Displaying all 16 publications

  1. Ishak R, Zakaria Z
    PMID: 9561621
    Hemophilia B is an X-linked recessive disorder of the hemostasis involving a defective clotting factor IX. Amplification of the regions containing restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) can be achieved by the use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR). This paper describes the analysis of 2 RFLPs involving the Dde1 and Taq1 restriction sites within the factor IX gene in a family with hemophilia B. Digestion of the PCR products with Taq1 revealed a 163bp fragment in all the family members. This finding suggests the absence of restriction site for Taq1 enzyme. However, the Dde1 digest results in bands 369bp and 319bp segregated amongst the family members. The pattern of inheritance of the 369bp fragment in this family suggested that both the patient's mother and aunt are not carriers and that the patient's factor IX gene could have undergone a de novo mutation producing a defective factor IX gene responsible for the hemophilia B. This is supported by the fact that no family history of hemophilia B is indicated in the other male members within the family.
  2. Ishak R, Hassan K
    PMID: 7777906
    A comparative study was done to determine the profile of vitamin B12 and folate status in Malaysians during two different periods. For the period of 1987/88, we analysed a total of 9,162 cases (inpatients) referred for vitamin B12 estimation and 10,290 cases for folate estimation. We found that 2.6% were vitamin B12 deficient and 31.2% were folate deficient. For the period of 1992/93, of the 9,962 cases assayed, 8.2% were found to be vitamin B12 deficient whereas 7.6% of the 10,355 cases referred were folate deficient. Vitamin B12 and folate were assayed either using microbiological or radioassays. These findings indicate that there appears to be a change in the status of both vitamin B12 and folate over the five year interval.
  3. Ishak R, Khim LC
    PMID: 9280004
    A study was initiated to amplify by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), a short factor VIII gene fragment containing the Bcl I restriction site from hemophilia patients using published primer sequences. Preliminary findings indicated that the resulting fragment is 142 bp long. This fragment, when digested with Bcl I restriction enzyme produced two fragments, 99 bp and 43 bp in length. Polymorphism in the Bcl I region can be used to detect carrier state in the family members of the hemophiliacs.
  4. Ishak R, Hassan K
    Med J Malaysia, 1987 Mar;42(1):36-9.
    PMID: 3431500
    The finding of a prolonged bleeding time in a patient whose platelet count is normal suggests some abnormality in the function of the platelets. This situation may be due to an inherent platelet defect or to the deficiency of a plasma factor necessary for some aspect of platelet function. Defects of platelet function are also seen in a wide range of disease states and may be caused by many different classes of drugs. Simple methods are available to identify abnormalities in platelet numbers and/or function. Tests of platelet aggregation, using the aggregometer, are now widely used to investigate patients suspected of having platelet disorders. We observed in the last four years that thrombocythopenia is quite common amongst children and bleeding from platelet dysfunction, congenital or acquired, is not rare in Malaysia. This study was done to assess the prevalence of platelet abnormality in a section of the general 'healthy' population of school-going children and to study the possible causes of any abnormalities detected.
  5. Ishak R, Hallett MB
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 2018 12 02;506(4):1065-1070.
    PMID: 30409431 DOI: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2018.10.174
    It has been proposed that Ca2+ activation of calpain-1 is an important trigger for rapid cell spreading by neutrophils. In this paper, we have investigated this by assessing the ex vivo functioning of neutrophils from calpain-1 null mice, Calpain-1 null neutrophils failed to migrate through TNF-activated endothelial monolayers. The failure to transmigrate through endothelial monolayers was therefore unlikely to be due to a failure of chemotaxis as chemotaxis by adherent calpain-1 null neutrophils towards fMLP was unpaired. In contrast, the capacity of calpian-1 neutrophils to spontaneously spread was limited to smaller diameters than for wild type cells. Photolytic uncaging of IP3 with Individual wild type neutrophils resulted in a large Ca2+ signal and rapid cell spreading. In contrast, calpain-1 neutrophils failed to spread in response to the IP3-induced Ca2+ signal. This work has therefore demonstrated that the presence of calpain-1 was required for effective rapid cell spreading by neutrophils.
  6. Ishak R, Mohamed AB, Hassan K
    Malays J Reprod Health, 1990 Jun;8(1):1-4.
    PMID: 12316339
    A study was conducted on a total of 100 women attending the Family Planning Clinic in Kuala Lumpur. 50 took combined low-dose estrogen and progesterone pills for a year or more and the other 50 used different methods of birth control. Platelet aggregation, ATP release, Thromboxane B2, and 6-keto-prostaglandin F1alpha estimations were made to evaluate the effect of oral contraceptives (OCs) on platelet function and prostanoid production. The results showed no significant differences in the parameters measured in the 2 groups investigated. These findings are comparable to those reported by other studies, suggesting relatively low risk, if any, of thrombosis in OC users.
  7. Zakaria A, Jais MR, Ishak R
    J Nat Sci Biol Med, 2018;9(1):23-26.
    PMID: 29456388 DOI: 10.4103/jnsbm.JNSBM_131_17
    BACKGROUND: This study investigates the analgesic properties of the aqueous extracts of Nigella sativa and Eucheuma cottonii in mice. The analgesic properties of both extracts were evaluated in an experimental model of acetic acid-induced writhing test.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: The mice were divided into four different groups and received the test extracts and the standard drug (aspirin) for 14 days via force-feeding. On day 15, the mice were injected with 5% acetic acid, and the number of abdominal constriction and elongation of hind limb (writhes) were counted for 20 min.

