Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 23 in total

  1. Mohd Tariq Mhd Noor, Hayati Kadir Shahar
    Introduction: Prevalence of physical inactivity in the Federal Territory of Putrajaya on 2015 was 32.5% compared to 2011 with 56.5%, as reported in National Health Morbidity Survey. The public do not use the facilities as much as they should, although various facilities have been provided in Putrajaya and was selected as garden city concept town. The objective of this study was to determine the perceived barriers (personal, environmental, total barriers) of physical activity among Komuniti Sihat Pembina Negara (KOSPEN) community in Putrajaya. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted using adopted self-administered Perceived Barriers questionnaires to assess the per-ceived barriers of physical activity with socio-demographics, economic and personal characteristic. An Independent t-test was used to test the association between independent variables with perceived barriers of physical activity. Re-sults: There were significant association between personal barriers with marital status (p
  2. Azline Abdilah, Sri Ganesh Muthiah, Hayati Kadir
    Introduction: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is known as contributing to high morbidity and mortality globally. Major liver complications such as liver failure and liver cancer which can lead to fatality have been associated with persistent HCV infection. Globally, it is estimated that 5.6 million chronically infected HCV are among people who inject drugs (PWID). Malaysia has estimated that 59% HCV infections were among PWID. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of HCV infection and its predictors among PWID in Negeri Sembilan. Methods: A cross-sectional study based on random proportion to size sampling was conducted among 212 out of 1414 regis- tered Methadone Maintenance Therapy (MMT) clients with PWID attending health clinics in Negeri Sembilan from February 2018 to July 2018. Data were collected using questionnaires administered through face-to-face interviews. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package of IBM SPSS Statistics Version 23 and p-value of
  3. Yahaya Mohammed Katagum, Hayati Kadir @ Shahar, Faisal Ibrahim
    Poor diagnosis, treatment and prevention practices had characterised Patent Medicine Vendor (PMV) activities in malaria control despite expectations on their contributions to check the menace. Interventions reversing this situation reduces disease burden and legitimise PMV inclusion in basic healthcare delivery. This study seeks to identify and review studies addressing this priority problem. Steps outlined in PRISMA guidelines were adopted to search and conduct reviews via electronic databases. Randomized trials with intervention effects on PMVs were considered and thirteen articles were ultimately reviewed and narratively evaluated. Analysis of search outputs identified intervention types, methods used, sample sizes, intervention periods, knowledge, attitude and practice variables, other outcomes and listing of priority systematic review topics, using pre-determined criteria. All reviewed studies were found to be effective despite adopting different intervention approaches. Furthermore, identifying and prioritizing reviews greatly improves future malaria interventions and results thereof, thereby maximising opportunities to deliver appropriate and evidence-based healthcare.
  4. Nurul Maizura Hashim, Zailina Hashim, Rukman Awang Hamat, Hayati Kadir
    Introduction: Water based Metalworking fluids (MWF) are commonly used in machining industries and are excellent media for microorganism growth. The study aimed at determining the relationship between the airway inflammation as indicated by fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) with the microbial contaminants of MWF in aerosol and bulk sample as well as the workers’ reported respiratory health symptoms. Methods: This cross sectional study was carried out on 138 machining workers. Their FeNO were measured using NIOX-MINO instrumentation. The microbial as- sessments of bacteria and fungus were carried out on the MWF bulk samples and the aerosol using a sampler DUO SAS SUPER 360TM. Results: Findings showed significant difference in the FeNO levels in workers from various job sections (p=0.01). Significant relationships found between high FeNO levels with their closeness to the machines (p=0.03), high number of machines in the workplaces (p=0.02), high environmental bacteria colonies (p=0.04), lon- ger employment years (p
  5. Natalia Che Ishak, Hayati Kadir Shahar, Rosliza Abdul Manaf
