The question about which is the best approach to facilitate the effective safety evaluation, training processes
involved have become and on-going debate. This article reviews current approaches to evaluation of safety training. It
was focusing theoretical framework suggested and used in the previous literature. Furthermore, possible summary of
several methodologies of safety training evaluation presented.
Engineering control is a method of controlling the risk of exposure to contaminants. Health effects to industrial workers are more severe whilst high exposure and time exposed to contaminants at workplace. Installation of industrial ventilation or local exhaust ventilation (LEV) system is the proposed method to reduce the risk. This paper discusses the past, present and future relating to LEV system in Malaysia. Current issues related to monitoring reported by Hygiene Technician in compliance with Occupational Safety and Health (Use of Standard Chemical Hazardous to Health Regulation 2000) carried out in several states in Malaysia as a sample. The nanotechnology is a new area at present and future. The involvement of government, employers and employees need to be justified due to the attention to prevent and control of any exposure. It is suggested that using the Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) simulation, a new design of LEV system can be upgraded and predicted.
Indoor pollution increasingly becomes a public concern. These concerns are related to energy efficiency in a
building. There are various ways in which it can ensure energy conservation can be achieved, including superinsulation
and reduced fresh air exchange. As a result, indoor air becomes stagnant and odours, thereafter contaminants of air will
accumulate and will certainly disrupt human health. It is quite difficult to make people comfortable in a building with
consumption of energy-saving and human health guaranteed. Indoor plants are one of the alternative solutions that
have been studied since the last three decades. This paper intends to review the abilities of indoor plants to purify air,
and the ways used by previous researchers to prove that indoor plants can treat the air. In general, it can be stated that
indoor plants are able to absorb various types of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). An advantage of indoor plants
to cure air from carcinogen gas is greatly needed for human health. Therefore, studies on indoor plants to neutralize
the air are gaining attention. Enclosed space or chamber is often used by researchers to test the ability of indoor plants
absorb gaseous toxins in their study; because it is easy to handle and can quickly determine the absorption rate. In the
other hand, environmental factors such as temperature, humidity, and light are important to be taken into consideration
during the study. As a conclusion, it can be stated that the existence of indoor plants in a building is very reasonable,
because it can give positive impacts on human health and the total energy consumption.
Occupational safety and health (OSH) in Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) have not received the proper
attention not only in Malaysia, but also in most countries all over the world, in terms of research or support for
implementation. In Malaysia, many agencies such as the Department of Occupational Safety and Health (DOSH),
Social Safety Organization (SOCSO), National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and many more
agencies related to OSH have been in collaborations to conduct and promote a safety working environment and to
protect human rights economically, morally and legally. This research mainly focuses on the implementation of the
occupational safety and health in small and medium industries in the southern region of peninsular of Malaysia. This
exploratory study will be based on conducting a survey to 500 SMEs owners and workers throughout the southern
region of Malaysia to get the in-depth knowledge on how the implementation of safety and health management system
in the SMEs will affect them both morally and economically. A site visit will also be conducted in order to enhance
and to get to know the real situation happening in the real working environment. The results of this study will be used
to make and initial evaluation of the implementations of OSH management system in SMEs and hopefully will help
for future interventions and researches.
The aim of this paper is to share views on the Safety and Health Performance Indicators (SPIs) for the Small
Medium Enterprises (SMEs) to assist SMEs in improving their business performance, growth and resilience through
effective Safety and Health Performance Management framework. Traditionally, industries are relying on the “lagging”
indicators of safety and health performance. Lagging indicators are limited due to the reactive approach and to some
extent, they create complacency among the industries which do not have any accidents or to the SMEs which face
low risks at work. As a result to their limitation, there has been a move in using “leading” indicators in measuring
safety and health performance in the industries. SMEs are important to Malaysia. However their contribution to the
workplace accident statistics is equally substantial. They are the major contributors to 80% of the total accidents.
Hence, effective Safety and Health Performance Indicators is indeed crucial to assist SMEs in measuring their safety
performance to enable them to move forward in achieving safety culture which is good for their business to stay strong
and resilient in this new business millennium.
