Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 21 in total

  1. Jin LZ, Ho YW, Abdullah N, Jalaludin S
    Poult. Sci., 1998 Sep;77(9):1259-65.
    PMID: 9733111
    A study was conducted to determine the effects of adherent Lactobacillus culture on growth performance, intestinal microbial population, and serum cholesterol level of broilers. Four dietary treatments, consisting of the basal diet (control), basal diet + 0.05, 0.10, or 0.15% Lactobacillus culture (LC), were fed to 2,000 Arbor Acres broiler chicks from 1 to 42 d of age (DOA). The chicks were randomly assigned to 40 cages (50 chicks per cage, 10 cages per diet). The experimental period was 42 d. Body weights and feed to gain ratio were measured at 21 and 42 DOA. The intestinal microbial populations and serum cholesterol levels were determined at 10, 20, 30, and 40 DOA. The results showed that body weights and feed to gain ratios were improved significantly (P < 0.05) when compared to control broilers for broilers fed diets containing 0.05 or 0.10% LC, but not 0.15% LC, at 21 and 42 DOA. Coliform counts in the cecum of birds receiving 0.05% LC at 10, 20, and 30 DOA, and 0.10% at 10 and 20 DOA were significantly lower (P < 0.05) than those of the control birds. The total aerobes, total anaerobes, lactobacilli, and streptococci in the small intestines and ceca of the control birds were not significantly different from those of the treated groups. Serum cholesterol levels were significantly lower (P < 0.05) in broilers fed the three diets containing LC at 30 DOA, and in the birds fed 0.05 or 0.10% LC at 20 DOA.
  2. Jin LZ, Ho YW, Abdullah N, Jalaludin S
    Lett. Appl. Microbiol., 1998 Sep;27(3):183-5.
    PMID: 9750324
    Twelve Lactobacillus strains isolated from chicken intestine were used to investigate acid and bile tolerance in vitro. Ten out of the 12 strains were slightly affected by 0.3% bile salts, showing a delay of growth (d) of 0.6-37.2 min compared with growth in control cultures. Two strains were not affected by the bile salts. Of the 12 strains, seven could be arbitrarily classified as resistant (d < 15 min) and five as tolerant (15 min < d < or = 40 min). Lactobacillus strains from the caecum showed better tolerance to acid than those from the ileum. Generally, the survival of the ileal strains was very low at pH 1.0 and 2.0, and moderate at pH 3.0. In contrast, caecal Lactobacillus strains could survive at pH 1.0 for up to 2 h of incubation; growth was moderate at pH 2.0 and good at pH 3.0 and 4.0.
  3. Jin LZ, Ho YW, Ali MA, Abdullah N, Jalaludin S
    J. Appl. Bacteriol., 1996 Aug;81(2):201-6.
    PMID: 8760330
    Single strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lact. fermentum, isolated from chicken intestine, were used to study in vitro interactions with Salmonella enteritidis, Salm. pullorum or Salm. typhimurium in an ileal epithelial cell (IEC) radioactive assay. Exclusion, competition and displacement phenomena were investigated by respectively incubating (a) lactobacilli and IEC together, prior to addition of salmonellae, (b) lactobacilli, IEC and salmonellae together, and (c) salmonellae and IEC, followed by the lactobacilli. Lactobacilli were selected for study because of their strong ability to adhere to IEC and poor aggregation with salmonellae. The results demonstrated that Lact. acidophilus significantly reduced (P < 0.05) the attachment of Salm. pullorum to IEC in the tests for exclusion and competition, but not in the displacement tests. Lactobacillus fermentum was found to have some ability to reduce the attachment of Salm. typhimurium to IEC under the conditions of exclusion (P < 0.08), competition (P < 0.09), but not displacement. However, both Lact. acidophilus and Lact. fermentum were unable to reduce the adherence of Salm. enteritidis to IEC under any of the conditions.
  4. Jin LZ, Ho YW, Abdullah N, Ali MA, Jalaludin S
    J. Appl. Microbiol., 1998 Jun;84(6):1171-4.
    PMID: 9717304
    Two Lactobacillus isolates, Lact. acidophilus I 26 and Lact. fermentum I 25, were selected, based on their poor aggregation with Escherichia coli and strong ability to adhere to ileal epithelial cells (IEC), to study in vitro interactions with E. coli O1:K1, O2:K1 and O78:K80 in an IEC radioactive-assay under the conditions of exclusion (lactobacilli and IEC, followed by the addition of E. coli), competition (lactobacilli, IEC and E. coli together) and displacement (E. coli and IEC, followed by the addition of lactobacilli). The results indicated that Lact. acidophilus I 26 and Lact. fermentum I 25 could not significantly reduce the attachment of E. coli O1:K1, O2:K1 and O78:K80 to IEC under the three conditions tested in vitro, except that the attachment of E. coli O1:K1 was slightly reduced by Lact. fermentum I 25 in the test for competition.