    Introduction: HIV-related stigma refers to prejudice, negative attitudes and abuse directed at people living with HIV (PLHIV) and interferes with both prevention and treatment efforts. This study was designed to examine drivers of HIV-related stigma among healthcare workers in health clinics in Hulu Langat, Selangor. Methods: This is a sin-gle-blinded, cluster randomised controlled trial (parallel groups). A total of 158 participants from the intervention group and 158 participants from the control group were randomised via balloting process at the cluster (clinic) level. A comprehensive self-administered questionnaire based on the stigma index tool was used. Data were analysed using IBM SPSS version 25 involving descriptive and bivariate analyses. The baseline results were analysed using the chi-square test and Mann-Whitney U test. Results: The response rate for the intervention group was 83.5% and 81.6% for the control group (82.3% combined response rate). Majority of the respondent’s age between 30 – 39 years old, female, nurses, have experience working with PLHIV and worked for 0 – 9 years in the healthcare setting. Comparison of total infection concern score (p = 0.001) and total willingness to treat key populations (KPs) score (p = 0.025) between intervention and control group at baseline were significant. However, comparison of total opinion/perception about PLHIV score, total knowledge about HIV score, total intention to stigmatise score and total health facility policies and guidelines score between intervention and control group at baseline showed no significant dif-ference. Conclusion: The significant difference between groups on certain scores above might be due to different job category between the two groups thus influence how willing they are in treating PLHIV. These findings may assist stigma reduction intervention programmes targeting healthcare providers in Hulu Langat, Selangor and ensure quality care for PLHIV.
  6. Muhammad Adil Zainal Abidin, Hayati Kadir Shahar, Rosliza Abdul Manaf
    Introduction: Secondhand tobacco smoke is a known carcinogen and has shown positive association with smok-ing status, susceptibility and cessation. Smoke free environment policy seem to reduce this exposure and influence intention to quit and frequency of quit attempts. Despite having a smoke free policy, smokers are still exposed to second hand smoke and this might influence their smoking behaviour and cessation. The objective of this study was to examine the association between environmental tobacco smoke exposures with intention to quit smoking among young adults in college with smoke free policy. Methods: Data were drawn from a cluster based randomised controlled trial in 10 government colleges in Selangor. Baseline characteristics of 160 college smokers were mea-sured using adapted questionnaire. Intention to quit was measured using Transtheoretical Model and environmental influence of tobacco smoke exposure. Results: Majority of the smokers were male (99.4%), single (100%), of Malay ethnicity (94.4%) and Muslim (95.6%). Most of them are in pre-contemplation stage where they do not have any intention to quit (65.6%). On environmental influence, at work or college environmental exposure, majority were exposed between 1 to 2 hours (36.9%) and 3 to 8 hours (40.6%). On exposure at home or hostel, majority were exposed between 1 to 4 hours (44.4%) and 5 to 14 hours (21.9%). In terms of friend’s exposures, majority have most of their friends smoking (68.1%). We found no statistically significant association between environmental influence and intention to quit smoking. Conclusion: Although we found no relationship, future research should examine the pathway between environmental influence and smoking behaviour.
  7. Azline Abdilah,, Sri Ganesh Muthiah, Hayati Kadir Shahar
    Introduction: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Per-sistent HCV infection is associated with major liver complications such as liver failure, liver cancer and fatality. It is estimated that 5.6 million people who inject drugs (PWID) were chronically infected with HCV globally, meanwhile, 59% of those diagnosed as HCV in Malaysia were PWID. The objective of this study was to determine the social determinants of HCV infection among PWID in Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted based on stratified proportionate to size sampling among registered Methadone Maintenance Therapy (MMT) clients with PWID attending health clinics in Negeri Sembilan from February 2018 to July 2018. All eligi-ble respondents were randomly selected. Data were collected using an interviewer-guided questionnaire and was analysed using Statistical Package of IBM SPSS version 23. Independent T test and Chi-square test (χ2) were used to determine the associations between the variables. Results: Majority of the respondents in this study were between 20 and 63 years of age, Malay (90.1%) and infected with HCV (89%). There was a significant association between the respondent’s age (p
  8. Natalia Che Ishak, Hayati Kadir Shahar, Rosliza Abdul Manaf
