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  1. Kim TW, Innocenti F
    Per Med, 2007 Nov;4(4):431-434.
    PMID: 29793274 DOI: 10.2217/17410541.4.4.431
    Evaluation of: Jada SR, Lim R, Wong CI et al.: Role ofUGT1A1*6, UGT1A1*28 and ABCG2 c.421C>A polymorphisms in irinotecan-induced neutropenia in Asian cancer patients. Cancer Sci. 98(9), 1461-1467 (2007). The pharmacokinetics and toxicity of irinotecan vary widely among patients. This review focuses primarily on a study of the role of UGT1A1*6, UGT1A1*28, and ABCG2 421C>A in three Asian cancer patient populations treated with a 3-weekly regimen of irinotecan. In that study, a statistically significantly higher level of SN-38 and a relatively lower degree of glucuronidation occurred in patients with the UGT1A1*6 homozygote genotype than in patients with the reference genotype. The UGT1A1*6 allele was associated with an increased risk of severe neutropenia. In addition, the study of gene allele frequencies in three healthy Asian populations indicated that the allelic frequency of UGT1A1*6 was higher in the healthy Chinese subjects than in the Malaysian or Indian subjects. UGT1A1*28 and ABCG2 421C>A were not associated with the pharmacokinetics of SN-38 or the severity of neutropenia. In this evaluation, we put this study into the context of similar studies of irinogenetics (irinotecan pharmacogenetics) in Asians and discuss the application of UGT1A1 testing in Asian cancer patients treated with irinotecan-containing regimens.
  2. Siong FT, Kim TW, Kim SC, Lee ES, Jaffar MSA, Lee YS
    J Arthroplasty, 2020 02;35(2):380-387.
    PMID: 31587980 DOI: 10.1016/j.arth.2019.09.005
    BACKGROUND: The aims of this study were to (1) describe our functional stepwise multiple needle puncturing (MNP) technique as the final step in medial ligament balancing during total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and (2) evaluate whether this technique can provide sufficient medial release with safety.

    METHODS: A total of 137 patients with 212 consecutive knees who underwent TKAs with or without functional stepwise MNP of superficial medial collateral ligament was recruited in this prospective cohort. Eighty-one patients with 129 knees who performed serial stress radiographs were enrolled in the final assessment. Superficial medial collateral ligament was punctured selectively (anteriorly or posteriorly or both) and sequentially depending on the site and degree of tightness. Mediolateral stability was assessed using serial stress radiographs and comparison was performed between the MNP and the non-MNP groups at postoperative 6 months and 1 year. Clinical outcomes were also evaluated between 2 groups.

    RESULTS: Fifty-five TKAs required additional stepwise MNP (anterior needling 19, posterior needling 3, both anterior and posterior needling 33). Preoperative hip-knee-ankle angle and the difference in varus-valgus stress angle showed significant difference between the MNP and the non-MNP groups, respectively (P = .009, P = .037). However, there was no significant difference when comparing the varus-valgus stress angle between the MNP and the non-MNP groups during serial assessment. Clinical outcomes including range of motion also showed no significant differences between the 2 groups.

    CONCLUSION: Functional medial ligament balancing with stepwise MNP can provide sufficient medial release with safety in TKA with varus aligned knee without clinical deterioration or complication such as instability.

    LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level II, Prospective cohort study.

  3. Fong TS, Kim SC, Kim JE, Lee ES, Kim TW, Lee YS
    J Arthroplasty, 2019 09;34(9):1929-1937.
    PMID: 31138501 DOI: 10.1016/j.arth.2019.04.061
    BACKGROUND: This study aimed at assessing the morphometry of resected femurs in Korean patients during total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and comparing these measurements with current Western-designed femoral component dimensions.

    METHODS: This single-blind, prospective, randomized, controlled trial involved intraoperative measurements for 271 femoral component implantations from 3 contemporary TKA systems, with 2 systems offering narrow sizing options. The difference between femoral component dimensions and the resected surface of distal femur was measured in millimeters at 5 distinct zones.

