Methods: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and Ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP) were applied to evaluate the antioxidant activity of carob. In vitro cytotoxicity of carob was conducted on human hepatocytes (WRL68) and rat pancreatic β-cells (RIN-5F). Acute oral toxicity of carob was conducted on a total of 18 male and 18 female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, which were subdivided into three groups (n = 6), namely: high and low dose carob-treated (CS5000 and CS2000, respectively) as well as the normal control (NC) receiving a single oral dose of 5,000 mg kg-1 carob, 2,000 mg kg-1 carob and 5 mL kg-1 distilled water for 14 days, respectively. Alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, total bilirubin, creatinine and urea were assessed. Livers and kidneys were harvested for histopathology. In vitro inhibitory effect against α-amylase and α-glucosidase was evaluated. In vivo glycemic activity was conducted on 24 male SD rats which were previously intraperitoneally injected with 55 mg kg-1 streptozotocin (STZ) followed by 210 mg kg-1nicotinamide to induce type 2 diabetes mellitus. An extra non-injected group (n = 6) was added as a normal control (NC). The injected-rats were divided into four groups (n = 6), namely: diabetic control (D0), 5 mg kg-1glibenclamide-treated diabetic (GD), 500 mg kg-1 carob-treated diabetic (CS500) and 1,000 mg kg-1 carob-treated diabetic (CS1000). All groups received a single oral daily dose of their treatment for 4 weeks. Body weight, fasting blood glucose (FBG), oral glucose tolerance test, biochemistry, insulin and hemostatic model assessment were assessed. Pancreases was harvested for histopathology.
Results: Carob demonstrated a FRAP value of 3191.67 ± 54.34 µmoL Fe++ and IC50 of DPPH of 11.23 ± 0.47 µg mL-1. In vitro, carob was non-toxic on hepatocytes and pancreatic β-cells. In acute oral toxicity, liver and kidney functions and their histological sections showed no abnormalities. Carob exerted an in vitro inhibitory effect against α-amylase and α-glucosidase with IC50 of 92.99 ± 0.22 and 97.13 ± 4.11 µg mL-1, respectively. In diabetic induced rats, FBG of CS1000 was significantly less than diabetic control. Histological pancreatic sections of CS1000 showed less destruction of β-cells than CS500 and diabetic control.
Conclusion: Carob pod did not cause acute systemic toxicity and showed in vitro antioxidant effects. On the other hand, inhibiting α-amylase and α-glucosidase was evident. Interestingly, a high dose of carob exhibits an in vivo antihyperglycemic activity and warrants further in-depth study to identify the potential carob extract composition.
METHODS: The osteogenic potential of the OPG-chitosan gel was evaluated in rabbits. Critical-sized defects were created in the calvarial bone, which were either left unfilled (control; group I), or filled with chitosan gel (group II) or OPG-chitosan gel (group III), with rabbits sacrificed at 6 and 12 weeks. Bone samples from the surgical area were decalcified and treated with routine histological and immunohistochemical protocols using OC, OPN, and cathepsin K (osteoclast marker) antibodies. The toxicity of the OPG-chitosan gel was evaluated by biochemical assays (liver and kidney function tests).
RESULTS: The mean bone growth in defects filled with the OPG-chitosan gel was significantly higher than those filled with the chitosan gel or the unfilled group (p