determined using a Makler counting chamber. Spermatozoa were analysed for 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine and DNA fragmentation (Comet assay). Data were analysed using anova. Sperm concentration was significantly lower but fraction of abnormal spermatozoa, and levels of 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine were significantly higher in leptin-treated rats on day 1 of recovery. Comet assays revealed significant DNA fragmentation in leptin-treated rats. These differences were reduced by day 56 of recovery. It appears that 42 days of leptin treatment to Sprague-Dawley rats has significant adverse effects on sperm count and morphology that reverse following discontinuation of leptin treatment.
  3. Caszo B, Khair M, Mustafa MH, Zafran SN, Syazmin N, Safinaz RN, et al.
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2015;16(3):1159-64.
    PMID: 25735348
    BACKGROUND: The prevalence of smoking among secondary school children continues to remain unchanged over the last 3 decades even though awareness regarding the health effects of smoking is increasing. Common misconceptions about smoking and parental influence could be factors influencing future intentions to smoke among these students. Hence, we looked at the common misconceptions as well as student perceptions about their future intention to smoke among Form 4 students in Shah Alam, Malaysia.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was conducted by distribution of a questionnaire developed as part of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey to Form 4 student in 3 schools at Shah Alam.

    RESULTS: Prevalence of smoking (current smokers) was 7.5%. Almost half of the children came from families where one or both parents smoked and a third of the parents had no discussion regarding consequences of smoking with them. A large number of students were classified as "triers" as they had tried smoking and were unsure of whether they would not be smoking in the future. Contrary to our expectations, students generally felt smoking did make one feel more uncomfortable and helped one to reduce body weight. Most students seemed to be aware of the ill-effects of smoking on health. They felt they had received adequate information from school regarding the effects on smoking on health.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed that even though Form 4 students in Shah Alam were knowledgeable about ill-effects of smoking and were taught so as part of their school curriculum, the prevalence of smoking was still high. Students in the "trier group" represent a potential group of future smokers and strategies targeting tobacco control may be aimed at tackling these vulnerable individuals. Efforts are also needed to help educate secondary school children about common misconceptions and dispel myths associated with cigarette smoking.

  4. Gnanou J, Caszo B, Mohamad WH, Nawawi H, Yusoff K, Ismail T
    PMID: 22299480
    Several equations have been used to predict lung function standard results for different populations. It is important lung function evaluations use appropriate standards for the study population. The objective of this study was to develop a prediction equation for lung function test results for the Malaysian population. Spirometry was performed among 5,708 subjects and 1,483 healthy, lifetime never smoked subjects (386 males and 1,097 females). Prediction equations were derived for both men and women for FVC and FEV1 results. The equations were validated on new subjects (n = 532, 222 males and 310 females) who met the same inclusion and exclusion criteria as the main cohort. There was a positive correlation between the measured values and the values derived from the new prediction equations (0.62 for FEV1 and between 0.66 and 0.67 for FVC; both p < 0.05) for both men and women with a smaller bias and limit of agreement compared to the published reference equations of ECCS, Knudson, Crapo and NHANES III. The reference equations derived from local spirometry data were more appropriate than generally used equations based on data from previous studies in different population.
  5. Khalin I, Alyautdin R, Wong TW, Gnanou J, Kocherga G, Kreuter J
    Drug Deliv, 2016 Jul 16.
    PMID: 27278330
    Currently, traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of death or disabilities in young individuals worldwide. The multi-complexity of its pathogenesis as well as impermeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) makes the drug choice and delivery very challenging. The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) regulates neuronal plasticity, neuronal cell growth, proliferation, cell survival and long-term memory. However, its short half-life and low BBB permeability are the main hurdles to be an effective therapeutic for TBI. Poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles coated by surfactant can enable the delivery of a variety of molecules across the BBB by receptor-mediated transcytosis. This study examines the ability of PLGA nanoparticles coated with poloxamer 188 (PX) to deliver BDNF into the brain and neuroprotective effects of BNDF in mice with TBI. C57bl/6 mice were subjected to weight-drop closed head injuries under anesthesia. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, we demonstrated that the intravenous (IV) injection of nanoparticle-bound BDNF coated by PX (NP-BDNF-PX) significantly increased BDNF levels in the brain of sham-operated mice (p 
  6. Almabhouh FA, Osman K, Ibrahim SF, Gupalo S, Gnanou J, Ibrahim E, et al.
    Asian J. Androl., 2016 10 18;19(6):647-654.
    PMID: 27748315 DOI: 10.4103/1008-682X.183379
    This study examined the effects of melatonin on leptin-induced changes in sperm parameters in adult rats. Five groups of Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with either leptin or leptin and melatonin or melatonin for 6 weeks. Leptin was given daily via the intraperitoneal route (60 μg kg-1 body weight) and melatonin was given in drinking water (10 mg kg-1 or 20 mg kg-1 body weight per day). Upon completion, sperm count, sperm morphology, 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine, Comet assay, TUNEL assay, gene expression profiles of antioxidant enzymes, respiratory chain reaction enzymes, DNA damage, and apoptosis genes were estimated. Data were analyzed using ANOVA. Sperm count was significantly lower whereas the fraction of sperm with abnormal morphology, the level of 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine, and sperm DNA fragmentation were significantly higher in rats treated with leptin only. Microarray analysis revealed significant upregulation of apoptosis-inducing factor, histone acetyl transferase, respiratory chain reaction enzyme, cell necrosis and DNA repair genes, and downregulation of antioxidant enzyme genes in leptin-treated rats. Real-time polymerase chain reaction showed significant decreases in glutathione peroxidase 1 expression with increases in the expression of apoptosis-inducing factor and histone acetyl transferase in leptin-treated rats. There was no change in the gene expression of caspase-3 (CASP-3). In conclusion, the adverse effects of leptin on sperm can be prevented by concurrent melatonin administration.
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