Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 53 in total

  1. Isa MR, Mohd Noor N, Nawawi H, Kaur M., Rahman T, Mohd Kornain NK, et al.
    Imaging techniques involving optical coherence tomography, computed tomography (CT) and high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are used as tools to identify atherosclerotic plaques. However, the effects of water-based contrast media used in Post Mortem Computed Tomography Angiography (PMCTA) on the histopathology of atherosclerotic plaques have not been widely explored. The objective of this study is to determine the effects of water-based contrast media used in PMCTA on the histopathology of atherosclerotic plaques and biomarkers of atherosclerosis in experimentally induced established atherosclerotic rabbits. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty male New Zealand white rabbits were divided into 2 groups. One group was given a high cholesterol diet (HCD) for 12 weeks to establish atherosclerosis and the control group normal diet (ND). Five rabbits from each group were then given intravenous water-based contrast media before being sacrificed. The entire length of aorta was dissected and submitted for histopathological examination and determination of tissue biomarkers α-SMA and MMP-9. RESULTS:Histopathological examination of the aorta including percentage of area covered by plaque and foam cell formation showed no significant difference in atheromatous plaque formation in both groups of HCD rabbits with or without intravenous contrast media injection (plaque: 55±41 vs. 63±15, p=0.731; foam cells: 124±83 vs. 171±55, p=0.325). Similarly, α-SMA and MMP-9 protein expression also showed no significant difference in both groups (α-SMA: 70±20 vs. 67±26, p=0.807; MMP-9: 60±12 vs. 57±17, p=0.785). CONCLUSION:Water-based contrast media used in PMCTA does not affect the morphology or the immunohistochemistry staining of SMA and MMP-9 in atherosclerotic plaques.
  2. Mokhtar Pour A, Masir N, Isa MR
    Malays J Pathol, 2015 Aug;37(2):149-52.
    PMID: 26277673 MyJurnal
    Small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) commonly metastasizes to distant organs. However, metastasis to the pancreas is not a common event. Moreover, obstructive jaundice as a first clinical presentation of SCLC is extremely unusual. This case reports a 51-year-old male with SCLC, manifesting with obstructive jaundice as the initial clinical presentation. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatograghy (ERCP) and abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan showed a mass at the head of the pancreas. The patient underwent pancreatoduodenectomy (Whipple procedure). Histopathology revealed a chromogranin- A-positive poorly-differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma of the pancreas. No imaging study of the lung was performed before surgery. A few months later, a follow-up CT revealed unilateral lung nodules with ipsilateral hilar nodes. A lung biopsy was done and histopathology reported a TTF- 1-positive, chromogranin A-positive, small cell carcinoma of the lung. On review, the pancreatic tumour was also TTF-1-positive. He was then treated with combination chemotherapy (cisplatin, etoposide). These findings highlight that presentation of a mass at the head of pancreas could be a manifestation of a metastatic tumour from elsewhere such as the lung, and thorough investigations should be performed before metastases can be ruled out.
  3. Asahar SF, Malek KA, Isa MR
    PMID: 34574788 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph18189861
    Caring for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) negatively impacts quality of life (QoL). This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the factors associated with perceived QoL and how problematic a child's autism-specific difficulties are among the main caregivers of children with ASD who attend specialized preschool programs at the National Autism Society of Malaysia and IDEAS Autism Centre located in Selangor and Kuala Lumpur. Utilizing the questions from Parts A and B of the Quality of Life in Autism Questionnaire (QoLA), the data from 116 responders were analyzed using univariate and multivariate linear regression. The mean scores of Part A and Part B were 88.55 ± 17.25 and 56.55 ± 12.35, respectively. The QoL was significantly associated with staying in an apartment/flat -11.37 (95%CI: -19.52, -1.17, p = 0.008), main caregivers attending two training sessions 10.35 (95%CI: 1.17, 19.52, p = 0.028), and more than three training sessions 13.36 (95%CI: 2.01, 24.70, p = 0.022). Main caregiver perceptions of their child's autistic-specific difficulties were significantly associated with not receiving additional help for childcare: no maid -13.54 (95%CI: -24.17, -12.91, p = 0.013); no grandparent -8.65 (95%: -14.33, -2.96, p = 0.003); and main caregivers not having asthma 8.44 (95%CI: 0.02, 16.86, p = 0.049). These identified factors can be considered to inform main caregivers and health care providers on targeted ways to improve the QoL of main caregivers.
  4. Hanip MR, Isa MR, Zainudin BM
    Singapore Med J, 1994 Oct;35(5):535-7.
