The adulticidal activity of methanol extracts from three Malaysian plants namely Acorus calamus Linn., Litsea elliptica Blume and Piper aduncum Linn. against adult of Aedes aegypti (L.) were studied. Standard WHO bioassay tests were used to evaluate the effectiveness of these plant extracts. The hexane fraction from methanol extract of Acorus calamus rhizome was the most effective, exhibiting LC50 and LC90 values of 0.04 mgcm(-2) and 0.09 mgcm(-2) respectively. For L. elliptica, the methanol fraction also displayed good adulticidal property with the LC50 and LC90 values of 0.11 mgcm(-2) and 6.08 mgcm(-2) respectively. It is found that hexane fraction of the P. aduncum crude extract was the least effective among the three plants showing LC50 and LC90 values of 0.20 mgcm(-2) and 5.32 mgcm(-2), respectively. However, although A. calamus showed lowest LC values, the LT50 results indicated that the methanol fraction of L. elliptica was most potent extract among the extracts tested.
This study observed the pattern of reported dengue infections, clinical manifestations, and circulating dengue serotypes in Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. The aim of this study was to determine the co-circulation of the four different dengue virus serotypes in Negeri Sembilan. We analyzed the surveillance data (VEKPRO) from Negeri Sembilan State Health Department and National Public Health Laboratory, Malaysia on reported dengue infections from 1st January 2010 to 31st December 2010. There were 1466 reported dengue infections, 1342 (91.5%) cases were dengue fever (DF) and 124 (8.5%) were dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF). The mean age was 32.2± 15.8 years old and most were young adults, aged 15 years old and older. Males (p < 0.05), and those residing in Seremban district (p < 0.05) were more likely to get dengue infections. Symptoms presented upon admission were fever (100%), headache (99.9%), myalgia and arthralgia (98.8%), rash(24.2%), petechiae (16.0%),bleeding tendencies (7.0%) and neurological deficits(1.2%). All four dengue serotypes (DEN 1 – 4) were present, the pre-dominant serotype was DEN-3, noted in January, then existed together with DEN-2 until around May. DEN-1 was the most pre-dominant circulating dengue serotype afterwards, reaching a peak in December 2010. Dengue affected all age groups particularly young adults and males. Most cases reported were in urban areas and Seremban district. Most of the dengue infections occurred in the first half of the year, with the DEN-2 and DEN-3 serotypes being the most predominant.
Piper aduncum essential oil exhibit repellency activity and has a potential to be use as an alternative for synthetic repellent such as N,N-diethyl-3- methylbenzamide, (DEET). However, the volatility properties of the essential oil decrease their persistence as a topical repellent. Study has shown that formulation of the essential oil with some fixatives may increase their effectiveness. Therefore, this study was conduct to evaluate the effectiveness of gel formulation containing P. aduncum essential oil with two fixative; vanillin and paraffin oil. Gel formulations containing P. aduncum essential oil with 5% and 10% vanillin and 6% paraffin oil was prepared and tested against Aedes aegypti in laboratory using Standards and Industrial Research Institute of Malaysia (SIRIM) bioassay method. After 240 minute post-application, formulation containing 5% and 10% vanillin was able to provide >70% repellency percentage against mosquito while formulation containing 6% paraffin oil gives
To evaluate the effectiveness and residual effects of trypsin modulating oostatic factor-Bacillus thuringiensis israeliensis (TMOF-Bti) formulations against Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti) (L.) larvae at UKM Campus Kuala Lumpur.
Dengue is one of the main vector-borne diseases affecting tropical countries and spreading to other countries at the global scenario without cease. The impact of climate variability on vector-borne diseases is well documented. The increasing morbidity, mortality and health costs of dengue and dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) are escalating at an alarming rate. Numerous efforts have been taken by the ministry of health and local authorities to prevent and control dengue. However dengue is still one of the main public health threats in Malaysia. This study was carried out from October 2009 by a research group on climate change and vector-borne diseases. The objective of this research project is to assess the community vulnerability to climate variability effect on dengue, and to promote COMBI as the community responses in controlling dengue. This project also aims to identify the community adaptive measures for the control of dengue. Various research methodologies were applied in this research project in different localities. Site visits, review on surveillance data and mapping on Aedes population, dengue cases and climate variability, community survey on the knowledge prevalence , opinions and practices (KOP) and mosquito ecology were carried out during pre- and post intervention phases. Community vulnerability towards Aedes and dengue were mapped out applying GIS. A series of workshops, group discussions and activities such as COMBI activities to promote Aedes control were conducted involving the Ledang communities, the health district officers and UKM researchers. These activities also included interventions and documentation of community responses and their adaptive capacities towards dengue. Trends on Aedes population, dengue cases and community surveys pre and post-interventions, the processes for dengue control activities were analysed. The research findings could provide understanding on the community vulnerability to dengue against climate variability, their responses and adaptive measures. The community advocacy on combats against Aedes is a possible effective solution in dengue control. This research could provide other dimensions in public health management to address the impacts of climate change on vector-borne diseases.