  5. Jin LZ, Ho YW, Abdullah N, Ali MA, Jalaludin S
    Lett. Appl. Microbiol., 1996 Aug;23(2):67-71.
    PMID: 8987444
    Twelve Lactobacillus strains isolated from chicken intestine, which demonstrated a strong and moderate capacity to adhere to the ileal epithelial cells in vitro, were used to investigate their inhibitory ability against five strains of salmonella, i.e. Salmonella enteritidis 935/79, Salm. pullorum, Salm. typhimurium, Salm. blockley and Salm. enteritidis 94/448, and three serotypes of Escherichia coli, viz. E. coli O1:K1, O2:K1 and O78:K80. The results showed that all the 12 Lactobacillus isolates were able to inhibit the growth of the five strains of salmonella, and the three strains of E. coli in varying degrees. Generally, they were more effective in inhibiting the growth of salmonella than E. coli. Inhibition of the pathogenic bacteria was probably due to the production of organic acids by the Lactobacillus isolates.
  6. Ramanathan K, Jin LE, Keat TC, Omar-Ahmad DU
    Dent J Malaysia Singapore, 1970 May;10(1):15-34.
    PMID: 5271011
  7. Ab Malik N, M Yatim S, Lam OLT, Jin L, McGrath C
    JDR Clin Trans Res, 2017 Jul;2(3):312-319.
    PMID: 30938632 DOI: 10.1177/2380084417693784
    During a stroke, the mouth tends to become an unhealthy place and may give rise to various life-threatening conditions. To this end, there have been repeated calls to incorporate oral hygiene guidelines and practices for hospitalized stroke patients to prevent aspiration pneumonia and improve patients' oral health. The objective of the study was to determine health care providers' practices of oral health care among patients hospitalized after an occurrence of stroke and to determine health care providers' background and work environment effect on these practices. A cross-sectional study was conducted among stroke care providers in 13 public hospitals in Malaysia. The questionnaires distributed were self-administered, where nursing staff provided details of their oral health care practices for stroke patients. Information on the background of health care providers and work environment was also collected. Overall, a total of 780 responses from the registered nurses were obtained. Almost half of the respondents (48.1%) reported that they recommended toothbrushing twice or more per day to stroke patients. Two-thirds (64.7%) reported that they performed daily mouthwashing on their patient, while less than half (38.8%) reported daily oral hygiene assistance. Result of the analysis revealed that oral hygiene practices were significantly associated with having working wards ( P < 0.05), level of qualification ( P < 0.05), having oral health care guidelines ( P < 0.001), specific resources ( P < 0.05), and attending previous training in oral care ( P < 0.001). Provision of oral hygiene practices for hospitalized stroke patients is important. A lack of oral health care guidelines, support from dental professionals, specific resources, training, and assistance in daily oral care for patients is evident and detrimental to oral hygiene practices. The current findings have significant implications for new initiatives to support health care providers, particularly the registered nurses performing oral health care for hospitalized stroke patients. Knowledge Transfer Statement: This study may provide a basis of information for improving the delivery of oral health care to stroke patients. Enhancement in the training and improvement in the existing guidelines and resources is pivotal for the provision of better oral health care for the potential benefits to these patients, including their improved quality of life and disease prevention.
  8. Ab Malik N, Zhang J, Lam OL, Jin L, McGrath C
    J Am Med Inform Assoc, 2017 Jan;24(1):209-217.
    PMID: 27274013 DOI: 10.1093/jamia/ocw045
    Computer-aided learning (CAL) offers enormous potential in disseminating oral health care information to patients and caregivers. The effectiveness of CAL, however, remains unclear.