    PMID: 7701382
    A young East Malaysian lady presented with haemoptysis in 1989. Since then she had recurrent episodes of dyspnoea and two occasions of respiratory failure requiring assisted ventilation. An open lung biopsy showed intra-alveolar haemorrhage with diffuse interstitial fibrosis consistent with idiopathic pulmonary haemosiderosis after excluding secondary causes of pulmonary haemorrhage. She failed to respond to corticosteroid and continued to depend on oxygen until she succumbed to the illness 2 years after the presentation.
  5. Tan GC, Isa MR, Ng SP, Jamil YM
    J Obstet Gynaecol Res, 2004 Oct;30(5):363-7.
    PMID: 15327449
    Microinvasive squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix is a recognized entity and is defined as carcinoma with invasion of less than 5 mm penetration of the stroma and seldom metastasized. Our patient was a 70-year-old, multiparous woman who had a microinvasive, cervical, squamous cell carcinoma. The tumor had spread superficially into the entire endometrial cavity up to the fundus, totally replacing the columnar epithelium. This is an extremely rare phenomenon, with fewer than 20 cases reported so far in the literature.
  6. Ariza M, Rafaee T, Adeeb N, Muhaizan WM, Isa MR
    Med J Malaysia, 1999 Sep;54(3):371-3.
    PMID: 11045067
    A 14 year old girl presented in 1986 with a huge perineal swelling which was progressively increasing in size and associated with loss of weight and loss of appetite. Biopsy from the mass revealed rhabdomyosarcoma of the vulva. She was treated with chemotherapy and radium implant. She responded well to the regime. Fibrosis of the vulva and vagina caused difficulty in consummation. Once it was corrected, she conceived easily and proceeded to a normal pregnancy and delivery.
  7. Tay SK, Meah FA, Isa MR, Phang KS
    Med J Malaysia, 1994 Sep;49(3):310-4.
    PMID: 7845289
    Continent pouch ileostomy is fashioned for patients who need a proctocolectomy. It is usually indicated for cases of ulcerative colitis and familial adenomatous polyposis where the anal sphincter can no longer maintain normal function or has to be removed. A case of familial adenomatous polyposis with features of Gardner's syndrome is reported. The patient presented with carcinoma of the rectum. Abdominoperineal resection followed by completion pancolectomy was performed. A continent pouch ileostomy was fashioned for him. He resumed work as a labourer within six months. The pouch was troublefree, needed to emptied four to six times a day and was fully continent of fluid, flatus and faeces until his demise three years later from liver secondaries. Continent pouch ileostomy is a better alternative than permanent end ileostomy. All care should be taken to rule out the existence of Crohn's disease. It is proposed that continent pouch ileostomy should be offered to patients needing permanent ileostomy if the expertise is available.
  8. Baharum NN, Ariffin F, Isa MR, Tin ST
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2020 Jul 01;21(7):2021-2028.
    PMID: 32711428 DOI: 10.31557/APJCP.2020.21.7.2021
    BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer is preventable. In Malaysia, women are found to have good awareness of the disease and yet, the Pap smear uptake is still poor. Measuring health literacy level could explain this discrepancy. This study aims to determine the relationship between health literacy, level of knowledge of cervical cancer and Pap smear with attitude towards Pap smear among women attending pre-marital course.

    METHODS: A cross sectional study was performed in three randomly selected centres that organised pre-marital courses. All Malay Muslim women participants aged 18 to 40 years old were recruited while non-Malaysian, illiterate, and had hysterectomy were excluded. Validated self-administered questionnaires used were European Health Literacy Questionnaire (HLS-EU-Q16 Malay) and Knowledge and attitude towards Cervical Cancer and Pap Smear Questionnaire. The mean percentage score (mean± SD) was calculated, with higher scores showed better outcomes. Multiple linear regression was used to measure the relationship of independent variables with attitude towards Pap smear.

    RESULTS: A total of 417 participants were recruited with a mean age of 24.9 ± 3.56 years old. Prevalence of awareness of cervical cancer was 91.6% (n=382, 95% CI: 89.0%, 94.2%) and mean percentage score was 74.7%±7.6. Prevalence of awareness of Pap smear was 59.0% (n=246, 95% CI: 54.2%, 63.8%) and mean percentage score was 80.2% ± 6.5. The health literacy mean score was 13.3±3.6, with minimum score 0 and maximum score 16. The mean percentage score of attitudes towards Pap smear was 64.8%±9.3. Multiple linear regression analysis demonstrated significant relationship between health literacy (p=0.047) and knowledge of Pap smear (p<0.001) with attitude towards Pap smear.

