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  1. Praveena SM, Shamira SS, Ismail SNS, Aris AZ
    Mar Pollut Bull, 2016 Sep 15;110(1):609-612.
    PMID: 27289286 DOI: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2016.06.024
    This pilot study aims to assess Escherichia coli (E. coli) contamination and its perceived health risks among beachgoers in ten tropical beach sands along Port Dickson coastline (Malaysia). This study also aims to determine the relationship between perceived health symptoms and tropical beach sand exposure behavior. The concentration of E. coli in tropical beach sand ranged from 60cfu/100g to 4113cfu/100g. E. coli contamination was the highest at Tanjung Gemuk (4113±30cfu/100g) and the lowest at Tanjung Tuan (60±15cfu/100g); the high level of contamination could be due to the location of the former at the sewage outlet of nearby hotels. Skin symptoms were the most predominant among the health symptoms indicated by beachgoers. Exposure duration was significantly correlated with the perceived health symptoms among beachgoers in the beaches studied.
  2. Dom NC, Alhothily IA, Camalxaman SN, Ismail SNS
    Data Brief, 2020 Aug;31:105882.
    PMID: 32642511 DOI: 10.1016/j.dib.2020.105882
    In this article, data on the demographic parameters of the Aedes albopictus were collected from those areas in Shah Alam, Malaysia that had experienced a dengue outbreak. The surveys were conducted from March to December 2017. The eggs of the Ae. albopictus were collected using ovitraps, and were analysed based on the demographic parameters in a controlled environment in an insectarium. The data were comprised of four types of biological information on the life demographic parameters of the Ae. albopictus that were monitored based on specific localities. The data were inferred information regarding egg productivity (n), egg development (%), immature development (days), and survivorship (days).
  3. Ting YF, Praveena SM, Aris AZ, Ismail SNS, Rasdi I
    Ecotoxicology, 2017 Dec;26(10):1327-1335.
    PMID: 28975452 DOI: 10.1007/s10646-017-1857-5
    Steroid estrogens such as 17β-Estradiol (E2) and 17α-Ethynylestradiol (EE2) are highly potent estrogens that widely detected in environmental samples. Mathematical modelling such as concentration addition (CA) and estradiol equivalent concentration (EEQ) models are usually associated with measuring techniques to assess risk, predict the mixture response and evaluate the estrogenic activity of mixture. Wastewater has played a crucial role because wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) is the major sources of estrogenic activity in aquatic environment. The aims of this is to determine E2 and EE2 concentrations in six WWTPs effluent, to predict the estrogenic activity of the WWTPs effluent using CA and EEQ models where lastly the effectiveness of two models is evaluated. Results showed that all the six WWTPs effluent had relative high E2 concentration (35.1-85.2 ng/L) compared to EE2 (0.02-1.0 ng/L). The estrogenic activity predicted by CA model was similar among the six WWTPs (105.4 ng/L), due to the similarity of individual dose potency ratio calculated by respective WWTPs. The predicted total EEQ was ranged from 35.1 EEQ-ng/L to 85.3 EEQ-ng/L, explained by high E2 concentration in WWTPs effluent and E2 EEF value that standardized to 1.0 μg/L. The CA model is more effective than EEQ model in estrogenic activity prediction because EEQ model used less data and causes disassociation from the predicted behavior. Although both models predicted relative high estrogenic activity in WWTPs effluent, dilution effects in receiving river may lower the estrogenic response to aquatic inhabitants.
  4. Rahim MH, Dom NC, Ismail SNS, Mulud ZA, Abdullah S, Pradhan B
    One Health, 2021 Jun;12:100222.
    PMID: 33553566 DOI: 10.1016/j.onehlt.2021.100222
    This study has highlighted the trend of recently-reported dengue cases after the implementation of the Movement Control Orders (MCOs) caused due to COVID-19 pandemic in Malaysia. The researchers used the dengue surveillance data published by the Malaysian Ministry of Health during the 3 phases of MCO (which ranged between 17th March 2020 and 28th April 2020) was used for determining the cumulative number of dengue patients. Thereafter, the dengue cases were mapped using the Geographical Information System (GIS). The results indicated that during the 42 days of MCO in Peninsular Malaysia, 11,242 total cases of dengue were reported. The daily trend of the dengue cases showed a decrease from 7268 cases that occurred before the MCOs to 4662 dengue cases that occurred during the initial 14 days of the COVID-19 pandemic (i.e., MCO I), to 3075 cases occurring during the MCO II and 3505 dengue cases noted during MCO III. The central peninsular region showed a maximal decrease in new dengue cases (52.62%), followed by the northern peninsular region (1.89%); eastern coastal region (1.25%) and the southern peninsular region (1.14%) during the initial MCO implementation. However, an increase in the new dengue cases was noted during the MCO III period, wherein all states showed an increase in the new dengue cases as compared during MCO II. The decrease in the pattern was not solely based on the MCO, hence, further investigation is necessary after considering different influencing factors. These results have important implication for future large-scale risk assessment, planning and hazard mitigation on dengue management.
  5. Adnan RA, Ramli MF, Othman HF, Asha'ri ZH, Ismail SNS, Samsudin S
    Acta Trop, 2021 Apr;216:105834.
    PMID: 33485870 DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2021.105834
    BACKGROUND: Dengue incidence has grown dramatically around the world in recent years. Vector control is the only method to reduce dengue incidence due to the lack of a vaccine available. By understanding the factors contributed to the vector densities such as environmental and sociological factors, dengue prevention and control may succeed.

    OBJECTIVE: This study is aimed at determining the impact of sociological and environmental factors contributing to dengue cases.