    HIV-related stigma will discourage the efforts in preventing new infections and engaging people to receive treatment, care and support programmes. Identifying the valuable interventions programmes to reduce HIV-related stigma in a healthcare setting is vital in order to deliver the best health services. A scoping systematic review was conducted. Articles were searched based on Pubmed and ScienceDirect search engines. The key words used were HIV stigma, intervention and healthcare. Published English articles in the past ten years involving HIV stigma intervention studies, and studies that involved healthcare workers in a healthcare setting were included. Reviewed articles, systematic review and meta-analysis articles were excluded. Primary screening of titles and abstract of 85 articles were done. Secondary screening of 19 articles resulted in 8 articles, included in this manuscript. Most of the reviewed articles showed, application of the Integrated Theoretical Model in the intervention programme as a guide and utilising combined intervention components are effective tools in delivering the intervention programme. The stigma reduc- tion-intervention programme should focus on the intervention components as a whole including training of HCW, role plays, group discussions, games, sharing of information and contacts with PLHIV as well presentations and lec- tures. An integrative model of behavioural prophecy is perceived and it is particularly essential for interventions that focus on creating and fortifying the aim in conducting the chosen behaviour.
  9. Abiola, Abdulrahman Surajudeen, Lekhraj Rampal, Norlijah Othman, Faisal Ibrahim, Hayati Kadir@Shahar, Anuradha P. Radhakrishnan
    Adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) prevents disease progression, and the emergence of resistant mutations. It also reduces morbidity, and the necessity for more frequent, complicated regimens which are also relatively more expensive. Minimum adherence levels of 95% are required for treatment success. Poor adherence to treatment remains a stumbling block to the success of treatment programs. This generates major concerns about possible resistance of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) to the currently available ARVs. This paper aims to describe baseline results from a cohort of 242 Malaysian patients receiving ART within the context of an intervention aimed to improve adherence and treatment outcomes among patients initiating ART. A single-blinded Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial was conducted between January and December, 2014 in Hospital Sungai Buloh. Data on socio-demographic factors, clinical symptoms and adherence behavior of respondents was collected using modified, pre-validated Adult AIDS Clinical Trials Group (AACTG) adherence questionnaires. Baseline CD4 count, viral load, weight, full blood count, blood pressure, Liver function and renal profile tests were also conducted and recorded. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 22 and R software. Patients consisted of 215 (89%) males and 27 (11%) females. 117 (48%) were Malays, 98 (40%) were Chinese, 22 (9%) were Indians while 5 (2%) were of other ethnic minorities. The mean age for the intervention group was 32.1 ± 8.7 years while the mean age for the control group was 34.7 ± 9.5 years. Mean baseline adherence was 80.1 ± 19.6 and 85.1 ± 15.8 for the intervention and control groups respectively. Overall mean baseline CD4 count of patients was 222.97 ± 143.7 cells/mm³ while overall mean viral load was 255237.85 ± 470618.9. Patients had a mean weight of 61.55 ± 11.0 kg and 61.47 ± 12.3 kg in the intervention and control groups, respectively. Males account for about 90% of those initiating ART in the HIV clinic, at a relatively low CD4 count, high viral load and sub-optimal medication adherence levels at baseline.
  10. Edre Mohammad Aidid, Hayati Kadir@Shahar, Salmiah Md Said, Sharifah Norkhadijah Syed Ismail
    Introduction: Leptospirosis is a preventable zoonosis of public health importance. Due to increasing incidence of leptospirosis and seasonal floods affecting Kuantan community, a study was conducted to identify the determinants of leptospirosis preventive practices. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in Perkampungan Sungai Isap, Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia, which obtained 568 respondents by stratified proportionate random sampling technique. Data was collected using a modified guided questionnaire and analysed using IBM SPSS version 22.0. Results: Majority of the respondents were females (52.6%), Malay ethnicity (98.8%), attended up to secondary school (57.2%), worked in low-risk occupational group (96.0%) and reside in moderate-risk stratum (55.6%). Overall, majority (68%) of the respondents had good knowledge. However, only 38% of the respondents had satisfactory attitude and 18% had satisfactory practice. There were significant associations between stratum and leptospirosis preventive practices (χ2=11.84, df=2, p=0.003), age group and leptospirosis preventive practices (χ2=7.41, df=2, p=0.03) and personal income and leptospirosis preventive practices (χ2=6.32, df=1, p=0.01). Multivariate logistic regression showed that the predictors of satisfactory leptospirosis preventive practices were high-risk stratum (aOR: 3.69, 95% CI: 1.71-8.00, p=0.001) and monthly personal income of less than RM1000 (aOR: 1.65, 95% CI: 1.05-2.59, p=0.03). Conclusions: Leptospirosis can be prevented by having adequate awareness regarding the disease through health promotional activities especially before, during and after flooding, targeting more on those in low to moderate risk areas and higher income group to prevent potential outbreaks.