Flood warning is designed to protect community from loss of life and their important goods. The objective of
this research is to design the flood warning system using mobile application that able to give warning and sign to
the mapping. With mobile application concept we can deliver warning faster which is to community smart phone
that nowadays majority of them used it. Department of Irrigation and Drainage have built the system that able to
detect the rising of water and have delivered the data to the department. The mobile application will get the data
directly from server Department of Irrigation and Drainage and distribute to all community. Not just give warning
but also able to give sign to the mapping such as GPS and Waze. Red color is danger, Yellow color will consider as
warning and green will consider as alert. It is expected that better warning process to community in Malaysia’s in
order to promote protection through legislation. The development of mobile application will fulfill the needs of the
public, representative of employee, or governmental official to protect community during flooding. Moreover, with
this mobile application that cheaper cost and easy to use to the community, it will help government to reduce the cost
while flooding. With the ability able to give early warning, give information and educated people, it will make people
more alert and get enough information of flooding.
Occupational safety and health (OSH) in Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) have not received the proper
attention not only in Malaysia, but in most of the countries globally, in terms of research or support for implementation.
This research focuses on the implementation of the occupational safety and health in small and medium industries in
the southern region of peninsular of Malaysia. The objective of this research is to determine the level of awareness of
SME owners and also their employers towards the importance of implementing OSH in their daily tasks. This study
will be based on conducting a survey to 200 SMEs owners and workers throughout the southern region of Malaysia.
The results from this research can be use as a benchmark for other researchers to further enhance the research in this
Indoor air quality has been a major public concern recently. Several health effects are related to this problem.
Findings from several studies have shown MVAC system as the main contributor for IAQ problem. Good practice of
maintenance and servicing is important to maintain MVAC system, especially the filter. Good air filtration for MVAC
system is needed to make sure adequate air is received by the occupants. This paper illustrated a recent study of air
filtration for MVAC system especially for several industries that used MVAC system in their premises. This paper also
proposed an air filtration study for a better air quality. Several Acts and Regulations related to Safety and Health were
identified to create the framework for the proposed study. Air filtration technique was used in this preliminary study
to set up guidelines to create safe and clean indoor spaces for workers and occupants.
Indoor air pollution is rapidly becoming a major health issue worldwide. The quality of indoor air inside building
is important not only for occupants’ comfort but also for their health. Although researches are still under way to
better define the nature and extent of the health implications for the general population, recent studies have shown
significant amounts of harmful pollutants in the indoor environment. Poor indoor air quality (IAQ) has been tied to
symptoms like headaches, fatigue, trouble concentrating and irritation of the eyes, nose, throat and lungs. In this study,
occupants’ comfort satisfaction on IAQ of a museum building environment in a tropical climate will be studied. IAQ
aspects which will be considered as parameters are chemical contaminants, gaseous pollutant and comfort factors
(temperature, humidity and air movement). Museum, archives, library, heritage building and gallery are the types of
buildings that can be considered as heritage building environment. At the initial stage, a pilot study will be conducted
to identify the current IAQ conditions inside those selected buildings.
Automobile exhaust emission control is one of the trending issues in automobile research field. It caused by high
pollution such as carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and hydrocarbons (HC) distributed by automobile
especially form diesel engine. These pollutants give a harmful effect to the environment and human health. Therefore,
this paper proposed in reviewing methods on fabrication of modified catalytic converter. FeCrAl is used as substrate
which treated using ultrasonic bath technique which could improve the exhaust emission control. This metallic catalytic converter used as the replacement of precious metal that have high production cost.
The simulation of the catalytic converter system is quite needed in order to characterize the catalyst and also
optimizing the monolithic design for the gas emission in the catalytic converter and other related mechanism. The
objective of this study is to obtain quantitative description of the gas emission in the catalytic converter system of
natural powered automobile exhaust gas using ANSYS Software. This work will present a finite element calculation
to predict and evaluate the mass transfer, energy balance and velocity of gas emission in the catalytic converter. The
expected result for this research is to evaluate data of the gas emission obtained from the software to be compared with
the manual experiment in order to verify the effectiveness of modified catalytic converter.