    METHODS: The study surveyed 379 respondents with dengue history. The socio-environmental factors were evaluated by chi-square and binary regression.

    RESULT: The chi-square results revealed sociological factors associated between family with dengue experience such as older age (p =0.012), fewer than four people in the household (p= 0.008), working people (p= 0.004) and apartment/terrace houses (p=0.023). Similarly, there is a significant association between respondent's dengue history and houses that are shaded with vegetation (p= 0.012) and the present of public playground areas near the residential (p = 0.011).

    CONCLUSION: The study identified socio-environmental factors that play an important role in the abundance of Aedes mosquitoes and also for the local dengue control measures.

  6. Brohan MA, Dom NC, Ishak AR, Abdullah S, Salim H, Ismail SNS, et al.
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2021 Dec;28(46):66501-66509.
    PMID: 34665420 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-021-17049-6
    This study intends to deal with the environmental consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic in Malaysia, by providing a summary of the effects of COVID-19 on municipal solid waste (MSW). In this analysis, the data on domestic waste collection were collected from the Solid Waste Management and Public Cleaning Corporation (SWCorp) from 1 January 2020 to 31 December 2020 to evaluate the relative changes in MSW percentage via a waste weighing method. The data consisted of the cumulative tonnage of MSW for every local authority in Peninsular Malaysia and was classified according to MCO phases; before the MCO, during the MCO, during the conditional MCO (CMCO) and during the recovery MCO (RMCO) phases. The results indicated that the enforcement of the early MCO showed a positive effect by decreasing the volume of MSW. This decrease was noted across 41 local authorities, which accounts for 87.23% of Peninsular Malaysia. However, the amount of MSW began to increase again when the MCO reached the conditional and recovery stages. From this, it can be concluded that the implementation of the MCO, in its various incarnations, has shown us that our lifestyles can have a harmful impact on our environment. While the pandemic was still spreading and limitations were still in place in Malaysia, local governments and waste management companies had to quickly alter their waste management systems and procedures. The current circumstance allows us to rethink our social and economic structures while improving environmental and social inclusion.
  7. Fadhullah W, Imran NIN, Ismail SNS, Jaafar MH, Abdullah H
    BMC Public Health, 2022 Jan 05;22(1):1.
    PMID: 34983455 DOI: 10.1186/s12889-021-12274-7
    BACKGROUND: Poor waste disposal practices hamper the progress towards an integrated solid waste management in households. Knowledge of current practices and perception of household solid waste management is necessary for accurate decision making in the move towards a more sustainable approach. This study investigates the household waste practices and perceptions about waste management in Panji, one of the sub-districts in Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia.

    METHODS: A stratified random sampling technique using a cross-sectional survey questionnaire was used to collect data. A total of 338 households were interviewed in the survey and data were analyzed using SPSS. Chi-square goodness of fit test was used to determine the relationships between categorical variables, whereas Chi-square bivariate correlation test was performed to observe the correlation between the perceptions of waste segregation with socio-demographic background of the respondents. The correlation between perception of respondents with the locality, house type and waste type were also conducted. Principal component analysis was used to identify grouping of variables and to establish which factors were interrelated in any given construct.

    RESULTS: The results of the study revealed that 74.3 % of households disposed of food debris as waste and 18.3% disposed of plastic materials as waste. The study also showed that 50.3% of the households segregate their waste while 49.7% did not. About 95.9% of the respondents were aware that improper waste management leads to disease; such as diarrhea and malaria. There were associations between locality, age and house type with waste segregation practices among respondents (Chi-square test, p<0.05). Associations were also found between locality with the perception of improper waste management which lead to disease (Chi-square test, p<0.05). Principal Component Analysis showed that 17.94% of the variance has high positive loading (positive relationship) with age, marital status and, type of house.

    CONCLUSION: This study highlights the importance to design waste separation programs that suit the needs of targeted population as a boost towards sustainable solid waste management practices.

  8. Mohd Tariq MN, Shahar HK, Baharudin MR, Ismail SNS, Manaf RA, Salmiah MS, et al.
    BMC Public Health, 2021 09 24;21(1):1735.
    PMID: 34560858 DOI: 10.1186/s12889-021-11719-3
    BACKGROUND: Flood disaster preparedness among the community seldom received attention. Necessary intervention must be taken to prevent the problem. Health Education Based Intervention (HEBI) was developed following the Health Belief Model, particularly in improving flood disaster preparedness among the community. The main objective of this study is to assess the effect of HEBI on improving flood disaster preparedness among the community in Selangor. This study aims to develop, implement, and evaluate the impact of health education-based intervention (HEBI) based on knowledge, skills, and preparedness to improve flood disaster preparedness among the community in Selangor.

    METHOD: A single-blind cluster randomized controlled trial will conduct at six districts in Selangor. Randomly selected respondents who fulfilled the inclusion criteria will be invited to participate in the study. Health education module based on Health Believed Theory will be delivered via health talks and videos coordinated by liaison officers. Data at three-time points at baseline, immediate, and 3 months post-intervention will be collected. A validated questionnaire will assess participants' background characteristics, knowledge, skill, and preparedness on disaster preparedness and perception towards disaster. Descriptive and inferential statistics will be applied for data analysis using IBM Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 25. Longitudinal correlated data on knowledge, skills, preparedness, and perception score at baseline, immediate post-intervention, and 6 months post-intervention will be analyzed using Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE).

    DISCUSSION: It is expected that knowledge, skills, preparedness, and flood disaster perception score are more significant in the intervention group than the control group, indicating the Health Education Based Intervention (HEBI).

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: Thai Clinical Trial TCTR20200202002 .

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