Dengue virus infection presents a wide spectrum of manifestations including asymptomatic condition, dengue fever (DF), or severe forms, such as dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS) in affected individuals. The early prediction of severe dengue in patients without any warning signs who may later develop severe DHF is very important to choose appropriate intensive supportive therapy since available vaccines for immunization are yet to be approved. Severe dengue responses include T and B cell activation and apoptosis, cytokine storm, hematologic disorders and complement activation. Cytokines, complement and other unidentified factors may transiently act on the endothelium and alter normal fluid barrier function of the endothelial cells and cause plasma leakage. In this review, the host factors such as activated immune and endothelial cells and their products which can be utilized as biomarkers for severe dengue disease are discussed.
Dengue is the most prevalent mosquito-borne disease in Southeast Asia, where the incidence of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is approximately 30 to 53 per 100,000. Severe dengue, however, is rarely reported among individuals with SLE. Here, whether sera of patients with SLE cross-neutralize dengue virus (DENV) was investigated. Serum samples were obtained from individuals with SLE who were dengue IgG and IgM serology negative. Neutralization assays were performed against the three major DENV serotypes. Of the dengue serology negative sera of individuals with SLE, 60%, 61% and 52% of the sera at 1/320 dilution showed more than 50% inhibition against dengue type-1 virus (DENV-1), DENV-2 and DENV-3, respectively. The neutralizing capacity of the sera was significantly greater against DENV-1 (P
Dengue is one of the most significant mosquito-borne virus diseases worldwide, particularly in tropical and subtropical regions. This study sought to examine the antiviral activity of resveratrol (RESV), a phytoalexin secreted naturally by plants, against dengue virus (DENV) infection. Our data showed that RESV inhibits the translocation of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), a DNA binding protein that normally resides in the nucleus, into the cytoplasm and extracellular milieu. HMGB1 migrates out of the nucleus during DENV infection. This migration is inhibited by RESV treatment and is mediated by induction of Sirt1 which leads to the retention of HMGB1 in the nucleus and consequently helps in the increased production of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs). Nuclear HMGB1 was found to bind to the promoter region of the ISG and positively regulated the expression of ISG. The enhanced transcription of ISGs by nuclear HMGB1 thus contributes to the antiviral activity of RESV against DENV. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to demonstrate that RESV antagonizes DENV replication and that nuclear HMGB1 plays a role in regulating ISG production.