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  1. Loh LC, Ong CK, Koo HJ, Lee SM, Lee JS, Oh YM, et al.
    PMID: 30174423 DOI: 10.2147/COPD.S165898
    Background: COPD-associated mortality was examined using a novel approach of phenotyping COPD based on computed tomography (CT)-emphysema index from quantitative CT (QCT) and post-bronchodilator (BD) forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) in a local Malaysian cohort.

    Patients and methods: Prospectively collected data of 112 eligible COPD subjects (mean age, 67 years; male, 93%; mean post-BD FEV1, 45.7%) was available for mortality analysis. Median follow-up time was 1,000 days (range, 60-1,400). QCT and clinicodemographic data were collected at study entry. Based on CT-emphysema index and post-BD FEV1% predicted, subjects were categorized into "emphysema-dominant," "airway-dominant," "mild mixed airway-emphysema," and "severe mixed airway-emphysema" diseases.

    Results: Sixteen patients (14.2%) died of COPD-associated causes. There were 29 (25.9%) "mild mixed," 23 (20.5%) "airway-dominant," 15 (13.4%) "emphysema-dominant," and 45 (40.2%) "severe mixed" cases. "Mild mixed" disease was proportionately more in Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) Group A, while "severe mixed" disease was proportionately more in GOLD Groups B and D. Kaplan-Meier survival estimates showed increased mortality risk with "severe mixed" disease (log rank test, p=0.03) but not with GOLD groups (p=0.08). Univariate Cox proportionate hazard analysis showed that age, body mass index, long-term oxygen therapy, FEV1, forced volume capacity, COPD Assessment Test score, modified Medical Research Council score, St Georges' Respiratory Questionnaire score, CT-emphysema index, and "severe mixed" disease (vs "mild mixed" disease) were associated with mortality. Multivariate Cox analysis showed that age, body mass index, and COPD Assessment Test score remain independently associated with mortality.

    Conclusion: "Severe mixed airway-emphysema" disease may predict COPD-associated mortality. Age, body mass index, and COPD Assessment Test score remain as key mortality risk factors in our cohort.
  2. Mohamed R, Desmond P, Suh DJ, Amarapurkar D, Gane E, Guangbi Y, et al.
    J Gastroenterol Hepatol, 2004 Sep;19(9):958-69.
    PMID: 15304110
    The Asia-Pacific Expert Committee on Hepatitis B Management recently reviewed the impact of hepatitis B in the region and assessed the differences and similarities observed in the practical management of the disease in individual Asia-Pacific countries. Hepatitis B is a major health concern in the Asia-Pacific region, and of all chronically infected carriers worldwide, approximately 75% are found in Asia. The disease poses a considerable burden on healthcare systems, and is likely to remain a cause of substantial morbidity and mortality for several decades. Disease prevention activities, including screening and vaccination programs, have been implemented successfully in some Asia-Pacific countries and similar measures are being established in other parts of the region. The management of hepatitis B in the Asia-Pacific varies throughout the region, with each country confronting different issues related to treatment options, disease monitoring and duration of therapy. The influence of cost, availability of diagnostic equipment, and patient awareness and compliance are of additional concern. Although guidelines such as those developed by the Asian Pacific Association for the Study of the Liver have been created to address problems encountered in the management of hepatitis B, many physicians in the region still find it difficult to make satisfactory management decisions because of the treatment choices available. This article examines the different approaches to hepatitis B management in a number of Asia-Pacific countries, and highlights the difficulties that can arise when adhering to treatment guidelines and disease prevention solutions that have proved to be successful in the region.
  3. Kim WJ, Gupta V, Nishimura M, Makita H, Idolor L, Roa C, et al.
    Int J Tuberc Lung Dis, 2018 07 01;22(7):820-826.
    PMID: 29914609 DOI: 10.5588/ijtld.17.0524
    BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a heterogeneous condition that can differ in its clinical manifestation, structural changes and response to treatment.

    OBJECTIVE: To identify subgroups of COPD with distinct phenotypes, evaluate the distribution of phenotypes in four related regions and calculate the 1-year change in lung function and quality of life according to subgroup.

    METHODS: Using clinical characteristics, we performed factor analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis in a cohort of 1676 COPD patients from 13 Asian cities. We compared the 1-year change in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), modified Medical Research Council dyspnoea scale score, St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) score and exacerbations according to subgroup derived from cluster analysis.

    RESULTS: Factor analysis revealed that body mass index, Charlson comorbidity index, SGRQ total score and FEV1 were principal factors. Using these four factors, cluster analysis identified three distinct subgroups with differing disease severity and symptoms. Among the three subgroups, patients in subgroup 2 (severe disease and more symptoms) had the most frequent exacerbations, most rapid FEV1 decline and greatest decline in SGRQ total score.

    CONCLUSION: Three subgroups with differing severities and symptoms were identified in Asian COPD subjects.

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