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  1. Kaushik SP, Vu C
    Aust N Z J Med, 2000 Apr;30(2):231-5.
    PMID: 10833116
    BACKGROUND: From European and North American data, it is recommended in the Asia Pacific consensus statement, that one week therapy with a proton pump inhibitor, amoxycillin and clarithromycin be used for Helicobacter pylori eradication, in areas of high metronidazole resistance. The efficacy of this regimen is unknown in Singapore.

    AIM: To assess the efficacy, safety and compliance of an H. pylori eradication regimen and examine clinical factors that potentially determine eradication.

    METHODS: Consecutive outpatients from a multicultural, south east Asian, population with H. pylori infection, with or without peptic ulcer, were treated with lansoprazole 30 mg, amoxycillin 1 gm, clarithromycin 500 mg, twice a day for seven days. Eradication was assessed by either rapid urease, histology or urea breath test. Compliance and side effects were recorded. The eradication rate and effect of ethnicity, age, sex, usage of alcohol, smoking and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, history of ulcer and endoscopic diagnosis on eradication were examined by univariate and multivariate analysis.

    RESULTS: Of 113 patients, the eradication rate by intention to treat was 98/113 (87%) (95% confidence interval [CI] 80-93%) and per protocol was 98/106 (92%) (95% CI 87-97%). Using Fisher's exact test, eradication was more successful in Chinese (intention to treat and per protocol respectively p=0.02 and p<0.001) compared to non-Chinese. By logistic regression analysis ethnicity was an independent factor associated with eradication success (p=0.0025). Side effects occurred in five (4.4%), resulting in cessation of treatment.

    CONCLUSIONS: This one week eradication regimen is safe and effective in south east Asians. Chinese ethnicity may be associated with a higher likelihood of eradication success.

  2. Sharma V, Kaushik S, Kumar R, Yadav JP, Kaushik S
    Rev. Med. Virol., 2019 01;29(1):e2010.
    PMID: 30251294 DOI: 10.1002/rmv.2010
    Since emergence of the Nipah virus (NiV) in 1998 from Malaysia, the NiV virus has reappeared on different occasions causing severe infections in human population associated with high rate of mortality. NiV has been placed along with Hendra virus in genus Henipavirus of family Paramyxoviridae. Fruit bats (Genus Pteropus) are known to be natural host and reservoir of NiV. During the outbreaks from Malaysia and Singapore, the roles of pigs as intermediate host were confirmed. The infection transmitted from bats to pigs and subsequently from pigs to humans. Severe encephalitis was reported in NiV infection often associated with neurological disorders. First NiV outbreak in India occurred in Siliguri district of West Bengal in 2001, where direct transmission of the NiV virus from bats-to-human and human-to-human was reported in contrast to the role of pigs in the Malaysian NiV outbreak. Regular NiV outbreaks have been reported from Bangladesh since 2001 to 2015. The latest outbreak of NiV has been recorded in May, 2018 from Kerala, India which resulted in the death of 17 individuals. Due to lack of vaccines and effective antivirals, Nipah encephalitis poses a great threat to public health. Routine surveillance studies in the infected areas can be useful in detecting early signs of infection and help in containment of these outbreaks.
  3. Klionsky DJ, Abdelmohsen K, Abe A, Abedin MJ, Abeliovich H, Acevedo Arozena A, et al.
    Autophagy, 2016;12(1):1-222.
    PMID: 26799652 DOI: 10.1080/15548627.2015.1100356
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