Displaying all 11 publications

  1. Lau CH, Muniandy S
    Genet Mol Biol, 2012 Jan;35(1):38-44.
    PMID: 22481872
    Epistasis (gene-gene interaction) is a ubiquitous component of the genetic architecture of complex traits such as susceptibility to common human diseases. Given the strong negative correlation between circulating adiponectin and resistin levels, the potential intermolecular epistatic interactions between ADIPOQ (SNP+45T > G, SNP+276G > T, SNP+639T > C and SNP+1212A > G) and RETN (SNP-420C > G and SNP+299G > A) gene polymorphisms in the genetic risk underlying type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and metabolic syndrome (MS) were assessed. The potential mutual influence of the ADIPOQ and RETN genes on their adipokine levels was also examined. The rare homozygous genotype (risk alleles) of SNP-420C > G at the RETN locus tended to be co-inherited together with the common homozygous genotypes (protective alleles) of SNP+639T > C and SNP+1212A > G at the ADIPOQ locus. Despite the close structural relationship between the ADIPOQ and RETN genes, there was no evidence of an intermolecular epistatic interaction between these genes. There was also no reciprocal effect of the ADIPOQ and RETN genes on their adipokine levels, i.e., ADIPOQ did not affect resistin levels nor did RETN affect adiponectin levels. The possible influence of the ADIPOQ gene on RETN expression warrants further investigation.
  2. Lau CH, Muniandy S
    PMID: 21251282 DOI: 10.1186/1475-2840-10-8
    Adiponectin and resistin are adipokines which modulate insulin action, energy, glucose and lipid homeostasis. Meta-analyses showed that hypoadiponectinemia and hyperresistinemia are strongly associated with increased risk of insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes (T2DM), metabolic syndrome (MS) and cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to propose a novel adiponectin-resistin (AR) index by taking into account both adiponectin and resistin levels to provide a better indicator of the metabolic homeostasis and metabolic disorders. In addition, a novel insulin resistance (IRAR) index was proposed by integration of the AR index into an existing insulin resistance index to provide an improved diagnostic biomarker of insulin sensitivity.
  3. Lau CH, Muniandy S
    Ann. Hum. Genet., 2011 May;75(3):370-82.
    PMID: 21323646 DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-1809.2010.00635.x
    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at the adiponectin and resistin loci are strongly associated with hypoadiponectinemia and hyperresistinemia, which may eventually increase risk of insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes (T2DM), metabolic syndrome (MS), and cardiovascular disease. Real-time PCR was used to genotype SNPs of the adiponectin (SNP+45T>G, SNP+276G>T, SNP+639T>C, and SNP+1212A>G) and resistin (SNP-420C>G and SNP+299G>A) genes in 809 Malaysian men (208 controls, 174 MS without T2DM, 171 T2DM without MS, 256 T2DM with MS) whose ages ranged between 40 and 70 years old. The genotyping results for each SNP marker was verified by sequencing. The anthropometric clinical and metabolic parameters of subjects were recorded. None of these SNPs at the adiponectin and resistin loci were associated with T2DM and MS susceptibility in Malaysian men. SNP+45T>G, SNP+276G>T, and SNP+639T>C of the adiponectin gene did not influence circulating levels of adiponectin. However, the G-allele of SNP+1212A>G at the adiponectin locus was marginally associated (P= 0.0227) with reduced circulating adiponectin levels. SNP-420C>G (df = 2; F= 16.026; P= 1.50×10(-7) ) and SNP+299G>A (df = 2; F= 22.944; P= 2.04×10(-10) ) of the resistin gene were strongly associated with serum resistin levels. Thus, SNP-420C>G and SNP+299G>A of the resistin gene are strongly associated with the risk of hyperresistinemia in Malaysian men.
  4. Lau CH, Yusoff K, Tan SG, Yamada Y
    Biotechniques, 1995 Feb;18(2):262-6.
    PMID: 7727128
    Laboratories intending to adopt cycle sequencing of PCR products in their routine analysis often face a confusing range of methods and kits. Through the study of mitochondrial cytochrome b, we have shown that clean and highly reproducible sequences could be obtained by using a combination of existing simple and economical methods in the preparation of DNA templates, PCR, purification of PCR products and sequencing. Our protocol is useful in itself or as a standard in typing other PCR-amplified DNA at the population level.
  5. Ngo YL, Lau CH, Chua LS
    Food Chem Toxicol, 2018 Nov;121:687-700.
    PMID: 30273632 DOI: 10.1016/j.fct.2018.09.064