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to systematically review published evidence on the effectiveness of CAL in disseminating oral health care information to patients and caregivers.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A structured comprehensive search was undertaken among 7 electronic databases (PUBMED, CINAHL Plus, EMBASE, SCOPUS, WEB of SCIENCE, the Cochrane Library, and PsycINFO) to identify relevant studies. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies were included in this review. Papers were screened by 2 independent reviewers, and studies that met the inclusion criteria were selected for further assessment.

    RESULTS: A total of 2915 papers were screened, and full texts of 53 potentially relevant papers (κ = 0.885) were retrieved. A total of 5 studies that met the inclusion criteria (1 RCT, 1 quasi-experimental study, and 3 post-intervention studies) were identified. Outcome measures included knowledge, attitude, behavior, and oral health. Significant improvements in clinical oral health parameters (P 

  9. Jin LZ, Ho YW, Ali MA, Abdullah N, Ong KB, Jalaludin S
    Lett. Appl. Microbiol., 1996 Mar;22(3):229-32.
    PMID: 8852352
    A total of 46 Lactobacillus isolates obtained from chicken intestine were assessed on their ability to adhere to the chicken ileal epithelial cell (IEC) in vitro. Twelve out of the 46 isolates showed moderate to good ability to adhere to the IEC. Temperature (between 4 degrees C and 42 degrees C) did not affect attachment. Incubation (contact) time of 30 min was found to be insufficient for the attachment of bacteria to the IEC, but contact time beyond 1 h did not increase this ability. The pH values (4-7) of the suspending buffer did not have any significant effect on the attachment of bacteria to the IEC, but at pH 8 it was reduced significantly (P < 0.05).
  10. Ab Malik N, Mohamad Yatim S, Lam OLT, Jin L, McGrath C
    Disabil Rehabil, 2018 04;40(8):889-893.
    PMID: 28129510 DOI: 10.1080/09638288.2016.1277397
    OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to examine "intention to" and "performance of" oral hygiene care to stroke patients using the Theory of Planned Behavior.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A large scale survey of 13 centers in Malaysia was conducted involving 806 nurses in relation to oral hygiene care intentions and practices. In addition, information on personal and environmental factors was collected.

    RESULTS: The response rate was 95.6% (778/806). The domains of the Theory of Planned Behavior were significantly associated with general intention to perform oral hygiene care: attitudes (β = 0.21, p 

  11. Ab Malik N, Mohamad Yatim S, Lam OL, Jin L, McGrath CP
    J. Med. Internet Res., 2017 03 31;19(3):e87.
    PMID: 28363880 DOI: 10.2196/jmir.7024
    BACKGROUND: Oral hygiene care is of key importance among stroke patients to prevent complications that may compromise rehabilitation or potentially give rise to life-threatening infections such as aspiration pneumonia.

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a Web-based continuing professional development (CPD) program on "general intention" of the health carers to perform daily mouth cleaning for stroke patients using the theory of planned behavior (TPB).

    METHODS: A double-blind cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted among 547 stroke care providers across 10 hospitals in Malaysia. The centers were block randomized to receive either (1) test intervention (a Web-based CPD program on providing oral hygiene care to stroke patients using TPB) or (2) control intervention (a Web-based CPD program not specific to oral hygiene). Domains of TPB: "attitude," "subjective norm" (SN), "perceived behavior control" (PBC), "general intention" (GI), and "knowledge" related to providing oral hygiene care were assessed preintervention and at 1 month and 6 months postintervention.

    RESULTS: The overall response rate was 68.2% (373/547). At 1 month, between the test and control groups, there was a significant difference in changes in scores of attitude (P=.004) and subjective norm (P=.01), but not in other TPB domains (GI, P=.11; PBC, P=.51; or knowledge, P=.08). At 6 months, there were significant differences in changes in scores of GI (P=.003), attitude (P=.009), SN (P