    CONCLUSION: A higher health literacy with high knowledge of Pap smear improves the attitude towards Pap smear. Pre-marital course is an opportunistic platform to disseminate information to improve health literacy and knowledge of cervical cancer and Pap smear screening.

  9. Abd Halim H, Abdul-Razak S, Md Yasin M, Isa MR
    Hum Vaccin Immunother, 2020 05 03;16(5):1040-1049.
    PMID: 31567057 DOI: 10.1080/21645515.2019.1674112
    Vaccine hesitant parents are linked with re-emergence of vaccine preventable diseases, but evidence is scarce locally. The Parent Attitudes about Childhood Vaccines (PACV) questionnaire was validated and used in the USA to identify vaccine hesitant parents. This study aimed to adapt and translate the 15-item PACV questionnaire from English into the Malay language, and to examine its validity and reliability. The sample population was parents of children aged 0-24 months, recruited at an urban government health clinic between November 2016-June 2017. During content validation, two items from the "Behavior" subdomain were identified as items with formative scale and excluded from exploratory factor analysis (EFA) but retained as part of demography. A total of 151 parents completed the questionnaire with response rate of 93.3%. Test-retest reliability was tested in 25 respondents four weeks later and the intra-class correlation was between 0.53 and 1.00. EFA of the 13 items showed possibility of two to four factor domains, but three domains were most conceptually equivalent. Two of the domains were similar to the original and one factor was identified de novo. One item was deleted due to poor factor loading of < 0.3. Therefore, the validated final PACV-Malay consisted of 12 items framed within three-factor domains. The PACV-Malay was reliable with total Cronbach alpha of 0.77. In conclusion, the PACV-Malay is a valid and reliable tool which can be used to identify vaccine hesitant parents in Malaysia. Confirmatory factor analysis and predictive validity are recommended for future studies.
  10. Shibraumalisi NA, Mat Nasir N, Md Yasin M, Isa MR
    Introduction: Low health literacy (HL) is one of the contributing factors that leads to negative diabetic outcome. Quality of life (QOL) is a state of complete physical, mental and social wellbeing. There is limited evidence on association of HL and QOL among type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), therefore the objectives of this study were to identify the HL and QOL status, to determine the association between HL and QOL and factors associated with QOL among T2DM patients.
    Methods: This was a cross sectional study involving patients with T2DM from two public primary care clinics. HL and QOL were measured using translated and validated HLS – Asia Q16 and DQoL-BCI questionnaires respectively among T2DM patients.
    Results: The mean HL score was 12.39 (3.34), 17.7 % had “inadequate HL”, 25.7% had “problematic HL” and 56.6% had “sufficient HL”. The mean DQoL-BCI score was 32.09 (6.51). Lower QOL level was negatively associated with age (b -0.140; CI: -0.190, - 0.090; p<0.001), not obese (b -1.476; CI: -2.605, - 0.347; p<0.011), and HL level (b -0.425; CI: -0.59, - 0.259; p<0.001). Lower QOL level was positively associated with uncontrolled glycaemic status (HbA1c >6.5%) (b 1.308; CI: -0.042, 2.659; p<0.058), treatment with insulin (b 4.163; CI:1.538, 6.788; p<0.002) and combination treatment of insulin and oral hypoglycaemic agents (OHA) (b 2.450; CI:1.145, 3.756; p<0.001).
    Conclusions: This study demonstrated that age, body mass index, HL, glycaemic control, treatment with OHA and insulin were significantly associated with QOL. This suggest the importance of identifying high risk patients with poor QOL for targeted intervention.
    KEYWORDS: Health Literacy, Quality of Life, Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, Primary Care, Malaysia
    Study site: Two public primary care clinics (klinik kesihatan), Gombak district, Selangor, Malaysia
  11. Zulhabri O, Rahman J, Ismail S, Isa MR, Wan Zurinah WN
    Singapore Med J, 2012 Jan;53(1):26-31.
    PMID: 22252179
    K-ras gene mutations in codons 12 and 13 are one of the earliest events in colon carcinogenesis.
  12. Raymond AA, Isa MR, Abdullah T, Kudva MV
    Singapore Med J, 1993 Jun;34(3):276-8.