    Rosmarinic acid is a bioactive phytochemical that can be found in many herbs as ethnomedicines. It possesses remarkable pharmacological activities, and thus leading to its exploration as a therapeutic drug in diabetes treatment recently. This article reviews the extraction and fractionation techniques for plant-based natural rosmarinic acid and its anti-diabetic potential based on literature data published in journals, books, and patents from 1958 to 2017. Factors affecting the performance of rosmarinic acid extraction and fractionation such as operating temperature, time, solvent to sample ratio and eluent system are compiled and discussed in detail. The inhibitory action of rosmarinic acid against sugar digestive enzymes, and protective action towards pancreatic β-cell dysfunction and glucolipotoxicity mediated oxidative stress are also critically reviewed. The optimal parameters are largely dependent on the applied extraction and fractionation techniques, as well as the nature of plant samples. Previous studies have proven the potent role of rosmarinic acid to control plasma glucose level and increase insulin sensitivity in hyperglycemia. Although rosmarinic acid is readily absorbed by human body, its mechanism after consumption is remained unclear. Intensive studies should be well planned to determine the dosage and toxicity level of rosmarinic acid for efficacy and safe consumption.
  6. Tan WS, Lau CH, Ng BK, Ibrahim AL, Yusoff K
    DNA Seq., 1995;6(1):47-50.
    PMID: 8746461
    The nucleotide sequence of the haemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) gene of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) viscerotropic-velogenic strain AF2240 was determined by direct RNA sequencing and by sequencing RT-PCR products. It encodes a single open reading frame of 581 amino acids with a calculated Mr of 63.8 kDa. The predicted sequence contains five asparagine glycosylation sites. Comparison of the AF2240 HN protein sequence with 13 other previously published sequences showed 88% homology. This HN protein is unique because it lacked the Arg 403 residue which is present in all of the other strains and cannot be grouped under the proposed three size classes of HN proteins in NDV.
  7. Yusoff K, Tan WS, Lau CH, Ng BK, Ibrahim AL
    Avian Pathol, 1996 Dec;25(4):837-44.
    PMID: 18645902
    The nucleotide sequence of the haemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) glycoprotein gene of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) variant strain V4(UPM) was determined by direct genomic RNA sequencing and confirmed by cycle sequencing. The gene comprises 1996 nucleotides encoding a 615 amino acid protein of size 67.4 kDa. The nucleotide and amino acid sequences of this strain were compared with those of the parent strain V4(QUE). There are 16 nucleotide substitutions on V4(UPM), eight of which are silent mutations and another eliminated a potential Asn-linked glycosylation site in V4(UPM). In addition, an Arg (403) residue was shown to be absent in the variant strain. This deletion is thought to be significant because of its location in a highly conserved region of the HN protein.
  8. Lau CH, Drinkwater RD, Yusoff K, Tan SG, Hetzel DJ, Barker JS
    Anim. Genet., 1998 Aug;29(4):253-64.
    PMID: 9745663
    Swamp and river buffalo mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was sequenced for 303 bp of the cytochrome b gene for 54 animals from 14 populations, and for 158 bp of the D-loop region for 80 animals from 11 populations. Only one cytochrome b haplotype was found in river buffalo. Of the four haplotypes identified in swamp buffalo, one found in all populations is apparently ancestral both to the other swamp haplotypes and to the river haplotype. The phylogenetic relationships among the 33 D-loop haplotypes, with a cluster of 11 found in swamp buffalo only, also support the evolution of domesticated swamp and river buffalo from an ancestral swamp-like animal, most likely represented today by the wild Asian buffalo (Bubalus arnee). The time of divergence of the swamp and river types, estimated from the D-loop data, is 28,000 to 87,000 years ago. We hypothesise that the species originated in mainland south-east Asia, and that it spread north to China and west to the Indian subcontinent, where the rive type evolved and was domesticated. Following domestication in China, the domesticated swamp buffalo spread through two separate routes, through Taiwan and the Philippines to the eastern islands of Borneo and Sulawesi, and south through mainland south-east Asia and then to the western islands of Indonesia.
  9. Chua LS, Lau CH, Chew CY, Ismail NIM, Soontorngun N
    Phytomedicine, 2018 Jan 15;39:49-55.
    PMID: 29433683 DOI: 10.1016/j.phymed.2017.12.015
    BACKGROUND: Orthosiphon aristatus (Blume) Miq. is a medicinal herb which is traditionally used for the treatment of diabetes and kidney diseases in South East Asia. Previous studies reported higher concentration of antioxidative phytochemicals, especially rosmarinic acid (ester of caffeic acid) and other caffeic acid derivatives in this plant extract than the other herbs such as rosemary and sage which are usually used as raw materials to produce rosmarinic acid supplement in the market.

