OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to systematically review published evidence on the effectiveness of CAL in disseminating oral health care information to patients and caregivers.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A structured comprehensive search was undertaken among 7 electronic databases (PUBMED, CINAHL Plus, EMBASE, SCOPUS, WEB of SCIENCE, the Cochrane Library, and PsycINFO) to identify relevant studies. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies were included in this review. Papers were screened by 2 independent reviewers, and studies that met the inclusion criteria were selected for further assessment.
RESULTS: A total of 2915 papers were screened, and full texts of 53 potentially relevant papers (κ = 0.885) were retrieved. A total of 5 studies that met the inclusion criteria (1 RCT, 1 quasi-experimental study, and 3 post-intervention studies) were identified. Outcome measures included knowledge, attitude, behavior, and oral health. Significant improvements in clinical oral health parameters (P
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A large scale survey of 13 centers in Malaysia was conducted involving 806 nurses in relation to oral hygiene care intentions and practices. In addition, information on personal and environmental factors was collected.
RESULTS: The response rate was 95.6% (778/806). The domains of the Theory of Planned Behavior were significantly associated with general intention to perform oral hygiene care: attitudes (β = 0.21, p
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a Web-based continuing professional development (CPD) program on "general intention" of the health carers to perform daily mouth cleaning for stroke patients using the theory of planned behavior (TPB).
METHODS: A double-blind cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted among 547 stroke care providers across 10 hospitals in Malaysia. The centers were block randomized to receive either (1) test intervention (a Web-based CPD program on providing oral hygiene care to stroke patients using TPB) or (2) control intervention (a Web-based CPD program not specific to oral hygiene). Domains of TPB: "attitude," "subjective norm" (SN), "perceived behavior control" (PBC), "general intention" (GI), and "knowledge" related to providing oral hygiene care were assessed preintervention and at 1 month and 6 months postintervention.
RESULTS: The overall response rate was 68.2% (373/547). At 1 month, between the test and control groups, there was a significant difference in changes in scores of attitude (P=.004) and subjective norm (P=.01), but not in other TPB domains (GI, P=.11; PBC, P=.51; or knowledge, P=.08). At 6 months, there were significant differences in changes in scores of GI (P=.003), attitude (P=.009), SN (P
METHODS: A multicenter randomized clinical trial was conducted on hospitalized stroke survivors. Those in the control group were given standard care of oral hygiene (a manual toothbrush and toothpaste), whereas those in the test group were given intense care of oral hygiene (a powered toothbrush and 1% chlorhexidine oral gel). Oral clinical assessments were carried out, and microbiological samples were collected, using concentrated oral rinse samples at 3 time points: baseline, 3 months, and 6 months.
RESULTS: The prevalence of oral yeast was significantly reduced in the test group at 6 months (P < .05), but no significant difference was observed over time. A significant reduction was observed in the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus (P < .01) and aerobic and facultative gram-negative bacilli over time (P < .05), but there were no significant differences noted between groups at 6 months. Candida albicans and Klebsiella pneumoniae were the prominent pathogens determined throughout the trial. Kluyvera strains have also been isolated from this cohort.
CONCLUSION: Oral hygiene intervention using a powered tooth brush and 1% chlorhexidine oral gel was effective in reducing the prevalence of oral opportunistic pathogens.
RESULTS: We found evidence of genetic influx from Indians to Malays, more in Melayu Kedah and Melayu Kelantan which are genetically different from the other Malay sub-ethnic groups, but similar to Thai Pattani. More than 98% of these northern Malays haplotypes could be found in either Indians or Chinese populations, indicating a highly admixture pattern among populations. Nevertheless, the ancestry lines of Malays, Indonesians and Thais were traced back to have shared a common ancestor with the Proto-Malays and Chinese.
CONCLUSIONS: These results support genetic admixtures in the Peninsular Malaysia Malay populations and provided valuable information on the enigmatic demographical history as well as shed some insights into the origins of the Malays in the Malay Peninsula.