This study intended to investigate the level on airborne microbe in indoor air for new constructed building. It was divided by three different phase of building commissioning in Bandar Baru Bangi, Selangor. The first phase of the sampling was carried out after the building fully handed over from the main contractor to the building owner. Second phase of the sampling take place after the building is equipped with furniture. Phase three sampling is conducted after one month of building occupancy. Airborne microbes’ concentrations were determined by using a single stage impactor (Biosampler) as per requirement of National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) method, NIOSH Manual Analytical Method MAM 0800. The total concentration of airborne bacteria and fungi were average to 641 and 38 CFU/m³ in the first phase, 133 and 117 CFU/m³ in the second phase, and 389 and 52 CFU/m³ in the third phase. These findings indicate that although a new constructed building should be having a significant background level of airborne microbe (total bacteria and total fungi). The building owner should be aware to their indoor air status to protect the occupant from the safety and health problem (risk) especially for ventilated building.
A poor Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) is a crucial problem which produces by the improper maintenance of Mechanical Ventilation and Air Conditioning (MVAC) ducting. A budget constraint intimidates for the practise of monitoring of the MVAC ducting. Thus IAQ measurements were conducted at the room where the air supplied by centralized air conditioning. It has been performed at four different offices that supply by two different Air Handling Unit (AHU). Walkthrough survey was conducted and the area samplings were selected for data collection. This paper examines the result of comparison of air ducting and air quality at academic office building, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM). The parameters involved were Temperature (°C), Relative Humidity (RH), Carbon Dioxide (CO2) and Carbon Monoxide (CO). Pictures were also captured to demonstrate the real conditions inside the ducting by using Mechanical Robot. Thus, duct cleaning was recommended to be an exceptional platform for the IAQ improvement.
A preliminary study has been conducted in a new constructed 8 stories building (2 level of Hostels facility, 3 level of Training Room, 2 Level of Offices and 1 level of Exhibition Halls and Rooms) in Bandar Baru Bangi, Selangor. The Hostels facility is a floor tile and furnished with build in locker and use split air conditioning system while the Training Room and Exhibition Rooms used floor tile. The Offices and Exhibition Hall are carpeted furnished. All these spaces were using centralized air conditioning systems. A pre-commissioning assessment on 5 chemical parameters of indoor air pollutants such Total Volatile Organic Compounds (TVOC), Formaldehyde, Respirable Particulates (PM!
This study was done to investigate the background level on microbiological indoor air pollutants in new constructed 8 stories buildings (2 level of Hostel facilities, 3 level of Training Room level, 2 level of Offices and 1 Exhibition Halls and Rooms) in Bandar Baru Bangi, Selangor. The offices and exhibition hall are carpeted furnished. All these spaces were using centralized air conditioning system. Airborne microbes’ concentrations were determined by using a single stage impactor (Biosampler) as per requirement of National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health NIOSH method NIOSH Manual Analytical Method MAM 0800. Mean concentration of total bacteria detected is 1351 CFU/m3 and it was found significantly higher compared to maximum exposure limit 500 CFU/m3 in office room. The mean concentration of total fungi in the office rooms is 479 CFU/m3 and it was found slightly lower compared to maximum exposure limit 500 CFU/m3. The airborne microbe levels were found slightly lower in the accommodation, training and exhibition rooms compared to office room. These findings indicate that although a new constructed building should be having a significant background level of airborne microbe (total bacteria and total fungi).
Concerns toward Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) in office building tend to risen since most people spend their working hours
indoors compare to outdoors. Exposure to indoor pollutants is a considerable problem. Therefore, there is a need to monitor IAQ in
order to deter further air quality deterioration in the workplace. The objective of this study is to determine the level of IAQ parameter
in selected academic office. The important IAQ parameters considered in this study were the air temperature, air velocity, relative
humidity, CO2, CO, TVOC, formaldehyde and respirable particulate matter. Measurements were conducted using commercial IAQ
instruments. From the study it was found that the levels of TVOC and respirable particulate matter were higher than the recommended
limit during photocopying activities. The formaldehyde, CO2 and CO level were observed to be acceptable for an office based on
Industry code of practice on indoor air quality (ICOP-IAQ 2010). Results shows that the temperature and air velocity are located at
acceptable value of 22-25 ºC and 0.1-0.1 m/s. Findings also show high relative humidity that exceeded the requirement level of 40%-
70%. Detail investigations are needed in order to provide certain guidance in improvement of IAQ conditions in office environment.