  12. Ab Malik N, Mohamad Yatim S, Abdul Razak F, Lam OLT, Jin L, Li LSW, et al.
    J Oral Rehabil, 2018 Feb;45(2):132-139.
    PMID: 29090475 DOI: 10.1111/joor.12582
    Maintaining good oral hygiene is important following stroke. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of two oral health promotion (OHP) programmes to reduce dental plaque levels following stroke. A multi-centre randomised clinical control trial was conducted among patients hospitalised following stroke in Malaysia. Patients were randomly allocated to two OHP groups: (i) control group who received the conventional method for plaque control-daily manual tooth brushing with a standardised commercial toothpaste, (ii) test group-who received an intense method for plaque control-daily powered tooth brushing with 1% Chlorhexidine gel. Oral health assessments were performed at baseline, at 3 months and 6 months post-intervention. Within- and between-group changes in dental plaque were assessed over time. Regression analyses were conducted on dental plaque levels at 6 months controlling for OHP group, medical, dental and socio-demographic status. The retention rate was 62.7% (54 of 86 subjects). Significant within-group changes of dental plaque levels were evident among the test group (P  .05). Regression analyses identified that baseline plaque levels (adjusted ß = 0.79, P 
  13. Hatin WI, Nur-Shafawati AR, Zahri MK, Xu S, Jin L, Tan SG, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2011;6(4):e18312.
    PMID: 21483678 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0018312
    Patterns of modern human population structure are helpful in understanding the history of human migration and admixture. We conducted a study on genetic structure of the Malay population in Malaysia, using 54,794 genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism genotype data generated in four Malay sub-ethnic groups in peninsular Malaysia (Melayu Kelantan, Melayu Minang, Melayu Jawa and Melayu Bugis). To the best of our knowledge this is the first study conducted on these four Malay sub-ethnic groups and the analysis of genotype data of these four groups were compiled together with 11 other populations' genotype data from Indonesia, China, India, Africa and indigenous populations in Peninsular Malaysia obtained from the Pan-Asian SNP database. The phylogeny of populations showed that all of the four Malay sub-ethnic groups are separated into at least three different clusters. The Melayu Jawa, Melayu Bugis and Melayu Minang have a very close genetic relationship with Indonesian populations indicating a common ancestral history, while the Melayu Kelantan formed a distinct group on the tree indicating that they are genetically different from the other Malay sub-ethnic groups. We have detected genetic structuring among the Malay populations and this could possibly be accounted for by their different historical origins. Our results provide information of the genetic differentiation between these populations and a valuable insight into the origins of the Malay sub-ethnic groups in Peninsular Malaysia.
  14. Ab Malik N, Abdul Razak F, Mohamad Yatim S, Lam OLT, Jin L, Li LSW, et al.
    J Evid Based Dent Pract, 2018 06;18(2):99-109.
    PMID: 29747810 DOI: 10.1016/j.jebdp.2017.08.002
    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the presence of oral opportunistic pathogens among stroke survivors, both before and after oral health care interventions.

    METHODS: A multicenter randomized clinical trial was conducted on hospitalized stroke survivors. Those in the control group were given standard care of oral hygiene (a manual toothbrush and toothpaste), whereas those in the test group were given intense care of oral hygiene (a powered toothbrush and 1% chlorhexidine oral gel). Oral clinical assessments were carried out, and microbiological samples were collected, using concentrated oral rinse samples at 3 time points: baseline, 3 months, and 6 months.

    RESULTS: The prevalence of oral yeast was significantly reduced in the test group at 6 months (P < .05), but no significant difference was observed over time. A significant reduction was observed in the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus (P < .01) and aerobic and facultative gram-negative bacilli over time (P < .05), but there were no significant differences noted between groups at 6 months. Candida albicans and Klebsiella pneumoniae were the prominent pathogens determined throughout the trial. Kluyvera strains have also been isolated from this cohort.

    CONCLUSION: Oral hygiene intervention using a powered tooth brush and 1% chlorhexidine oral gel was effective in reducing the prevalence of oral opportunistic pathogens.

  15. Lou H, Lu Y, Lu D, Fu R, Wang X, Feng Q, et al.
    Am. J. Hum. Genet., 2015 Jul 2;97(1):54-66.
    PMID: 26073780 DOI: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2015.05.005
    Tibetan high-altitude adaptation (HAA) has been studied extensively, and many candidate genes have been reported. Subsequent efforts targeting HAA functional variants, however, have not been that successful (e.g., no functional variant has been suggested for the top candidate HAA gene, EPAS1). With WinXPCNVer, a method developed in this study, we detected in microarray data a Tibetan-enriched deletion (TED) carried by 90% of Tibetans; 50% were homozygous for the deletion, whereas only 3% carried the TED and 0% carried the homozygous deletion in 2,792 worldwide samples (p < 10(-15)). We employed long PCR and Sanger sequencing technologies to determine the exact copy number and breakpoints of the TED in 70 additional Tibetan and 182 diverse samples. The TED had identical boundaries (chr2: 46,694,276-46,697,683; hg19) and was 80 kb downstream of EPAS1. Notably, the TED was in strong linkage disequilibrium (LD; r(2) = 0.8) with EPAS1 variants associated with reduced blood concentrations of hemoglobin. It was also in complete LD with the 5-SNP motif, which was suspected to be introgressed from Denisovans, but the deletion itself was absent from the Denisovan sequence. Correspondingly, we detected that footprints of positive selection for the TED occurred 12,803 (95% confidence interval = 12,075-14,725) years ago. We further whole-genome deep sequenced (>60×) seven Tibetans and verified the TED but failed to identify any other copy-number variations with comparable patterns, giving this TED top priority for further study. We speculate that the specific patterns of the TED resulted from its own functionality in HAA of Tibetans or LD with a functional variant of EPAS1.
  16. Hatin WI, Nur-Shafawati AR, Etemad A, Jin W, Qin P, Xu S, et al.
    Hugo J, 2014 Dec;8(1):5.
    PMID: 27090253 DOI: 10.1186/s11568-014-0005-z
    BACKGROUND: The Malays consist of various sub-ethnic groups which are believed to have different ancestral origins based on their migrations centuries ago. The sub-ethnic groups can be divided based on the region they inhabit; the northern (Melayu Kedah and Melayu Kelantan), western (Melayu Minang) and southern parts (Melayu Bugis and Melayu Jawa) of Peninsular Malaysia. We analyzed 54,794 autosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) which were shared by 472 unrelated individuals from 17 populations to determine the genetic structure and distributions of the ancestral genetic components in five Malay sub-ethnic groups namely Melayu Bugis, Melayu Jawa, Melayu Minang, Melayu Kedah, and Melayu Kelantan. We also have included in the analysis 12 other study populations from Thailand, Indonesia, China, India, Africa and Orang Asli sub-groups in Malay Peninsula, obtained from the Pan Asian SNP Initiative (PASNPI) Consortium and International HapMap project database.

