On-campus foodservices were thought to be the first choice for university students to dine in. However, these seemingly captive consumers have been opting for off-campus foodservice as their preferred outlet. This paper aims to uncover specific factors that motivate undergraduate students to dine-in at university foodservice facilities using Profile Accumulation Technique (PAT). PAT is a semi-quantitative method that provides freedom for informants to answer in their own terms and words, alternatively the data could be analyzed statistically. 115 questionnaires were distributed to students and staff of a local university. Findings include a list of factors (positive perception, negative perception and expectations) that the students considered to be significant in determining their choice of food outlet. These factors are then descriptively analyzed to determine attributes influencing university customer preferences. This paper significantly contributes in providing a deeper insight into factors that influences dining choice of university foodservice's customers in Malaysia.
Nanoparticles have been investigated as flagging tests for the sensitive DNA recognition that can be utilized as a part of field applications to defeat restrictions. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have been widely utilized due to its optical property and capacity to get functionalized with a mixed bag of biomolecules. This study exhibits the utilization of AuNPs functionalized with single-stranded oligonucleotide (AuNP-oligo test) for fast the identification of Human Papillomavirus (HPV). This test is displayed on interdigitated electrode sensor and supported by colorimetric assay. DNA conjugated AuNP has optical property that can be controlled for the applications in diagnostics. With its identification abilities, this methodology incorporates minimal effort, strong reagents and basic identification of HPV.
Prognosis of early cancer detection becomes one of the tremendous issues in the medical health system. Medical debates among specialist doctor and researcher in therapeutic approaches became a hot concern for cervix cancer deficiencies early screening, risk factors cross-reaction, portability device, rapid and free labeling system. The electrical biosensing based system showed credibility in higher specificity and selectivity due to hybridization of DNA duplex between analyte target and DNA probes. Electrical DNA sensor for cervix cancer has attracted too many attentions to researcher notification based on high performance, easy to handle, rapid system and possible to miniaturize. This review explores the current progression and future insignificant for HPV E6 genobiosensing for early Detection Strategies of Cervical Cancer.
Biosensors operating based on electrical methods are being accelerated toward rapid and efficient detection that improve the performance of the device. Continuous study in nano- and material-sciences has led to the inflection with properties of nanomaterials that fit the trend parallel to the biosensor evolution. Advancements in technology that focuses on nano-hybrid are being used to develop biosensors with better detection strategies. In this sense, titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanomaterials have attracted extensive interest in the construction of electrical biosensors. The formation of TiO2 nano-hybrid as an electrical transducing material has revealed good results with high performance. The modification of the sensing portion with a combination (nano-hybrid form) of nanomaterials has produced excellent sensors in terms of stability, reproducibility, and enhanced sensitivity. This review highlights recent research advancements with functional TiO2 nano-hybrid materials, and their victorious story in the construction of electrical biosensors are discussed. Future research directions with commercialization of these devices and their extensive utilizations are also discussed.
A titanium dioxide nanoparticle (TiO2 NP)-mediated resistive biosensor is described for the determination of DNA fragments of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (E. coli O157:H7). The sol-gel method was used to synthesize the TiO2 NP, and microlithography was applied to fabricate the interdigitated sensor electrodes. Conventional E. coli DNA detections are facing difficulties in long-preparation-and-detection-time (more than 3 days). Hence, electronic biosensor was introduced by measuring the current-voltage (I-V) DNA probe without amplification of DNA fragments. The detection scheme is based on the interaction between the electron flow on the sensor and the introduction of negative charges from DNA probe and target DNA. The biosensor has a sensitivity of 1.67 × 1013 Ω/M and a wide analytical range. The limit detection is down to 1 × 10-11 M of DNA. The sensor possesses outstanding repeatability and reproducibility and is cabable to detect DNA within 15 min in a minute-volume sample (1 μL). Graphical abstract Fig. (a) Graphical illustration of electronic biosensor set up and (b) relationship between limit of detection (LOD) and the unaffected poultry samples on E. coli O157:H7.
A gene sensor for rapid detection of the Human Papillomavirus 16 (HPV 16) which is associated with the appearance of cervical cancer was developed. The assay is based on voltammetric determination of HPV 16 DNA by using interdigitated electrodes modified with titanium dioxide nanoparticles. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (NPs) were used to modify a semiconductor-based interdigitated electrode (IDE). The surface of the NPs was then functionalized with a commercial 24-mer oligomer DNA probe for HPV 16 that was modified at the 5' end with a carboxyl group. If the probe interacts with the HPV 16 ssDNA, the current, best measured at a working voltage of 1.0 V, increases. The gene sensor has has a ∼ 0.1 fM limit of detection which is comparable to other sensors. The dielectric voltammetry analysis was carried out from 0 V to 1 V. The electrochemical sensitivity of the IDE is 2.5 × 10-5 μA·μM-1·cm-2. Graphical abstract Schematic of an interdigitated electrode (IDE) modified with titanium dioxide nanoparticles for voltammetric determination of HPV 16 DNA by using an appropriate DNA probe.
The importance of nanotechnology in medical applications especially with biomedical sensing devices is undoubted. Several medical diagnostics have been developed by taking the advantage of nanomaterials, especially with electrical biosensors. Biosensors have been predominantly used for the quantification of different clinical biomarkers toward detection, screening, and follow-up the treatment. At present, ovarian cancer is one of the severe complications that cannot be identified until it becomes most dangerous as the advanced stage. Based on the American Cancer Society, 20% of cases involved in the detection of ovarian cancer are diagnosed at an early stage and 80% diagnosed at the later stages. The patient just has a common digestive problem and stomach ache as early symptoms and people used to ignore these symptoms. Micro ribonucleic acid (miRNA) is classified as small non-coding RNAs, their expressions change due to the association of cancer development and progression. This article reviews and discusses on the currently available strategies for the early detection of ovarian cancers using miRNA as a biomarker associated with electrical biosensors. A unique miRNA-based biomarker detections are specially highlighted with biosensor platforms to diagnose ovarian cancer.
The E6 region has higher protuberant probability annealing than consensus probe focusing on another region in the human papillomavirus (HPV) genome in terms of detection and screening method. Here, we designed the first multiple virus single-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid (ssDNA) for multiple detections in an early phase of screening for cervical cancer in the E6 region and became a fundamental evolution of detection electrochemical HPV biosensor. Gene profiling of the virus ssDNA sequences has been carried by high-end bioinformatics tools such as GenBank, Basic Local Alignment Searching Tools (BLAST), and Clustal OMEGA in a row. The output from bioinformatics tools resulted in 100% of similarities between our virus ssDNA probe and HPV complete genome in the databases. The cross-validation between HPV genome and our designed virus ssDNA provided high specificity and selectivity during screening methods compared with Pap smear. The DNA probe for HPV 18, 5' COOH-GAT CCA GAA GGT ACA GAC GGG GAG GGC ACG 3', while 5'COOH-GGG CGC TGT GCA GTG TGT TGG AGA CCC CGA3' as DNA probe for HPV 58 designed with 66.77% guanine (G) and cytosine (C) content for both. Our virus ssDNA probe for the HPV biosensor promises high sensitivity, specificity, selectivity, repeatability, low fluid consumption, and will be useful in mini-size diagnostic devices for cervical cancer detection.