    RESULTS: Overhang of standard femoral component was common in the anterior-medial condyle and anterior-lateral condyle ranging from 50.8% to 99.0% and 21.5% to 88.0%, respectively. With narrow femoral components, the rate of overhang reduced to 21.5%-30.2% and 9.2%-32.1%. Conversely, underhang rates were higher over the anterior flange width, middle medial-lateral and posterior medial-lateral zones. Standard components displayed higher underhang rates at these zones compared to narrow components. The good fit rate for femoral component was low among the 3 systems ranging from 1.0% to 56.0%. System with narrow option sizing increases the underhang rates in males, while improving the component fit among females at similar zones with rate ranging from 5.2% to 52.9%.

    CONCLUSION: Currently available TKA implant designs may not provide a perfect match for the distal femoral shape of the Korean population. The availability of implants with standard and narrow options can substantially improve the optimal fitting of femoral components in the Korean population.

  4. Kim JE, Won S, Jaffar MSA, Lee JI, Kim TW, Lee YS
    Knee, 2020 Jun;27(3):940-948.
    PMID: 32331827 DOI: 10.1016/j.knee.2020.04.008
    BACKGROUND: Open-wedge high tibial osteotomy (OWHTO) produces three- dimensional (3D) geometric changes. Among them, increased posterior tibial slope (PTS), and altered coronal inclination that induces unintended tibial translation may affect anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) status. The purpose of current study was to evaluate the geometric changes following OWHTO, such as increasing PTS and decreasing tibial subluxation, which may affect the status of ACL.

    METHODS: From April 2014 to December 2015, a total of 72 knees in 64 patients that underwent OWHTO, second-look arthroscopy, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) assessment, were enrolled. Preoperative and postoperative coronal and sagittal translation, joint line orientation angle, the distance between medial femoral notch marginal line and medial tibial spine, and PTS were evaluated. ACL status was arthroscopically graded from grade 1 (best) to 4 (worst). The MRI signal of the graft in three portions (proximal, middle, and distal) was graded from grade 1 (best) to 4 (worst).

    RESULTS: High grade (3: partial, and 4: complete rupture) was noted in 28 cases (38.9%) at the second-look arthroscopy compared with 10 cases (13.9%) at index arthroscopy. The MRI signal grade significantly increased at follow up MRI compared with preoperative MRI (P<0.01). An increased signal was commonly noted in the middle and distal portions of the graft.

    CONCLUSIONS: Geometric changes after OWHTO were related to ACL deterioration. The ACL was commonly affected at the middle and distal portions and rarely at the proximal portion. There is a possibility of impingement because of the geometric changes.

    LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level IV.