  11. Musheer AL-Jaberi, Muhamad Hanafiah Juni, Hayati Kadir Shahar, Siti Irma Ismail
    Introduction: With the increasing number of international students joining various universities worldwide, including Malaysia, acculturative stress resulting from their attempts to adjust to the cultures of host countries is one of the most challenging issues affecting their life in general and academic life in particular. The purpose of this study is to determine the level of acculturative stress and intention to dropout among new postgraduate international students in public universities, Malaysia. Methods: a cross-sectional study was conducted among 522 new international post-graduate students joining Malaysian public universities on their first semester. A multistage sampling method was adapted, and data were collected via self-administered questionnaire by using a validated questionnaire. Results: Out of the overall number of 522 respondents, (68.60%) of them were males while (31.40%) were females, the mean age of respondents was 28.95 ±5.91 years. The majority of the participants 60.54% (326) were single, whereas those who are married students represented 205 (39.3%). This study showed that 410 (78.5%) of the new postgraduate international students experienced a moderate level of acculturative stress with a median value of 107.00, while 63 (12.1 %) high level of stress and 49 (4.9 %) experience low level of acculturative stress .Consequently224 ,42.1 % of the participants students they have intention to dropout from the university for any reason , while 298 (57.1 % ) they don’t have any intention to dropout from the university Conclusions: This study showed the importance of educational intervention program among new international postgraduate students towards adapting to the Malaysian culture, in relation with increasing their cultural knowledge and interaction with host nationals and to reduce their acculturative stress and their intention to dropout from the university.
  12. Nur Intan Kartiniewatie Kamaruddin, Salmiah Md Said, Hayati Kadir @ Shahar, Lim Poh Ying
    Introduction: Wet markets are predisposed to Aedes breeding due to nature of daily activities that involve frequent water storage and usage of water collecting containers. Large numbers of visitors patronising wet markets could cause rapid spread of dengue infection. This study aimed to determine the level of dengue prevention practices among wet market traders in Hilir Perak District and their associated socioecological factors. Methods: A cross sectional study using stratified sampling method was conducted where 246 wet market traders were interviewed to collect data on dengue prevention practices (prevention of Aedes mosquitoes breeding and prevention of mosquito bites), and so-cioecological factors. Chi square test and logistic regression modelling were performed to identify socioecological factors associated with dengue prevention practices. Results: Response rate for this study was 88.9%. Majority of the respondents were male, above 40 years old, had secondary education and above, had monthly income of above MYR2000, were owner of the shop lots, was or had ever married and sold fish, vegetable or groceries products. Most of the respondents had high level of dengue prevention practices (78%). Those who were owner of shop lots, had high perceived susceptibility, high family support, and high perceived dengue prevention and control laws and reg-ulations were predicted to have high level of dengue prevention practices. Conclusion: Level of dengue prevention practices is determined not only by individual factors, but also other factors from relationship to societal level which must also be considered in planning or evaluating current dengue control programmes.
  13. Essiet IA, Baharom A, Shahar HK, Uzochukwu B
    Pan Afr Med J, 2017;26:110.
    PMID: 28533833 DOI: 10.11604/pamj.2017.26.110.10409
    INTRODUCTION: Physical activity among university students is a catalyst for habitual physical activity in adulthood. Physical activity has many health benefits besides the improvement in academic performance. The present study assessed the predictors of physical activity among Nigerian university students using the Social Ecological Model (SEM).