    RESULTS: The numbers of writhes were counted starting after 5 min of the acetic acid injection. The N. sativa extracts significantly reduced the number of writhes as compared to the control group. Both of the extracts revealed a comparable result as referred to the aspirin effects in the mice.

    CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that N. sativa and E. cottonii may possess protective active constituent that is effective in reducing the sensation of pain in mice.

  8. Ariffin F, Ahmad Zubaidi AZ, Md Yasin M, Ishak R
    Malays Fam Physician, 2015;10(1):26-33.
    PMID: 26425292 MyJurnal
    This audit report assessed the structure, processes and outcome of the pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) management in adults conducted at eight government health clinics within the high TB burden Gombak district. All newly diagnosed PTB patients from November 2012 to November 2013 were identified from the tuberculosis registry. Patients less than 18 years old, were transferred out or extrapulmonary tuberculosis was excluded from the study. The assessment criteria for PTB were defined according to the latest Malaysian TB clinical practice guidelines (TB CPG) 2012. A total of 117 patients were included in this report and data were extracted and analysed using SPSS version 20.0. The mean age of patients was 40.4 ± 14.4 SD. Majority was men (63.2%). Out of 117 patients, 82.1% were Malaysian citizens and 17.9% were foreigners. Malays were the majority (65%) followed by 7.7% Chinese, 10.3% Indian and 17.1% others. The most common clinical feature was cough (88.0%) followed by loss of weight (58.1%), loss of appetite (57.3%), fever (56.4%), night sweat (30.8%) and haemoptysis (32.5%). Acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smear was positive in 94% of cases. Chest X-ray and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) screening results were available for 89.1 and 82.1% cases respectively. The results for the sputum culture were available in 27.4% of patients and 54.7% were documented as done but pending results. The clinics have a successful directly observed therapy (DOT) program with 94.0% patients documented under DOT. Out of 53 patients on maintenance phase, 47.2% were identified as cured. Cure rate for those completed treatment was 100%. The defaulter rate was 17.1%. This audit demonstrated the attempt made by the clinics to adhere to the recommended guidelines. However, improvements are to be made in the documentation of medical records, tracing of investigation results and reduction of the number of defaulters.
  9. Ishak R, Ahmad R, Gudum HR, Hassan K, Ang ES
    Malays J Reprod Health, 1992 Jun;10(1):7-11.
    PMID: 12345026
    PIP: Long term use of low doses of combination oral contraceptives appears to increase plasminogen level, thereby increasing fibrinolytic activity and reducing the risk of thromboembolism. Blood levels of plasminogen, tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI), were measured before and after stress (5 minutes of stair climbing) in a group of 30 women, 23-40 years old, who had taken 30 mcg of ethinyl estradiol with 150 mcg of desogestrel or levonorgestrel for at least 1 year. Similar measurements were taken from a control group of 30 women matched for age, height, and weight. Plasminogen and tPA