    PMID: 8266193
    A 41-year-old Malay housewife presented with recurrent chylous ascites and progressive cachexia over 17 years. A diagnosis of lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) was established by laparotomy where biopsy of the liver, peritoneum and adhesions from previous surgery showed smooth muscle proliferation in the blood vessels and lymphatics. Clinically and radiologically, there was no evidence of pulmonary involvement. She was treated with dietary fat restriction and medium-chain triglycerides. This is the first case of LAM reported in Malaysia.
  13. Ismail Z, Mohamad M, Isa MR, Fadzil MA, Yassin SM, Ma KT, et al.
    J Ment Health, 2015 Feb;24(1):29-32.
    PMID: 25358109 DOI: 10.3109/09638237.2014.971148
    BACKGROUND: There is increasing evidence showing that anxiety is associated with morbidity in the older age group. Factors contributing to anxiety may vary among different diseases and settings.
    AIMS: The aim of this study was to determine the factors associated with anxiety symptoms among elderly hypertensive at the primary care level.
    METHODS: A cross-sectional study and face-to-face interviews using Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) were conducted among elderly hypertensive.
    RESULTS: The mean (SD) age of subjects was 68.8 (6.76) years and comprised of 49.5% and 50.5% of males and females, respectively. The majority of respondents were Malays (76.1%), followed by Chinese (14.3%), and Indians (9.5%). The mean (SD) duration of hypertension was 8.44 (7.29) years and the prevalence of anxiety symptoms was 13.3% (95% CI: 9.9, 16.7). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that elderly hypertensive with a past history of stroke (adjusted OR: 4.472; 95% CI: 1.754, 11.405; p = 0.002) and depression (adjusted OR: 3.715; 95% CI: 2.009, 6.872; p 
  14. Isa MR, Moy FM, Abdul Razack AH, Zainuddin ZM, Zainal NZ
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2013;14(4):2237-42.
    PMID: 23725119
    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine the impact of applied progressive muscle relaxation training on the levels of depression, anxiety and stress among prostate cancer patients.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A quasi-experimental study was conducted at the University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC) and Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC) over six months. Prostate cancer patients from UMMC received the intervention and patients from UKMMC were taken as controls. The level of depression, anxiety and stress were measured using Depression, Anxiety Stress Scales - 21 (DASS-21).

    RESULTS: A total of 77 patients from the UMMC and 78 patients from the UKMMC participated. At the end of the study, 90.9% and 87.2% of patients from the UMMC and UKMMC groups completed the study respectively. There were significant improvements in anxiety (p<0.001, partial ?2=0.198) and stress (p<0.001, partial ?2=0.103) at the end of the study in those receiving muscle training. However, there was no improvement in depression (p=0.956).

    CONCLUSIONS: The improvement in anxiety and stress showed the potential of APMRT in the management of prostate cancer patients. Future studies should be carried out over a longer duration to provide stronger evidence for the introduction of relaxation therapy among prostate cancer patients as a coping strategy to improve their anxiety and stress.

  15. Alfizah H, Ramelah M, Rizal AM, Anwar AS, Isa MR
    Helicobacter, 2012 Oct;17(5):340-9.
    PMID: 22967117 DOI: 10.1111/j.1523-5378.2012.00956.x
    Polymorphisms of Helicobacter pylori cagA and vacA genes do exist and may contribute to differences in H. pylori infection and gastroduodenal diseases among races in the Malaysian population. This study was conducted to characterize the polymorphisms in H. pylori cagA and vacA in Malaysian population.
  16. Isa MR, Ming MF, Abdul Razack AH, Zainuddin ZM, Zainal NZ
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2012;13(12):5999-6004.
    PMID: 23464393
    Measurement of quality of life among prostate cancer patients helps the health care providers to understand the impact of the disease in the patients' own perspective. The main aim of this study is to measure the quality of life among prostate cancer patients at University Malaya Medical Center (UMMC) and Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC) and to ascertain the association factors for physical coefficient summary (PCS) and mental coefficient summary (MCS). A hospital based, cross sectional study using the Short Form-36 (SF-36) questionnaire was conducted over a period of 6 months. A total of 193 respondents were recruited. Their total quality of life score was 70.1± 14.7 and the PCS score was lower compared to MCS. The factors associated for PCS were: age, living partner, renal problem, urinary problem of intermittency, dysuria and hematuria. Factors associated for MCS were: age, living partner, renal problem, presenting prostatic specific antigen and urinary problem of intermittency and dysuria. Our prostate cancer patients had moderate quality of life in the physical health components but their mental health was less affected.