    METHODS: This cross-sectional study recruited first-year undergraduate students in the University of Uyo, Nigeria by multistage sampling. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) short-version was used to assess physical activity in the study. Factors were categorised according to the Socio-Ecological Model which consisted of individual, social environment, physical environment and policy level. Data was analysed using the IBM SPSS statistical software, version 22. Simple and multiple logistic regression were used to determine the predictors of sufficient physical activity.

    RESULTS: A total of 342 respondents completed the study questionnaire. Majority of the respondents (93.6%) reported sufficient physical activity at 7-day recall. Multivariate analysis revealed that respondents belonging to the Ibibio ethnic group were about four times more likely to be sufficiently active compared to those who belonged to the other ethnic groups (AOR = 3.725, 95% CI = 1.383 to 10.032). Also, participants who had a normal weight were about four times more likely to be physically active compared to those who were underweight (AOR = 4.268, 95% CI = 1.323 to 13.772).

    CONCLUSION: This study concluded that there was sufficient physical activity levels among respondents. It is suggested that emphasis be given to implementing interventions aimed at sustaining sufficient levels of physical activity among students.

  14. Noman S, Shahar HK, Abdul Rahman H, Ismail S
    PMID: 32059587 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph17041167
    Breast cancer is the most common cancer spread among women worldwide. Whereas many studies have discussed the significance of breast cancer screening among women in various countries, few have attempted to discuss this topic among female school teachers. As teachers educate and communicate with students, this may play an essential role in health education and in promoting healthy behavior, such as breast cancer screening. The primary goal of this study is to develop and implement an educational intervention of breast cancer screening and evaluate its effectiveness among Yemeni female school teachers in Malaysia. This was carried out as per the health belief model. A cluster-randomized controlled trial was conducted among 183 Yemeni female school teachers in twelve schools in Klang Valley, Malaysia. A random assignment of the target schools was made to include them within the intervention or control group. Participants in the intervention group were offered a 90-minute session for one-day educational intervention on breast cancer screening. On the other hand, participants in the control group were offered the same educational materials at the end of the study. Relevant data was collected at baseline, one month following the intervention, and then three- and six-months follow-up assessments. Analysis of such data was done via IBM SPSS software 25.0 by generalized estimating equations (GEE) to assess the differential changes over time. A primary outcome embodied in breast cancer screening practice uptake was expected. Secondary outcomes include the target group's knowledge on and beliefs of breast cancer screening. This study intends to contribute to the credibility and effectiveness of utilizing a theory-based breast cancer screening intervention in order to raise the awareness of women on conducting breast cancer screening.
  15. Abdul Rahim NI, Shahar HK, Mohd Nazan NIN
    Introduction: Diabetes is a global epidemic and the public knowledge on this progressive disease is important to control the disease. This study aims to determine the diabetes knowledge of a community in Sungai Petani and the associated factors.