Litsea elliptica Blume has been traditionally used to treat headache, fever, and stomach ulcer, and has also been used as an insect repellent. The acute and subacute toxicities of L. elliptica essential oil were evaluated orally by gavage in female Sprague-Dawley rats. For the acute toxicity study, L. elliptica essential oil was administered in doses from 500 to 4000 mg/kg (single dose), and in the subacute toxicity test, the following doses were used: 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg, for 28 consecutive days. In the acute toxicity study, L. elliptica essential oil caused dose-dependent adverse behaviours and mortality. The median lethal dose value was 3488.86 mg/kg and the acute non-observed-adversed-effect level value was found to be 500 mg/kg. The subacute toxicity study of L. elliptica essential oil did not reveal alterations in body weight, and food and water consumptions. The haematological and biochemical analyses did not show significant differences between control and treated groups in most of the parameters examined, except for the hemoglobin, mean cell hemoglobin concentration, mean cell volume, mean cell hemoglobin, serum albumin, and serum sodium. However, these differences were still within the normal range. No abnormalities or histopathological changes were observed in the liver, pancreatic islet of Langerhans, and renal glomerulous and tubular cells of all treated groups. In conclusion, L. elliptica essential oil can be classified in the U group, which is defined as a group unlikely to present an acute hazard according to World Health Organization (WHO) classification.
Forensic entomology refers to the science of collection and analysis of insect evidence in order to determine the minimum time period since death. This study aimed to investigate the occurrence of forensically important flies on 34 human remains referred to Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre over a period of three years. Entomological specimens were collected at the death scenes and/or during autopsies. Live specimens were reared into adults while preserved specimens were processed for species identification. Five families, seven genera and nine species of flies were identified from human remains. The results of the study showed Chrysomya megacephala (Calliphoridae) maggots occurred on corpses with the highest frequency (70.6%), followed by Ch. rufifacies (Calliphoridae) (44.1%), sarcophagid fly (Sarcophagidae) (38.2%), Synthesiomya nudiseta (Muscidae) (20.6%), Megaselia scalaris (Phoridae) (14.7%), Lucilia cuprina (Calliphoridae) (5.9%), Ch. nigripes (Calliphoridae) (5.9%), Eristalis spp. (Syrphidae) (5.9%) and Hydrotaea spinigera (Muscidae) (2.9%). The greatest fly diversity occurred on remains recovered indoors (eight species) compared to outdoors (three species). Whilst, single and double infestations were common for both indoor and outdoor cases, multiple infestation of up to six species was observed in one of the indoor cases. Although large numbers of fly species were found on human remains, the predominant species were still those of Chrysomya, while S. nudiseta was found only on human remains recovered from indoors. The present study provides additional knowledge in the context of Malaysian forensic entomology and the distribution of forensically important flies which is of relevance to forensic science.
The distributions of flies are not only confined to ground level but can also be at higher altitudes. Here, we report three forensic cases involving dipterans in high-rise buildings in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Case 1 involved a corpse of adult female found at the top floor of a fifteen-story apartment. Case 2 dealt with a body of a 75-year-old female discovered in a bedroom on the eleventh floor of an eighteen-story building, while Case 3 was a 52-year-old male found in his fifth floor shop house. Interestingly, entomological analysis revealed that all corpses were infested with similar Dipterans: Megaselia scalaris (Loew) (Diptera: Phoridae), Synthesiomyia nudiseta (Wulp) (Diptera: Muscidae) and sarcophagid (Diptera: Sarcophagidae). The first two species were commonly associated with corpses found indoors at ground level. We noted the additional occurrence of blowflies Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and Chrysomya rufifacies Macquart (Diptera: Calliphoridae) larvae in Case 2 and Case 3, respectively. Findings from this study are significant as they demonstrate that certain groups of fly can locate dead bodies even in high-rise buildings. Forensic entomofauna research on corpses found at high elevation is scarce and our study has highlighted the peculiarity of the fly species involved in Malaysia.
Litsea elliptica Blume leaves have been traditionally used as medicinal herbs because of its antimutagenicity, chemopreventative and insecticidal properties. In this study, the toxic effects of L. elliptica essential oil against Sprague-Dawley rat's red blood cells (RBCs) were evaluated. L. elliptica essential oil was given by oral gavage 5 times per week for 3 treated groups in the doses of 125, 250, and 500 mg/(kg body weight), respectively, and the control group received distilled water. Full blood count, RBC osmotic fragility, RBC morphological changes, and RBC membrane lipid were analyzed 28 d after the treatment. Although L. elliptica essential oil administration had significantly different effects on hemoglobin (Hb), mean cell hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), mean cell volume (MCV), and mean cell hemoglobin (MCH) in the experimental groups as compared to the control group (P<0.05), the values were still within the normal range. L. elliptica induced morphological changes of RBC into the form of echinocyte. The percentage of echinocyte increased significantly among the treated groups in a dose-response manner (P<0.001). The concentrations of RBC membrane phospholipids and cholesterol of all treated groups were significantly lower than those of control group (P<0.001). However, the RBC membrane osmotic fragility and total proteins of RBC membrane findings did not differ significantly between control and treated groups (P>0.05). It is concluded that structural changes in the RBC membrane due to L. elliptica essential oil administration did not cause severe membrane damage.
Ovitrap surveillance was conducted in methodically selected areas in Bentong, Pahang, Malaysia from June 2008 till December 2009 in order to identify insular sites with stable Aedes aegypti population. Eleven sites were surveyed in Bentong district, Pahang, and one of these locations (N3º33' E101º54') was found to have an ovitrap index of Ae. aegypti and Aedes albopictus ranging from 8%-47% and 37%-78% respectively, indicating that this site could be a high-risk area for dengue outbreak. Ae. aegypti larvae were found in both indoor and outdoor ovitraps (p>0.05) while significant difference between the populations of Ae. albopictus larvae from indoors and outdoors was observed (p<0.01). Data collected in this study could provide important entomological information for designing an effective integrated vector control programme to combat Aedes mosquitoes in this area.