  17. Shaariyah MM, Mazita A, Masaany M, Razif MY, Isa MR, Asma A
    Chin J Cancer, 2010 Jun;29(6):631-3.
    PMID: 20507738
    Synovial sarcoma is a rare soft tissue sarcoma of the head and neck region involving the parapharyngeal space. The diagnosis of synovial sarcoma can be very challenging to the pathologists. We present a rare case of parapharyngeal synovial sarcoma in a young female patient who had a two-month history of left cervical intumescent mass at level II. The fine needle aspiration cytology of the mass was proved inconclusive. Transcervical excision of the mass was performed and the first case of parapharyngeal sarcoma was identified in our center by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique. Repeat imaging revealed residual tumor. The patient successfully underwent a second excision of the residual tumor and received adjuvant radiotherapy.
  18. Shiran MS, Isa MR, Mohd Sidik S, Rampal L, Hairuszah I, Sabariah AR
    Malays J Pathol, 2006 Dec;28(2):87-92.
    PMID: 18376797 MyJurnal
    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary liver cancer and its diagnosis on routine stains is usually straightforward, except in some cases where there may be difficulty in distinguishing HCCs from metastatic carcinomas (MC) and cholangiocarcinomas (CC). Hepatocyte Paraffin 1 antibody (Hep Par 1) is a new monoclonal antibody which reacts with normal and neoplastic hepatocytes, and this study aims to determine its specificity and sensitivity in distinguishing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) from cholangiocarcinoma (CC) and metastatic carcinomas (MC). Hep Par 1 antibody was applied to 28 cases of HCC, 22 cases of MC from varying sites and 8 CCs, and produced a strong, diffuse, granular, cytoplasmic staining of all benign hepatocytes. 23 out of 28 cases of HCC showed heterogeneously positive staining for Hep Par 1 irrespective of their degree of differentiation, while 2 out of 8 cases of cholangiocarcinoma were positive for Hep Par 1, and all 22 cases of metastatic carcinoma were negative. The sensitivity and specificity of Hep Par 1 for HCC was 82.1% and 93.3% respectively; whereby the antibody was noted to show occasional false positivity in cases of cholangiocarcinoma and non-neoplastic bowel mucosa, while its variable staining in HCC produced false negative results in some small biopsies. Thus, Hep Par 1 should be used in a panel with other antibodies to obtain useful information in distinguishing HCC from CC and MC.
  19. Mazlyzam AL, Aminuddin BS, Fuzina NH, Norhayati MM, Fauziah O, Isa MR, et al.
    Burns, 2007 May;33(3):355-63.
    PMID: 17321690
    Our aim of this study was to develop a new methodology for constructing a bilayer human skin equivalent to create a more clinical compliance skin graft composite for the treatment of various skin defects. We utilized human plasma derived fibrin as the scaffold for the development of a living bilayer human skin equivalent: fibrin-fibroblast and fibrin-keratinocyte (B-FF/FK SE). Skin cells from six consented patients were culture-expanded to passage 1. For B-FF/FK SE formation, human fibroblasts were embedded in human fibrin matrix and subsequently another layer of human keratinocytes in human fibrin matrix was stacked on top. The B-FF/FK SE was then transplanted to athymic mice model for 4 weeks to evaluate its regeneration and clinical performance. The in vivo B-FF/FK SE has similar properties as native human skin by histological analysis and expression of basal Keratin 14 gene in the epidermal layer and Collagen type I gene in the dermal layer. Electron microscopy analysis of in vivo B-FF/FK SE showed well-formed and continuous epidermal-dermal junction. We have successfully developed a technique to engineer living bilayer human skin equivalent using human fibrin matrix. The utilization of culture-expanded human skin cells and fibrin matrix from human blood will allow a fully autologous human skin equivalent construction.
  20. Farah Wahida I, Aminuddin BS, Munirah S, Chua KH, Fuzina NH, Isa MR, et al.
    Med J Malaysia, 2004 May;59 Suppl B:190-1.
    PMID: 15468882
    This study was to assess collagen type II and collagen type I gene expression in tissue-engineered human auricular: cartilage formed via tissue engineering technique. Large-scale culture expansions were transformed into 3D in vitro construct and were implanted subcutaneously on the dorsal of athymic mice. After 8 weeks, explanted construct was processed in the same manner of native cartilage to facilitate cells for gene expression analysis. Isolated cells from in vivo construct demonstrated expression of type II collagen gene comparable to native cartilage. This study verified that tissue-engineered auricular cartilage expressed cartilage specific gene, collagen type II after in vivo maturation.
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