Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 60 in total

  1. Jasmin R, Sockalingam S, Ramanaidu LP, Goh KJ
    Lupus, 2015 Mar;24(3):248-55.
    PMID: 25253567 DOI: 10.1177/0961203314552115
    OBJECTIVE: Peripheral neuropathy in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is heterogeneous and its commonest pattern is symmetrical polyneuropathy. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence, clinical and electrophysiological features, disease associations and effects on function and quality of life of polyneuropathy in SLE patients, defined using combined clinical and electrophysiological diagnostic criteria.
    METHODS: Consecutive SLE patients seen at the University of Malaya Medical Centre were included. Patients with medication and other disorders known to cause neuropathy were excluded. Demographic, clinical and laboratory data were obtained using a pre-defined questionnaire. Function and health-related quality of life was assessed using the modified Rankin scale and the SF-36 scores. Nerve conduction studies (NCS) were carried out in both upper and lower limbs. Polyneuropathy was defined as the presence of bilateral clinical symptoms and/or signs and bilateral abnormal NCS parameters.
    RESULTS: Of 150 patients, 23 (15.3%) had polyneuropathy. SLE-related polyneuropathy was mainly characterized by sensory symptoms of numbness/tingling and pain with mild signs of absent ankle reflexes and reduced pain sensation. Function was minimally affected and there were no differences in quality of life scores. NCS abnormalities suggested mild length-dependent axonal neuropathy, primarily in the distal lower limbs. Compared to those without polyneuropathy, SLE-related polyneuropathy patients were significantly older but had no other significant demographic or disease associations.
    CONCLUSIONS: SLE-related polyneuropathy is a chronic, axonal and predominantly sensory neuropathy, associated with older age. Its underlying pathogenetic mechanisms are unknown, although a possibility could be an increased susceptibility of peripheral nerves in SLE patients to effects of aging.
  2. Jasmin R, Sockalingam S, Cheah TE, Goh KJ
    Lupus, 2013 Aug;22(9):967-71.
    PMID: 23846232 DOI: 10.1177/0961203313496299
    OBJECTIVES: Ethnic differences in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have been previously described in the multiethnic Malaysian population. However, there have since been many demographic and socioeconomic changes in the country. The aim of this study is to re-examine the clinical and immunological profiles of Malaysian SLE patients of different ethnic backgrounds.
    METHODS: Consecutive follow-up patients at the University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC) from July 2010 until March 2011 were included in the study.
    RESULTS: The most common clinical manifestations were malar rash (61.3%), arthritis (52.3%), haematological disease (51.6%), oral ulcers (51%) and renal disease (40.6%). Ethnic Indians had fewer malar and discoid rashes but were at higher risk of arthritis, serositis, renal and neuropsychiatric disease compared to Malays and Chinese Malaysians. Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) was less common in Chinese. A longer duration of SLE correlated with a lower SLEDAI score.
    CONCLUSION: Overall, the spectrum disease expression was similar to the earlier Malaysian study but the frequency of the more severe disease manifestations, viz. renal, haematological, neuropsychiatric involvements and serositis, were lower. This study further emphasises differences primarily between ethnic Indians and the other races in Malaysia.
    KEYWORDS: Indians; Malaysia; Systemic lupus erythematosus; clinical manifestations; ethnicity
  3. Chew NK, Tan CT, Goh KJ
    J Clin Neurosci, 2002 Sep;9(5):604-5.
    PMID: 12383430
    A 24-year-old woman presented with a 3.5-year history of paroxysmal dystonia that was precipitated by sudden movement, especially when she started to walk. It was characterised by shrugging of shoulders, flexion of the neck and thoracic spine, and stiffness of the right leg followed by falls. Each attack lasted for less than 5min. Inadequate sleep and stress were exacerbating factors. There was no similar family history. Physical examination and investigations were normal. The following manoeuvres that caused vestibular stimulation precipitated attacks: turning her head from side to side while standing still, sitting still on a rotating chair and an ice-water caloric test. She had partial responses to phenytoin and levodopa, and a good response to haloperidol. Vestibular stimulation as a precipitating factor in paroxysmal kinesigenic choreoathetosis has not been reported previously.
  4. Goh KJ, Wong KT, Tan CT
    J Clin Neurosci, 2000 Jul;7(4):334-6.
    PMID: 10938615
    We report two patients with myopathic dropped head syndrome, a rare and interesting neuromuscular syndrome characterised by a predominant weakness of the neck extensor muscles. The first patient, a middle aged Chinese man, presented with progressive weakness of neck extension but his clinical course later stabilised despite a lack of response to corticosteroids. Muscle biopsy revealed a necrotising myopathy with no evidence of inflammation. This patient supports the existence of an idiopathic restricted non-inflammatory myopathy, a so called isolated neck extensor myopathy syndrome which is recognised to pursue a less progressive, more benign course. Our second patient had histopathological evidence for polymyositis; there was a favourable response to steroids. Our cases underscore the fact that there may be a spectrum of pathological processes associated with the myopathic dropped head syndrome ranging from non-inflammatory muscle necrosis to a full blown inflammatory myositis.
  5. Ng S, Wong, KT, Goh KJ
    Neurology Asia, 2013;18(2):177-181.
    Myopathies, although presenting more commonly in the younger age group, can occur and contribute significantly to disability in the elderly. To describe the spectrum of elderly myopathies, we reviewed 52 elderly patients (> 65 years) from the University of Malaya Medical Centre muscle biopsy databank, constituting 6.8% of 759 adult patients (> 18 years) who underwent muscle biopsy between 1992 and 2012. Commonest were the inflammatory myopathies (41/52, 78.8%), of which 43.9% had dermatomyositis; 23.9% polymyositis; 14.6% sporadic inclusion body myositis; 9.8% undifferentiated myositis and 2.4% overlap myositis. Seven patients (13.4%) had genetic myopathy; 2 muscular dystrophy and 5 chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia, while 4 patients (7.7%) had drug-associated myopathy, 3 with statins. Malignancies were seen in 9.8% of inflammatory myopathies at diagnosis. Both acquired and genetic myopathies are seen in elderly Malaysians of all ethnicities and should not be misdiagnosed as some are potentially treatable and/or associated with malignancy.
  6. Tan CY, Shahrizaila N, Goh KJ
    J Oral Facial Pain Headache, 2017 10 27;31(4):e15-e20.
    PMID: 29073667 DOI: 10.11607/ofph.1793
    AIMS: To describe the clinical characteristics of trigeminal neuralgia (TN) in a multi-ethnic Malaysian population and to relate them to standardized measures of pain severity, anxiety, depression, and quality of life (QoL).

