Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) bone cements (BCs) have some drawbacks, including limited bioactivity and bone formation, as well as inferior mechanical properties, which may result in failure of the BC. To deal with the mentioned issues, novel bioactive polymethyl methacrylate-hardystonite (PMMA-HT) bone cement (BC) reinforced with 0.25 and 0.5 wt% of carbon nanotube (CNT) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) was synthesized. In this context, the obtained bone cements were evaluated in terms of their mechanical and biological characteristics. The rGO reinforced bone cement exhibited better mechanical properties to the extent that the addition of 0.5 wt% of rGO where its compressive and tensile strength of bioactive PMMA-HT/rGO cement escalated from 92.07 ± 0.72 MPa, and 40.02 ± 0.71 MPa to 187.48 ± 5.79 MPa and 64.92 ± 0.75 MPa, respectively. Besides, the mechanisms of toughening, apatite formation, and cell interaction in CNT and rGO encapsulated PMMA have been studied. Results showed that the existence of CNT and rGO in BCs led to increase of MG63 osteoblast viability, and proliferation. However, rGO reinforced bone cement was more successful in supporting MG63 cell attachment compared to the CNT counterpart due to its wrinkled surface, which made a suitable substrate for cell adhesion. Based on the results, PMMA-HT/rGO can be a proper bone cement for the fixation of load-bearing implants.
The valorization of organosolv pretreatment (OP) is a required approach to the industrialization of the current enzyme-mediated lignocellulosic biorefinery. Recent literature has demonstrated that the solvolysis happening in the OP can modify the soluble components into value-added active compounds, namely organosolv modified lignin (OML) and organosolv modified sugars (OMSs), in addition to protecting them against excessive degradation. Among them, the OML is coincidental with the "lignin-first" strategy that should render a highly reactive lignin enriched with β-O-4 linkages and less condensed structure by organosolv grafting, which is desirable for the transformation into phenolic compounds. The OMSs are valuable glycosidic compounds mainly synthesized by trans-glycosylation, which can find potential applications in cosmetics, foods, and healthcare. Therefore, a state-of-the-art OP holds a big promise of lowering the process cost by the valorization of these active compounds. Recent advances in organosolv modified components are reviewed, and perspectives are made for addressing future challenges.