    RESULTS: We found evidence of genetic influx from Indians to Malays, more in Melayu Kedah and Melayu Kelantan which are genetically different from the other Malay sub-ethnic groups, but similar to Thai Pattani. More than 98% of these northern Malays haplotypes could be found in either Indians or Chinese populations, indicating a highly admixture pattern among populations. Nevertheless, the ancestry lines of Malays, Indonesians and Thais were traced back to have shared a common ancestor with the Proto-Malays and Chinese.

    CONCLUSIONS: These results support genetic admixtures in the Peninsular Malaysia Malay populations and provided valuable information on the enigmatic demographical history as well as shed some insights into the origins of the Malays in the Malay Peninsula.

  17. Deng L, Hoh BP, Lu D, Fu R, Phipps ME, Li S, et al.
    Hum. Genet., 2014 Sep;133(9):1169-85.
    PMID: 24916469 DOI: 10.1007/s00439-014-1459-8
    Peninsular Malaysia is a strategic region which might have played an important role in the initial peopling and subsequent human migrations in Asia. However, the genetic diversity and history of human populations--especially indigenous populations--inhabiting this area remain poorly understood. Here, we conducted a genome-wide study using over 900,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in four major Malaysian ethnic groups (MEGs; Malay, Proto-Malay, Senoi and Negrito), and made comparisons of 17 world-wide populations. Our data revealed that Peninsular Malaysia has greater genetic diversity corresponding to its role as a contact zone of both early and recent human migrations in Asia. However, each single Orang Asli (indigenous) group was less diverse with a smaller effective population size (N(e)) than a European or an East Asian population, indicating a substantial isolation of some duration for these groups. All four MEGs were genetically more similar to Asian populations than to other continental groups, and the divergence time between MEGs and East Asian populations (12,000--6,000 years ago) was also much shorter than that between East Asians and Europeans. Thus, Malaysian Orang Asli groups, despite their significantly different features, may share a common origin with the other Asian groups. Nevertheless, we identified traces of recent gene flow from non-Asians to MEGs. Finally, natural selection signatures were detected in a batch of genes associated with immune response, human height, skin pigmentation, hair and facial morphology and blood pressure in MEGs. Notable examples include SYN3 which is associated with human height in all Orang Asli groups, a height-related gene (PNPT1) and two blood pressure-related genes (CDH13 and PAX5) in Negritos. We conclude that a long isolation period, subsequent gene flow and local adaptations have jointly shaped the genetic architectures of MEGs, and this study provides insight into the peopling and human migration history in Southeast Asia.
  18. Liu X, Lu D, Saw WY, Shaw PJ, Wangkumhang P, Ngamphiw C, et al.
    Eur. J. Hum. Genet., 2017 04;25(4):499-508.
    PMID: 28098149 DOI: 10.1038/ejhg.2016.181
    The Asian Diversity Project (ADP) assembled 37 cosmopolitan and ethnic minority populations in Asia that have been densely genotyped across over half a million markers to study patterns of genetic diversity and positive natural selection. We performed population structure analyses of the ADP populations and divided these populations into four major groups based on their genographic information. By applying a highly sensitive algorithm haploPS to locate genomic signatures of positive selection, 140 distinct genomic regions exhibiting evidence of positive selection in at least one population were identified. We examined the extent of signal sharing for regions that were selected in multiple populations and observed that populations clustered in a similar fashion to that of how the ancestry clades were phylogenetically defined. In particular, populations predominantly located in South Asia underwent considerably different adaptation as compared with populations from the other geographical regions. Signatures of positive selection present in multiple geographical regions were predicted to be older and have emerged prior to the separation of the populations in the different regions. In contrast, selection signals present in a single population group tended to be of lower frequencies and thus can be attributed to recent evolutionary events.
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