    METHODS: Patients fulfilling the International Headache Society (IHS) criteria for TN were prospectively interviewed for their demographic and clinical data. Pain intensity was rated with a visual analog scale (VAS), anxiety and depression were determined by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and QoL was assessed by the Short-Form 36 (SF-36) questionnaire. Chi-square, Mann-Whitney U, and Spearman correlation tests were used to test for differences considering a significance level of P < .05.

    RESULTS: Of the 75 included patients, 52 (69.3%) were women with a mean ± standard deviation (SD) onset age of 52.0 ± 12.7 years, and 57.3% were Chinese, 24.0% Malay, and 18.7% Indian. Pain was more common on the right side (69.3%) and in the maxillary and mandibular divisions. VAS scores for pain at its worst were higher in anxious/borderline anxious patients compared to non-anxious patients (89.5 ± 15.9 vs 80.9 ± 17.2, respectively; P < .05), and VAS scores for pain at its least were higher in depressed/borderline depressed subjects compared to non-depressed subjects (38.4 ± 25.8 vs 23.0 ± 19.2, respectively; P < .05). Chinese patients had lower VAS scores for pain at its least compared to Indian patients (19.7 ± 16.1 vs 39.9 ± 24.7; P < .01). TN patients scored lower in all eight domains of the SF-36 compared to the general population. Indian patients had lower scores in role limitations due to physical health (8.9 ± 23.2 vs 49.4 ± 43.8; P < .01) and social function (56.3 ± 13.6 vs 76.5 ± 23.6; P < .01) than Chinese patients, and Malay patients had lower mental health scores compared to Chinese patients (59.1 ± 19.5 vs 73.0 ± 21.0; P < .01).

    CONCLUSION: Clinical characteristics of TN patients were similar to those of other populations. There were differences in pain ratings and QoL between TN patients of different ethnicities, as well as between those with anxiety and depression.

