Sex steroids have been postulated to influence skin development and functions as well as its pathogenesis. MCC occurs in both sexes; however, the specific differences in pathogenesis among sexes have yet to be conclusively defined. The detailed status of sex steroid receptors (AR, PRA and PRB, and ERα, ERβ) are also unknown in MCC patients. We first immunolocalized sex steroid receptors and compared the results with immunolocalization of relevant transcription factors including SOX2, FOXA1, and Bcl-2 and Ki-67 in 18 cases of MCCs. AR, PRA, PRB, ERα, ERβ, Bcl-2, SOX2, and FOXA1 immunoreactivity was evaluated by using the modified H score method, and Ki-67 was quantified using labeling index. ERβ immunoreactivity was markedly present in all the cases of MCC examined, with relatively weak immunoreactivity of ERα, AR, PRA, and PRB. The status of ERβ immunoreactivity was also significantly correlated with Ki-67 labeling index and Bcl-2 score. These results demonstrated that ERβ could be associated with regulation of both cell proliferation and apoptosis in MCCs.
The human occupation history of Southeast Asia (SEA) remains heavily debated. Current evidence suggests that SEA was occupied by Hòabìnhian hunter-gatherers until ~4000 years ago, when farming economies developed and expanded, restricting foraging groups to remote habitats. Some argue that agricultural development was indigenous; others favor the "two-layer" hypothesis that posits a southward expansion of farmers giving rise to present-day Southeast Asian genetic diversity. By sequencing 26 ancient human genomes (25 from SEA, 1 Japanese Jōmon), we show that neither interpretation fits the complexity of Southeast Asian history: Both Hòabìnhian hunter-gatherers and East Asian farmers contributed to current Southeast Asian diversity, with further migrations affecting island SEA and Vietnam. Our results help resolve one of the long-standing controversies in Southeast Asian prehistory.
The PREDICTS project-Projecting Responses of Ecological Diversity In Changing Terrestrial Systems (www.predicts.org.uk)-has collated from published studies a large, reasonably representative database of comparable samples of biodiversity from multiple sites that differ in the nature or intensity of human impacts relating to land use. We have used this evidence base to develop global and regional statistical models of how local biodiversity responds to these measures. We describe and make freely available this 2016 release of the database, containing more than 3.2 million records sampled at over 26,000 locations and representing over 47,000 species. We outline how the database can help in answering a range of questions in ecology and conservation biology. To our knowledge, this is the largest and most geographically and taxonomically representative database of spatial comparisons of biodiversity that has been collated to date; it will be useful to researchers and international efforts wishing to model and understand the global status of biodiversity.