    Methods: A cross-sectional study using multi-stage sampling was carried out in Sungai Petani, Kedah, Malaysia between April to May 2019, by a validated and reliable questionnaire. Data was analysed using IBM SPSS version 25.0. Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal Wallis test were used.
    Results: Of 370 non-diabetic adults participated in this study with majority of them were females (61.9%), Malays (79.2%), had at least secondary education (53.5%), married (78.6%), overweight (34.6%), not-hypertensive (80.8%), had no family history of diabetes (52.2%) and not-smoking (86.8%). The mean ±SD age was 46.1 ±13. And median (IQR) monthly income was RM3037.40 ±3005.90. The diabetes knowledge median (IQR) score was 26.0 (9.0). Half of respondents did not know about items on “the different types of diabetes”, “diabetics should carry sweets when they are out” and “diabetics should not do-nate blood”. Diabetes knowledge was found to have significant association with diabetes screening uptake, income level, education level, marital status, BMI, family history of diabetes and smoking.
    Conclusion: Diabetes knowledge among Sungai Petani community was found to be adequate but there is still misconception regarding diabetes and its management. Collective efforts should be taken to improve the general population’s knowledge on diabetes.
  16. Nurul Ain Abdullah, Suriani Ismail, Sazlina Shariff Ghazali, Muhamad Hanafiah Juni, Hayati Kadir Shahar, Noor Rafizah Aminah Aziz
    Introduction: The objective of this study was to determine the factors and predictors of good glycaemic control among patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) in two rural government health clinics in Kuala Selangor. Methods: This cross-sectional study involved 200 patients selected through systematic random sampling from a list of T2DM patients in two government health clinics in Kuala Selangor. Data was collected using a self-administered questionnaire while glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) results were obtained from the patients’ blood results re- cord at the clinic. HbA1c of 6.5 % and below was categorized as good glycaemic control. The factors studied were socio-demographic characteristics (age, gender, ethnicity, level of education, occupation and household income), T2DM medical history (T2DM duration and type of treatment), diabetes knowledge, health literacy, adherence to treatment, body mass index (BMI) and physical activity. Pearson’s chi square test was used to test for associations and multiple logistic regressions were used to determine the predictors. Results: The response rate was 86.9%. The pro- portion of good glycaemic control was 34.0%. Level of glycaemic control was significantly associated with duration of being diagnosed with T2DM (p=0.006) and type of treatment (p=0.009). The probability of having good glycaemic control was 2.5 times more likely among respondents diagnosed with T2DM for less than 10 years (AOR=2.458, 95% of CI=1.504-14.282, p=0.037). Conclusion: Shorter duration of being diagnosed with T2DM has been found to be a predictor of good glycaemic control in this study population, thus warranting stricter monitoring among patients who have been diagnosed for a longer period.
  17. Hossain M, Mani KK, Mohd Sidik S, Shahar HK, Islam R
    BMC Public Health, 2014;14:775.
    PMID: 25081860 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-14-775
    Knowledge and awareness concerning sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) has become the burning issue of the day. Although STDs pose serious risks to health security, there is very little literature quantifying the knowledge and awareness of these diseases and their principal socioeconomic determinants. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of different socio-economic and demographic factors on knowledge and awareness about STDs among women in Bangladesh.