  7. Chai CH, Yuki N, Nor HM, Goh KJ, Shahrizaila N
    Pract Neurol, 2012 Oct;12(5):328-31.
    PMID: 22976064 DOI: 10.1136/practneurol-2011-000205
  8. Shahrizaila N, Goh KJ, Abdullah S, Kuppusamy R, Yuki N
    Clin Neurophysiol, 2013 Jul;124(7):1456-9.
    PMID: 23395599 DOI: 10.1016/j.clinph.2012.12.047
    Recent studies have advocated the use of serial nerve conduction studies (NCS) in the electrodiagnosis of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). The current study aims to elucidate when and how frequent NCS can be performed to reflect the disease pathophysiology.
  9. Jasmin R, Sockalingam S, Shahrizaila N, Cheah TE, Zain AA, Goh KJ
    Lupus, 2012 Sep;21(10):1119-23.
    PMID: 22433918 DOI: 10.1177/0961203312440346
    Peripheral neuropathy is a known manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus. However, the association of primary autoimmune inflammatory neuropathies such as chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) with SLE is uncommon. We report a 26-year-old man who simultaneously presented with severe CIDP and photosensitive rash, but was unresponsive to intravenous immunoglobulin infusion and continued to progress. He was found to have underlying SLE and improved with combined corticosteroid and immunosuppressive therapy with oral cyclophosphamide. CIDP with underlying SLE may be more resistant to conventional therapy with IVIG, requiring the addition of other immunosuppressive agents.
  10. Goh KJ, Wong KT, Nishino I, Minami N, Nonaka I
    Neuromuscul. Disord., 2005 Mar;15(3):262-4.
    PMID: 15725589
    Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD) is an autosomal dominant disorder of middle age presenting as progressive dysphagia and eyelid ptosis, due to short expansions of the GCG trinucleotide repeat (from GCG6 to GCG8-13) in the polyadenylate binding-protein nuclear 1 (PABPN1) gene. OPMD is rarely seen in Asians and morphologically and/or genetically confirmed cases have been reported in Japanese kindreds only. We report a 64 year old Chinese-Malaysian woman who presented with progressive dysphagia and bilateral ptosis for about 6 years. Her mother and elder brother (both deceased) were believed to be affected. Muscle histopathology revealed angulated fibres with rimmed vacuoles. Genetic analysis showed repeat expansion in one allele to (GCG)9 while normal in the other (GCG)6. This is the first non-Japanese Asian family with genetically confirmed OPMD.
  11. Shahrizaila N, Goh KJ, Kokubun N, Abdullah S, Yuki N
    J. Neurol. Sci., 2011 Oct 15;309(1-2):26-30.
    PMID: 21849173 DOI: 10.1016/j.jns.2011.07.042
    The electrodiagnosis of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) can be broadly divided into acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP) and acute motor axonal neuropathy (AMAN). Fisher syndrome (FS) is a variant of GBS, although the underlying neuropathy of FS has yet to be established. Serial nerve conduction studies (NCS) can provide further insight into the likely pathophysiology by further subtyping of GBS and FS. We present a patient with an initial diagnosis of AIDP in whom repeated NCS revealed the AMAN variant. This led us to investigate serial NCS in five patients with GBS, FS and FS/GBS overlap presenting over a period of a year. Three patients with AIDP showed a gradual increase in distal motor latencies during the acute phase of illness. NCS of two patients with FS and FS/GBS overlap showed no demyelinating features suggesting underlying axonal neuropathy in this group of patients. The importance of serial NCS in establishing the underlying pattern of neuropathy in GBS and FS is further emphasized in this study. Larger studies incorporating serial NCS are required to confirm the observations seen in our case series especially when pathological studies are often not justified in this group of patients.
  12. Tang SY, Hara S, Melling L, Goh KJ, Hashidoko Y
    Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem., 2010;74(9):1972-5.
    PMID: 20834139
    Root-associating bacteria of the nipa palm (Nypa fruticans), preferring brackish-water affected mud in Sarawak, Malaysia, were investigated. In a comparison of rhizobacterial microbiota between the nipa and the sago (Metroxylon sagu) palm, it was found that the nipa palm possessed a group of Burkholderia vietnamiensis as its main active nitrogen-fixing endophytic bacterium. Acetylene reduction by the various isolates of B. vietnamiensis was constant (44 to 68 nmol h(-1) in ethylene production rate) in soft gel medium containing 0.2% sucrose as sole carbon source, and the bacterium also showed motility and biofilm-forming capacity. This is the first report of endophytic nitrogen-fixing bacteria from nipa palm.
  13. Sim SE, Gunasagaran J, Goh KJ, Ahmad TS
    J Hand Ther, 2018 Feb 07.
    PMID: 29426574 DOI: 10.1016/j.jht.2018.01.004
    STUDY DESIGN: Prospective randomized study.