levels in both groups increased significantly after exercise. The level of PAI did not change significantly with stress in either group. The level of plasminogen was significantly higher in the group taking contraceptives, whether before or after exercise, when compared to the control group. Levels of tPA and PAI, although slightly increased in the oral contraceptive group, were not significantly different between the two groups. The increase in plasminogen may be due to the estrogen component of the contraceptives. Stress seems to increase fibrinolytic response.
  10. Ng TK, Hassan K, Lim JB, Lye MS, Ishak R
    Am J Clin Nutr, 1991 04;53(4 Suppl):1015S-1020S.
    PMID: 2012009 DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/53.4.1015S
    The effects on serum lipids of diets prepared with palm olein, corn oil, and coconut oil supplying approximately 75% of the fat calories were compared in three matched groups of healthy volunteers (61 males, 22 females, aged 20-34 y). Group I received a coconut-palm-coconut dietary sequence; group II, coconut-corn-coconut; and group III, coconut oil during all three 5-wk dietary periods. Compared with entry-level values, coconut oil raised the serum total cholesterol concentration greater than 10% in all three groups. Subsequent feeding of palm olein or corn oil significantly reduced the total cholesterol (-19%, -36%), the LDL cholesterol (-20%, -42%%) and the HDL cholesterol (-20%, -26%) concentrations, respectively. Whereas the entry level of the ratio of LDL to HDL was not appreciably altered by coconut oil, this ratio was decreased 8% by palm olein and 25% by corn oil. Serum triglycerides were unaffected during the palm-olein period but were significantly reduced during the corn-oil period.
  11. Ramli AS, Miskan M, Ng K, Ambigga D, Nafiza M, Mazapuspavina M, et al.
    Malays Fam Physician, 2010;5(1):36-40.
    PMID: 25606184
    Large population surveys in Malaysia have consistently shown minimal improvement of blood pressure control rates over the last 10 years. Poor adherence to antihypertensive medication has been recognized as a major reason for poor control of hypertension. This study aimed to describe the prescribing pattern of antihypertensive agents in 2 public primary care clinics and assess its appropriateness in relation to current evidence and guidelines.
  12. Khalid K, Noh MAM, Khan MN, Ishak R, Penney E, Chowdhury ZZ, et al.
    Micron, 2017 Sep;100:30-33.
    PMID: 28477556 DOI: 10.1016/j.micron.2017.04.010
    This paper discusses the unprecedented microscopic findings of micellar growth in colloidal system (CS) of catalyzed piperidinolysis of ionized phenyl salicylate (PS-). The giant vesicles (GV) was observed under the optical polarization microscope (OPM) at [NaX]=0.1M where X=3-isopropC6H4O-. The conditions were rationalized from pseudo-first-order rate constant, kobs of PS- of micellar phase at 31.1×10-3s-1 reported in previous publication. The overall diameter of GV (57.6μm) in CS (CTABr/NaX/H2O)-catalyzed piperidinolysis (where X=3-isopropC6H4O) of ionized phenyl salicylate were found as giant unilamellar vesicles (GUV) and giant multilamellar vesicles (GMV). The findings were also validated by means of rheological analysis.
Related Terms
Contact Us

Please provide feedback to Administrator (afdal@afpm.org.my)

External Links