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  1. Lukman SK, Saidin S
    J Biomed Mater Res A, 2020 May;108(5):1171-1185.
    PMID: 31994824 DOI: 10.1002/jbm.a.36891
    Even though drug-eluting stent (DES) has prominently reduced restenosis, however, its complication of delayed endothelialization has caused chronic side effect. A coating of ginseng-based biodegradable polymer could address this issue due to its specific therapeutic values. However, deposition of this type of stable coating on metallic implant often scarce. Therefore, in this study, different polyaniline (PANI) emeraldine compositions were adopted to electrodeposit ginsenoside encapsulated poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) microcapsules coating. The coating surfaces were analyzed using attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, contact angle, and atomic force microscopy instruments. A month coating stability was then investigated with an evaluation of in vitro human umbilical vein endothelial cell analyses consisted of cytotoxicity and cells attachment assessments. The 1.5 mg PANI emeraldine has assisted the formation of stable, uniform, and rounded microcapsules coating with appropriate wettability and roughness. Less than 1.5 mg PANI emeraldine was not enough to drive the formation of microcapsules coating while greater than 1.5 mg caused the deposition of melted microcapsules. The similar coating also has promoted greater cells proliferation and attachment compared to other coating variation. Therefore, the utilization of electrodeposition to deposit a drug-based polymer coating could be implemented to develop DES, in accordance to stent implantation which ultimately aims for enrich endothelialization.
  2. Lukman SK, Al-Ashwal RH, Sultana N, Saidin S
    Chem. Pharm. Bull., 2019;67(5):445-451.
    PMID: 31061369 DOI: 10.1248/cpb.c18-00847
    Electrodeposition is commonly used to deposit ceramic or metal coating on metallic implants. Its utilization in depositing polymer microcapsule coating is currently being explored. However, there is no encapsulation of drug within polymer microcapsules that will enhance its chemical and biological properties. Therefore, in this study, ginseng which is known for its multiple therapeutic effects was encapsulated inside biodegradable poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microcapsules to be coated on pre-treated medical grade stainless steel 316L (SS316L) using an electrodeposition technique. Polyaniline (PANI) was incorporated within the microcapsules to drive the formation of microcapsule coating. The electrodeposition was performed at different current densities (1-3 mA) and different deposition times (20-60 s). The chemical composition, morphology and wettability of the microcapsule coatings were characterized through attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and contact angle analyses. The changes of electrolyte colors, before and after the electrodeposition were also observed. The addition of PANI has formed low wettability and uniform microcapsule coatings at 2 mA current density and 40 s deposition time. Reduction in the current density or deposition time caused less attachment of microcapsule coatings with high wettability records. While prolonging either one parameter has led to debris formation and melted microcapsules with non-uniform wettability measurements. The color of electrolytes was also changed from milky white to dark yellow when the current density and deposition time increased. The application of tolerable current density and deposition time is crucial to obtain a uniform microcapsule coating, projecting a controlled release of encapsulated drug.
  3. Miswan Z, Lukman SK, Abd Majid FA, Loke MF, Saidin S, Hermawan H
    Int J Pharm, 2016 Dec 30;515(1-2):460-466.
    PMID: 27793709 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijpharm.2016.10.056
    Active ingredients of ginsenoside, Rg1 and Re, are able to inhibit the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells and promote the growth of vascular endothelial cells. These capabilities are of interest for developing a novel drug-eluting stent to potentially solve the current problem of late-stent thrombosis and poor endotheliazation. Therefore, this study was aimed to incorporate ginsenoside into degradable coating of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA). Drug mixture composed of ginseng extract and 10% to 50% of PLGA (xPLGA/g) was coated on electropolished stainless steel 316L substrate by using a dip coating technique. The coating was characterized principally by using attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and contact angle analysis, while the drug release profile of ginsenosides Rg1 and Re was determined by using mass spectrometry at a one month immersion period. Full and homogenous coating coverage with acceptable wettability was found on the 30PLGA/g specimen. All specimens underwent initial burst release dependent on their composition. The 30PLGA/g and 50PLGA/g specimens demonstrated a controlled drug release profile having a combination of diffusion- and swelling-controlled mechanisms of PLGA. The study suggests that the 30PLGA/g coated specimen expresses an optimum composition which is seen as practicable for developing a controlled release drug-eluting stent.
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