  5. Lee JI, Jaffar MSA, Choi HG, Kim TW, Lee YS
    J Knee Surg, 2022 Feb;35(3):299-307.
    PMID: 32659817 DOI: 10.1055/s-0040-1713898
    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of isolated medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) reconstruction, regardless of the presence of predisposing factors. A total of 21 knees that underwent isolated MPFL reconstruction from March 2014 to August 2017 were included in this retrospective series. Radiographs of the series of the knee at flexion angles of 20, 40, and 60 degrees were acquired. The patellar position was evaluated using the patellar tilt angle, sulcus angle, congruence angle (CA), and Caton-Deschamps and Blackburne-Peel ratios. To evaluate the clinical outcome, the preoperative and postoperative International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) and Lysholm knee scoring scales were analyzed. To evaluate the postoperative outcomes based on the predisposing factors, the results were separately analyzed for each group. Regarding radiologic outcomes, 20-degree CA was significantly reduced from 10.37 ± 5.96° preoperatively to -0.94 ± 4.11° postoperatively (p = 0.001). In addition, regardless of the predisposing factors, delta values of pre- and postoperation of 20-degree CA were not significantly different in both groups. The IKDC score improved from 53.71 (range: 18-74) preoperatively to 94.71 (range: 86-100) at the last follow-up (p = 0.004), and the Lysholm score improved from 54.28 (range: 10-81) preoperatively to 94.14 (range: 86-100) at the last follow-up (p = 0.010). Isolated MPFL reconstruction provides a safe and effective treatment for patellofemoral instability, even in the presence of mild predisposing factors, such as trochlear dysplasia, increased patella height, increased TT-TG distance, or valgus alignment. This is a Level 4, case series study.
  6. Yoshino T, Arnold D, Taniguchi H, Pentheroudakis G, Yamazaki K, Xu RH, et al.
    Ann Oncol, 2018 01 01;29(1):44-70.
    PMID: 29155929 DOI: 10.1093/annonc/mdx738
    The most recent version of the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) consensus guidelines for the treatment of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) was published in 2016, identifying both a more strategic approach to the administration of the available systemic therapy choices, and a greater emphasis on the use of ablative techniques, including surgery. At the 2016 ESMO Asia Meeting, in December 2016, it was decided by both ESMO and the Japanese Society of Medical Oncology (JSMO) to convene a special guidelines meeting, endorsed by both ESMO and JSMO, immediately after the JSMO 2017 Annual Meeting. The aim was to adapt the ESMO consensus guidelines to take into account the ethnic differences relating to the toxicity as well as other aspects of certain systemic treatments in patients of Asian ethnicity. These guidelines represent the consensus opinions reached by experts in the treatment of patients with mCRC identified by the Presidents of the oncological societies of Japan (JSMO), China (Chinese Society of Clinical Oncology), Korea (Korean Association for Clinical Oncology), Malaysia (Malaysian Oncological Society), Singapore (Singapore Society of Oncology) and Taiwan (Taiwan Oncology Society). The voting was based on scientific evidence and was independent of both the current treatment practices and the drug availability and reimbursement situations in the individual participating Asian countries.
  7. Keam B, Machiels JP, Kim HR, Licitra L, Golusinski W, Gregoire V, et al.
    ESMO Open, 2021 Dec;6(6):100309.
    PMID: 34844180 DOI: 10.1016/j.esmoop.2021.100309
    The most recent version of the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) Clinical Practice Guidelines for the diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oral cavity, larynx, oropharynx and hypopharynx was published in 2020. It was therefore decided by both the ESMO and the Korean Society of Medical Oncology (KSMO) to convene a special, virtual guidelines meeting in July 2021 to adapt the ESMO 2020 guidelines to consider the potential ethnic differences associated with the treatment of SCCs of the head and neck (SCCHN) in Asian patients. These guidelines represent the consensus opinions reached by experts in the treatment of patients with SCCHN (excluding nasopharyngeal carcinomas) representing the oncological societies of Korea (KSMO), China (CSCO), India (ISMPO), Japan (JSMO), Malaysia (MOS), Singapore (SSO) and Taiwan (TOS). The voting was based on scientific evidence and was independent of the current treatment practices and drug access restrictions in the different Asian countries. The latter was discussed when appropriate. This manuscript provides a series of expert recommendations (Clinical Practice Guidelines) which can be used to provide guidance to health care providers and clinicians for the optimisation of the diagnosis, treatment and management of patients with SCC of the oral cavity, larynx, oropharynx and hypopharynx across Asia.
  8. Cheng AL, Li J, Vaid AK, Ma BB, Teh C, Ahn JB, et al.
    Clin Colorectal Cancer, 2014 Sep;13(3):145-55.
    PMID: 25209093 DOI: 10.1016/j.clcc.2014.06.004
    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is among the most common cancers worldwide, but marked epidemiological differences exist between Asian and non-Asian populations. Hence, a consensus meeting was held in Hong Kong in December 2012 to develop Asia-specific guidelines for the management of metastatic CRC (mCRC). A multidisciplinary expert panel, consisting of 23 participants from 10 Asian and 2 European countries, discussed current guidelines for colon or rectal cancer and developed recommendations for adapting these guidelines to Asian clinical practice. Participants agreed that mCRC management in Asia largely follows international guidelines, but they proposed a number of recommendations based on regional 'real-world' experience. In general, participants agreed that 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) infusion regimens in doublets can be substituted with UFT (capecitabine, tegafur-uracil) and S1 (tegafur, 5-chloro-2,4-dihydroxypyridine and oxonic acid), and that the monoclonal antibodies cetuximab and panitumumab are recommended for KRAS wild type tumors. For KRAS mutant tumors, bevacizumab is the preferred biological therapy. FOLFOX (folinic acid, 5-FU, and oxaliplatin) is preferred for initial therapy in Asian patients. The management of mCRC is evolving, and it must be emphasized that the recommendations presented here reflect current treatment practices and thus might change as more data become available.
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