    PURPOSE: The phytochemical profile of O. aristatus was investigated at different storage durations for quality comparison.

    METHODS: The phytochemicals were extracted from the leaves and stems of O. aristatus using a reflux reactor. The extracts were examined for total phenolic and flavonoid contents, as well as their antioxidant capacities, in terms of radical scavenging, metal chelating and reducing power. The phytochemical profiles were also analyzed by unsupervised principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis, in relation to the factor of storage at 4 °C for 5 weeks.

    RESULTS: The leaf extract was likely to have more phytochemicals than stem extract, particularly caffeic acid derivatives including glycosylated and alkylated caffeic acids. This explains higher ratio of total phenolic content to total flavonoid content with higher antioxidant capacities for the leaf extracts. Rosmarinic acid dimer and salvianolic acid B appeared to be the major constituents, possibly contributing to the previously reported pharmacological properties. However, the phytochemical profiles were found changing, even though the extracts were stored in the refrigerator (4 °C). The change was significantly observed at the fifth week based on the statistical pattern recognition technique.

    CONCLUSION: O. aristatus could be a promising source of rosmarinic acid and its dimer, as well as salvianolic acid B with remarkably antioxidant properties. The phytochemical profile was at least stable for a month stored at 4 °C. It is likely to be a good choice of herbal tea with comparable radical scavenging activity, but lower caffeine content than other tea samples.

  10. Yeang HY, Arif SA, Raulf-Heimsoth M, Loke YH, Sander I, Sulong SH, et al.
    J Allergy Clin Immunol, 2004 Sep;114(3):593-8.
    PMID: 15356563 DOI: 10.1016/j.jaci.2004.05.039
    Sensitization to natural rubber latex has been linked to proteins from medical latex gloves. Various assays to estimate the amount of residual allergenic proteins extractable from latex gloves to assess their potential exposure hazard have inherent weaknesses.

    This investigation was aimed at developing 2-site immunoenzymetric assays and identifying appropriate protein markers to assess the allergenic potential of latex gloves.

    The presence of 6 latex allergens--Hev b 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, and 13--was measured in a cross-section of commercial latex medical gloves by using monoclonal and polyclonal antibody-based 2-site immunoenzymetric assays. The overall allergenic potential of these gloves was assessed by IgE-inhibition assay. Stepwise multiple regression analyses were performed to identify marker allergens that best explained the variation in latex glove allergenicity.

    All 6 latex allergens were detected in at least some of the glove samples. Hev b 5 and Hev b 13 were identified as the marker allergens that combined best to explain the variation in the glove allergenicity. The significant multiple correlation (R=0.855) between these 2 markers and glove allergenic potency forms the basis of an assay to gauge latex glove allergenicity.

    The overall allergenic potential of latex gloves can be estimated by using Hev b 5 and Hev b 13 as indicator allergens. The correlation between glove allergenicity and the level of these allergens was maintained for low-protein gloves (<200 microg/g). This estimation of glove allergenicity was superior to that obtained by using total protein readings.
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