From European and North American data, it is recommended in the Asia Pacific consensus statement, that one week therapy with a proton pump inhibitor, amoxycillin and clarithromycin be used for Helicobacter pylori eradication, in areas of high metronidazole resistance. The efficacy of this regimen is unknown in Singapore.
Since emergence of the Nipah virus (NiV) in 1998 from Malaysia, the NiV virus has reappeared on different occasions causing severe infections in human population associated with high rate of mortality. NiV has been placed along with Hendra virus in genus Henipavirus of family Paramyxoviridae. Fruit bats (Genus Pteropus) are known to be natural host and reservoir of NiV. During the outbreaks from Malaysia and Singapore, the roles of pigs as intermediate host were confirmed. The infection transmitted from bats to pigs and subsequently from pigs to humans. Severe encephalitis was reported in NiV infection often associated with neurological disorders. First NiV outbreak in India occurred in Siliguri district of West Bengal in 2001, where direct transmission of the NiV virus from bats-to-human and human-to-human was reported in contrast to the role of pigs in the Malaysian NiV outbreak. Regular NiV outbreaks have been reported from Bangladesh since 2001 to 2015. The latest outbreak of NiV has been recorded in May, 2018 from Kerala, India which resulted in the death of 17 individuals. Due to lack of vaccines and effective antivirals, Nipah encephalitis poses a great threat to public health. Routine surveillance studies in the infected areas can be useful in detecting early signs of infection and help in containment of these outbreaks.