    This is a cross-sectional study using data from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS) 2011. It involves 10,996 women in six divisions of Bangladesh - Dhaka, Rajshahi, Chittagong, Barisal, Khulna and Sylhet. In this study, the percentage distribution and logistic regression model are used to identify which factors are associated with knowledge and awareness among women in Bangladesh about STDs.

    There is a significant association between geographic division (Dhaka: OR = 1.669, 95% CI = 0.89-2.10, Khulna: OR = 2.234, 95% CI = 1.2-3.2); places of residence (Rural: OR = 0.363, 95% CI = 0.20-1.08), respondent's age (20-29 years: OR = 1.331; 95% CI = 0.98-2.31); education (Primary: OR = 2.366, 95% CI = 1.98-3.1, secondary: OR = 10.089, 95% CI = 8.98-12.77, higher: OR = 20.241, 95% CI = 18.33-22.65); listening to radio (OR = 1.189, 95% CI = 1.29-3.12) and watching TV (OR = 2.498, 95% CI = 2.22-4.09) with knowledge and awareness among women in Bangladesh about STDs.

    There is a need to improve the education in Bangladesh about STDs particularly among those in the rural areas and older ages of women (30-49 years). Formal, informal and special educational knowledge and awareness programmes may be implemented to educate people concerning STDs in Rajshahi, Sylhet and Chittangong division. Campaigns and mass media can be used to increase the knowledge and awareness among the community, especially among women. Policies concerning the issue of STDs need to be improved and can be emphasized in collaboration with government agencies to ensure the success of these campaigns.
  18. Noman S, Shahar HK, Abdul Rahman H, Ismail S, Abdulwahid Al-Jaberi M, Azzani M
    PMID: 33396424 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph18010263
    There have been various systematic reviews on the significance of educational interventions as necessary components to encourage breast cancer screening (BCS) and reduce the burden of breast cancer (BC). However, only a few studies have attempted to examine these educational interventions comprehensively. This review paper aimed to systematically evaluate the effectiveness of various educational interventions in improving BCS uptake, knowledge, and beliefs among women in different parts of the world. Following the PRISMA guidelines, a comprehensive literature search on four electronic databases, specifically PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and ScienceDirect, was performed in May 2019. A total of 22 interventional studies were reviewed. Theory- and language-based multiple intervention strategies, which were mainly performed in community and healthcare settings, were the commonly shared characteristics of the educational interventions. Most of these studies on the effectiveness of interventions showed favorable outcomes in terms of the BCS uptake, knowledge, and beliefs among women. Educational interventions potentially increase BCS among women. The interpretation of the reported findings should be treated with caution due to the heterogeneity of the studies in terms of the characteristics of the participants, research designs, intervention strategies, and outcome measures.
  19. Alrubaiee GG, Baharom A, Faisal I, Shahar HK, Daud SM, Basaleem HO
    BMC Nurs, 2021 Feb 17;20(1):33.
    PMID: 33596894 DOI: 10.1186/s12912-021-00551-0
    BACKGROUND: Previous cross-sectional studies have reported limited knowledge and practices among nurses regarding controlling nosocomial infections (NIs). Even though health institutions offer many irregular in-service training courses to solve such issues, a three year-nursing educational programme at institutions is not adequate to enable nurses to handle NIs. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the implementation of an educational module on NIs control measures among Yemeni nurses.

    METHODS: A single-blinded randomised hospital-based trial was undertaken involving 540 nurses assigned to two intervention groups and a waitlist group. Intervention group-1 received a face-to-face training course comprising 20 h spread over six weeks and a hard copy of the module, while intervention group-2 only received the hard copy of the module "without training". In contrast, the waitlist group did not receive anything during the period of collecting data. A self-administered NI control measures-evaluation questionnaire was utilised in collecting the data from the participants; before the intervention, at six weeks and 3 months after the end of the intervention. The period of data collection was between 1st May and 30th October 2016.

    RESULTS: The results from collecting and analysing the data showed a statistically significant difference in the mean knowledge scores between the intervention groups that were detectable immediately post-intervention with a mean difference (MD) of 4.31 (P 

  20. Bala U, Leong MP, Lim CL, Shahar HK, Othman F, Lai MI, et al.
    PLoS One, 2018;13(5):e0197711.
    PMID: 29795634 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0197711
    BACKGROUND: Down syndrome (DS) is a genetic disorder caused by presence of extra copy of human chromosome 21. It is characterised by several clinical phenotypes. Motor dysfunction due to hypotonia is commonly seen in individuals with DS and its etiology is yet unknown. Ts1Cje, which has a partial trisomy (Mmu16) homologous to Hsa21, is well reported to exhibit various typical neuropathological features seen in individuals with DS. This study investigated the role of skeletal muscles and peripheral nerve defects in contributing to muscle weakness in Ts1Cje mice.

    RESULTS: Assessment of the motor performance showed that, the forelimb grip strength was significantly (P<0.0001) greater in the WT mice compared to Ts1Cje mice regardless of gender. The average survival time of the WT mice during the hanging wire test was significantly (P<0.0001) greater compared to the Ts1Cje mice. Also, the WT mice performed significantly (P<0.05) better than the Ts1Cje mice in the latency to maintain a coordinated motor movement against the rotating rod. Adult Ts1Cje mice exhibited significantly (P<0.001) lower nerve conduction velocity compared with their aged matched WT mice. Further analysis showed a significantly (P<0.001) higher population of type I fibres in WT compared to Ts1Cje mice. Also, there was significantly (P<0.01) higher population of COX deficient fibres in Ts1Cje mice. Expression of Myf5 was significantly (P<0.05) reduced in triceps of Ts1Cje mice while MyoD expression was significantly (P<0.05) increased in quadriceps of Ts1Cje mice.

    CONCLUSION: Ts1Cje mice exhibited weaker muscle strength. The lower population of the type I fibres and higher population of COX deficient fibres in Ts1Cje mice may contribute to the muscle weakness seen in this mouse model for DS.

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