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  1. Nurhazni Khir Jauhari, Darina Ibrahim, Muhammad Ibrahim, Norazlanshah Hazali, Mohammad Nor Adros Yahya, Norazmir Md Nor, et al.
    Sains Malaysiana, 2013;42:129-134.
    Baccaurea angulata or locally known as ‘belimbing dayak’ or ‘belimbing hutan’ is an underutilized fruit indigenous to Borneo with its proximate analysis and antioxidant values are yet to be explored. Proximate analysis and antioxidative properties of oven-dried B. angulata fruits of three fractions; whole fruit, skins and berries were evaluated. From the analysis conducted, whole fruit, berries and skins fraction of B. angulata contained 2.83%, 5.15% and 0.28% of total fat; 3.11%, 3.43% and 3.89% of protein; 16.66%, 19.09% and 11.37% of moisture; 4.57%, 3.68% and 7.28% of total ash and water activity (Aw) of 0.41, 0.44 and 0.44, respectively. Evaluation of antioxidant activities using ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), 1,1-diphenyl-2-pycrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and Trolox/ABTS equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) revealed that the skins fraction exhibits highest antioxidant activities (p<0.05) followed by whole fruit and berries fractions. The antioxidant activities were significantly correlated (p<0.05) with total phenolic and total flavonoid content but not to anthocyanins. Considering the nutritional values it contained, B. angulata is another good source of natural antioxidants with significant health benefits and high value for commercialization.
  2. Siti Munirah Abdul Basir, Radiah Abdul Ghani, Muhammad Ibrahim, Muhammad Muzaffar Ali Khan Khattak, Muhammad Nor Omar, Nor Azwani Mohd Shukri
    MyJurnal
    Introduction: Nutritional requirements increase during lactation. However, maternal dietary intakes of Malaysian
    mothers are subjected to restrictions commonly included in traditional postpartum practices. This study aimed to
    assess the maternal dietary intake status during the recommended six month exclusive breastfeeding (part of which
    included the traditional confinement) period. Methods: Thirty-two Malay mothers aged 18-35 years, who had delivered full-term (at ≥37 weeks) singleton babies and were exclusively breastfeeding, were included in the study.
    Maternal dietary intake was assessed using multiple-pass diet recall on Days 10, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, and 180,
    postpartum. The average total energy and macronutrient intakes were compared against recommended values. Results: The findings of this study demonstrated that maternal intakes of total energy ranged from 1,500-2,000kcal/day,
    carbohydrate 189-272g/day, protein 58-72g/day, and total fat 32-70g/day. Total calorie intake was the lowest during
    confinement period (Days 10 and 30) compared to the rest of the exclusive breastfeeding period. This is similar with
    total fat consumption. On the other hand, protein intake was the highest during confinement period whereas carbohydrate intake was consistent throughout the six-month period. Despite the increased requirements, intakes of total
    calories, protein, total fat, dietary fibre, and water, did not meet the recommended values throughout the exclusive
    breastfeeding period. Conclusion: Mothers’ inability to fulfil their nutritional requirements during exclusive breastfeeding period may be associated with traditional postpartum dietary practices. Dietary advice with consideration
    for cultural food taboos practiced by local mothers during confinement may help to improve maternal nutritional
    intakes during this crucial time.
  3. Siti Munirah Abdul Basir, Radiah Abdul Ghani, Muhammad Ibrahim, Khattak, Muhammad Muzaffar Ali Khan, Muhammad Nor Omar, Nor Azwani Mohd Shukri
    Malays J Nutr, 2019;25(3):309-320.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction: This study aimed to determine the relationship of maternal dietary
    intake with human milk nutritional composition, among Malay mothers during the
    postpartum period of exclusive breastfeeding. Methods: Human milk samples (20-
    30ml) were collected from mothers (n=32) at least once monthly for six months
    postpartum. Macronutrients and fatty acids contents were determined using
    proximate analysis and gas chromatography methods, respectively. Maternal
    dietary intakes were recorded using the multiple-pass diet recall method prior
    to each milk sampling and were analysed using the Nutritionist ProTM software.
    Associations between the milk composition and maternal diet were tested using
    Spearman correlation. Results: The energy content ranged between 49.6-59.2
    kcal/100ml, protein 1.3-1.4 g/100ml, carbohydrate 6.5-9.7 g/100ml and total
    fat 6.5-9.7 g/100ml. The polyunsaturated, monounsaturated, and saturated fatty
    acids concentrations were 10.5-19.1 %, 40.6-43.5 %, and 38.0-49.7 %, respectively.
    During confinement (first month postpartum), total energy and total fat content of
    human milk were the highest whereas total carbohydrate was the lowest, compared
    to the rest of the exclusive breastfeeding period. In contrast, intakes of total calorie
    and total fat were the lowest, whereas protein was the highest during this period.
    However, no associations were detected between human milk nutritional contents
    and maternal dietary intake. Conclusion: In our study population, the composition
    of maternal diet and nutritional content of human milk differed between confinement
    and post-confinement periods. However, the association between maternal diet and
    human milk composition itself warrants further investigation.
  4. Siti Munirah Abdul Basir, Radiah Abdul Ghani, Muhammad Ibrahim, Muhammad Muzaffar Ali Khan Khattak, Muhammad Nor Omar, Nor Azwani Mohd Shukri
    MyJurnal
    The World Health Organization (WHO) and United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) strongly advocate exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months after birth as the optimal way of feeding infants. Nutritional inadequacy during breastfeeding period may lead to breastfeeding problems such as inadequate milk production which is a common reason to early breastfeeding termination.
    Galactagogue is one of the solutions seek by breastfeeding mothers to overcome this problem. Within the topic of prophetic medicine, scholars discussed the foods consumed by Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H) and their health benefits. Among the plants mentioned in Islamic literature are F.carica (figs), O.europea (olive), P.granatum (pomegranate) and N.sativa (habbatussauda). Studies on prophetic foods consumption among lactating mothers is limited in the literature. Thus, the aims of this study to explore on prophetic food consumption, among Malay mothers during
    exclusive breastfeeding period. Ten subjects are interviewed by in-depth semistructured interview guide. Inclusion criteria include Malay mothers aged 18 to 40 years, deliver full term babies and were exclusively breastfeeding. Audio-recorded interviews were transcribed verbatim in Malay and translated into English. Translated transcripts were then analysed thematically with the help of NVivo software. Thematic analysis revealed three themes that represents participants’ knowledge, attitude and practice on prophetic foods consumption. The themes were 1) prophetic diet is related to Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H)’s practice on foods and eating manners, 2) perceived benefits and effectiveness of prophetic foods consumption, and 3) Practice of prophetic foods consumption during exclusive breastfeeding period. This study provides an insight to the understanding and
    perception on prophetic foods consumption during exclusive breastfeeding period among breastfeeding mothers. It is acknowledged that prophetic foods, particularly dates may have lactogenic function. Further studies should be carried out to investigate the relationship between prophetic foods consumption and lactogenic activity.
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