    INTRODUCTION: Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) has been described as the most common compression neuropathy. Many modalities exist for conservative treatment. Efficacy of each modality has been described in the literature. However, the effectiveness of combination of these modalities is not well established. The purpose of this study is to assess the short-term clinical outcome of conservative treatment for CTS comparing orthosis alone with combination of orthosis, nerve/tendon gliding exercises, and ultrasound therapy.

    METHODS: Forty-one patients who presented to Upper Limb Reconstructive and Microsurgery Clinic, University Malaya Medical Centre with CTS and positive electrodiagnostic study were recruited. Fifteen patients had bilateral CTS. Fifty-six wrists were equally randomized to orthosis alone and a combined therapy of orthosis, nerve/tendon gliding exercise, and ultrasound therapy. All patients were required to complete the Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire during the first visit and 2 months after treatment.

    RESULTS: Both the orthosis and combined therapy groups showed a significant improvement in symptoms and function after treatment. The mean difference of symptoms in the orthosis group was 0.53; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.23-0.83 (P = .001) and in the combined therapy group was 0.48; 95% CI: 0.24-0.72 (P 

  14. Tan CY, Razali SNO, Goh KJ, Shahrizaila N
    J. Peripher. Nerv. Syst., 2019 Jun;24(2):168-173.
    PMID: 31001904 DOI: 10.1111/jns.12320
    Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an acute immune-mediated neuropathy that has variable disease course and outcome. The Erasmus GBS outcome score (EGOS), modified EGOS (mEGOS), and Erasmus GBS respiratory insufficiency score (EGRIS) are prognostic models designed to predict the functional outcome of GBS patients at 6 months (EGOS and mEGOS) and the need for mechanical ventilation within a week of admission (EGRIS). The models were primarily developed in the Dutch GBS population, and thus the usefulness of these models in other GBS cohorts is less clear. In the current study, we aimed to validate mEGOS, EGOS, and EGRIS in Malaysian GBS patients. A total of 107 patients with GBS and its variants were consecutively recruited. Patients with GBS and Miller Fisher syndrome (MFS) were analysed separately. In the GBS cohort, high mEGOS and EGOS scores were significantly correlated with poor outcome at 6 months (mEGOS on admission: r = .381, P = .005; mEGOS at day 7 of admission: r = .507, P 
  15. Fong CY, Hlaing CS, Tay CG, Abdul Kadir KA, Goh KJ, Ong LC
    Eur. J. Paediatr. Neurol., 2016 May;20(3):449-53.
    PMID: 26900103 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejpn.2016.01.012
    Longitudinal extensive transverse myelitis associated with dengue infection is rare with no reported paediatric cases.
  16. Goh YK, Goh TK, Marzuki NF, Tung HJ, Goh YK, Goh KJ
    Mycobiology, 2015 Jun;43(2):107-17.
    PMID: 26190917 DOI: 10.5941/MYCO.2015.43.2.107
    A mycoparasite, Scytalidium parasiticum sp. nov., isolated from the basidiomata of Ganoderma boninense causing basal stem rot of oil palm in Johor, Malaysia, is described and illustrated. It is distinct from other Scytalidium species in having smaller asci and ascospores (teleomorphic stage), longer arthroconidia (anamorphic stage), hyaline to yellowish chlamydospores, and producing a fluorescent pigment. The phylogenetic position of S. parasiticum was determined by sequence analyses of the internal transcribed spacers and the small-subunit ribosomal RNA gene regions. A key to identify Scytalidium species with teleomorphic stage is provided.
  17. Tay CG, Ong LC, Goh KJ, Rahmat K, Fong CY
    J Clin Neurosci, 2015 Dec;22(12):1994-5.
    PMID: 26254091 DOI: 10.1016/j.jocn.2015.07.001