The cultivation of indoor plants in indoor environment has become a topic of interest among researchers worldwide for its
potential to improve indoor air quality (IAQ). However, the adaptations of environmental factor of each plant need to be investigated
to correspond with the native environment. The study investigate the capability of plants selected to live indoor. Before experiment was
conducted, all plants selected were assimilated with indoor environment for two months. Photosynthesis proses in this experiment will
be a guidance to determine the comparative for every plant. The portable photosynthesis system equipment (LI-COR 6400) was used to
determine the level of photosynthesis rate for each of plants. Accordingly, among of all plants tested, Spider Plant showed less effective
to be grown with indoor environment by the rate of photosynthesis value up to -0.15. Moreover, light compensation point (LCP) of
Spider Plant also indicated the light intensity consumption was 2960 lux which is extremely higher than 300 lux. As a conclusion, only
six plants in this study which are Anthurium, Dumb Cane, Golden Pothos, Kadaka Fern, Prayer Plant, and Syngonium are able to
survive with indoor environment. In the next stage of study, this six plants may give good results to enhance the IAQ.
The energy price increased significantly since the early 1970’s and it shows the pattern of all over the world.
According to the estimation of International Energy Agency (IEA), 53% global energy consumption will be increased
by 2030, with 70% of the growth in demand coming from developing countries. Malaysia is one of the most developing
countries among ASEAN countries next to Singapore, with GDP of US$15,400 per capita (PPP basis), and steady
GDP growth of 4.6% in 2009. Malaysia as a developing country focuses on the energy efficiency approach. At this
moment a lot of number of fire and electrical incident more towards overload current and the issues has been faced
trough out the year. This paper highlight the issue on how to avoid the overload current by introducing the method
establish by Energy Commission. The star (*) rating will help us to estimate the current use and the energy efficiency
approach by calculate the current load. The data collected from home appliances are the very basic information rather
than predict in a large scale as industrial and commercial building since the tariff also different in the category. The
equipment such as amp meter, volt meter and the current load data logger will help the current consumption in every
home appliances and it will show the direct reading as well. The issue on electrical safety should be response by
consumer to prevent safety and health risk.
Brake pad apparatus is designed for help student and instructor in teaching and learning application. The objective
of this research is to differentiate the pressure effect and braking temperature condition of different pad. This apparatus
also aimed for learning the safety car and motorcycle braking system. This apparatus can to compare with theoretical
calculation in order to approve that this apparatus is useful. The main concept in this apparatus is thermocouple use
to detect the temperature gain while braking process. Speed motor controller used for set the angular velocity of the
motor in braking process. Pressure applied at brake pedal detected by pressure gauge and data logger function as a
connector. This apparatus also designed based on valid data for average of teenager in Malaysia which made on a
sample university student. Result show that the apparatus can function effectively by defines the different temperature
when applied the different pressure and different pad. Pad C shows the 880C for thermocouple 1 and 790C for
thermocouple 2 at the 20 psi and infrared thermometer show 1130C for pad C. Graph from calculation shows that the
pad A have 216.480C at 1000 rpm which have low temperature than pad B, C and D. high efficiency of friction and
pressure applied will cause more heat generate than low coefficient of friction and pressure applied.
In the development of current vehicle capabilities required an effective braking system, has a little wear, and
safety riding. The objective of the research is to determine wear and braking distance because of braking load and
speed motorcycle Honda supra X125 cc. This research used the speed of 50 km/h, 60 km/h, and 70 km/h. Braking load
used to be 4 kg, 5 kg, and 6 kg. The test was done by dynamic method and the research was done in two stages; testing
in the field and measuring brake wear in the lab using a profile projector. Testing the hardness of brake was done to
know hardness brake before and after testing due to the effect of wear, braking time, and braking distance.From testing
it was found that increasing of braking load, resulted in increasing wear. The smallest wear was 6 x 10-5 mm/sea at a
speed of 50 km/h, braking load of 4 kg, and braking time of 15.94 seconds. Increasing the speed resulted in increasing
braking distances with the smallest of braking distance was 55 meters at the breaking load of 6 kg, the speed of 50
km/h and braking time 9.93 seconds. The hardness of brake lining, increased after the brake lining wear testing. The
hardness before the test was 95.8 HRN and after the test was 100.4 HRN.