    We report a previously well 10-month-old Somalian girl who acquired asymmetric lower limb weakness in July 2013 in Mogadishu, Banadir, before arriving in Malaysia at 12 months of age. In May 2013, there was a wild poliomyelitis outbreak in that area, as reported by the World Health Organization. Laboratory investigation, including cerebrospinal fluid, was unremarkable, and electrophysiological studies showed active axonal denervation in the left lower limb. The whole spine T2-weighted MRI revealed non-enhancing hyperintensities of the bilateral anterior horn cells, predominantly on the left side at T11-12. The viral isolations from two stool specimens at her presentation to our centre, 2 months after the onset of illness and 2 weeks apart, were negative. Despite lacking the acute virological evidence of poliomyelitis, in view of the girl's clinical, electrophysiological and classical spinal neuroradiological features, together with her temporal relationship with a World Health Organization reported wild poliomyelitis outbreak, we believe these findings are consistent with a diagnosis of imported poliomyelitis. A review at 30 months of age showed persistent left lower limb monoplegia with little recovery. Our patient reiterates the importance of maintaining awareness of wild polio importation, and keeping abreast of the latest news of global poliomyelitis outbreaks when treating patients with flaccid paralysis, even if they arrive from non-endemic poliomyelitis areas.
  18. Mazlan M, Rajasegaran S, Engkasan JP, Nawawi O, Goh KJ, Freddy SJ
    Toxins (Basel), 2015 Sep;7(9):3758-70.
    PMID: 26402703 DOI: 10.3390/toxins7093758
    This study aims to determine the most efficacious dose of Botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT-A) in reducing sialorrhea in Asian adults with neurological diseases. A prospective, double-blind randomized controlled trial was conducted over 24 weeks. Thirty patients with significant sialorrhea were randomly assigned to receive a BoNT-A (Dysport(®)) injection into the submandibular and the parotid glands bilaterally via an ultrasound guidance. The total dose given per patient was either BoNT-A injection of (i) 50 U; (ii) 100 U; or (iii) 200 U. The primary outcome was the amount of saliva reduction, measured by the differential weight (wet versus dry) of intraoral dental gauze at baseline and at 2, 6, 12, and 24 weeks after injection. The secondary outcome was the subjective report of drooling using the Drooling Frequency and Severity Scale (DFS). Saliva reduction was observed in response to all BoNT-A doses in 17 patients who completed the assessments. Although no statistically significant difference among the doses was found, the measured reduction was greater in groups that received higher doses (100 U and 200 U). The group receiving 200 U of Dysport(®) showed the greatest reduction of saliva until 24 weeks and reported the most significant improvement in the DFS score.
  19. Razali SNO, Arumugam T, Yuki N, Rozalli FI, Goh KJ, Shahrizaila N
    Clin Neurophysiol, 2016 Feb;127(2):1652-1656.
    PMID: 26228791 DOI: 10.1016/j.clinph.2015.06.030
    OBJECTIVE: To assess the longitudinal changes of nerve ultrasound in Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) patients.

    METHODS: We prospectively recruited 17 GBS patients and 17 age and gender-matched controls. Serial studies of their nerve conduction parameters and nerve ultrasound, documenting the cross-sectional areas (CSA), were performed at admission and repeated at several time points throughout disease course.

    RESULTS: Serial nerve ultrasound revealed significantly enlarged CSA in median, ulnar and sural nerves within the first 3 weeks of disease onset. Longitudinal evaluation revealed an improvement in the nerve CSA with time, reaching significance in the ulnar and sural nerves after 12 weeks. There was no significant difference between the demyelinating and axonal subtypes. There was also no significant correlation found between nerve CSA and neurophysiological parameters or changes in nerve CSA and muscle strength.

    CONCLUSION: In GBS, serial studies of peripheral nerve ultrasound CSA are helpful to detect a gradual improvement in the nerve size.

    SIGNIFICANCE: Serial nerve ultrasound studies could serve as a useful tool in demonstrating nerve recovery in GBS.

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