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  1. Ahmed HMA, Neelakantan P, Dummer PMH
    Int Endod J, 2018 Feb;51(2):164-176.
    PMID: 28635100 DOI: 10.1111/iej.12800
    Thorough knowledge of anatomical complexities of the root canal system has a direct impact on the effectiveness of canal preparation and filling, and is an essential prerequisite for successful root canal treatment. A wide range of complex variations in root canal anatomy exists, including root canal configuration type, developmental anomalies and minor canal morphology such as accessory canals and apical deltas. Accessory canals and apical deltas have been associated with pulp disease, primary canal infection, canal reinfection and post-treatment disease. The current definitions of accessory canal anatomy are not standardized and potentially confusing. Given their role in endodontic disease and their impact on treatment outcomes, there is a need to have a simple classification of their anatomy to provide an accurate description of their position and path from the canal to the external surface of the root. The purpose of this article is to introduce a new system for classifying accessory canal morphology for use in research, clinical practice and training.
  2. Nagendrababu V, Jayaraman J, Suresh A, Kalyanasundaram S, Neelakantan P
    Clin Oral Investig, 2018 Mar;22(2):655-670.
    PMID: 29372445 DOI: 10.1007/s00784-018-2345-x
    OBJECTIVES: Reduction of microbial load from the root canal systems is a pre-requisite for healing of lesions of endodontic origin. Such microbial reduction is influenced by the method of irrigant delivery and activation. The aim of this systematic review was to compare the effect of ultrasonically activated irrigation (UAI) with other irrigation techniques on the reduction of microorganisms during root canal disinfection.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: The research question was created based on the PICO strategy. Two reviewers independently performed a comprehensive literature search in electronic databases. Following application of inclusion and exclusion criteria to the selected articles, a systematic data extraction sheet was constructed. The selected articles were assessed using methodological quality scoring protocol. The risk of bias in selected studies was critically assessed by two reviewers.

    RESULTS: A total of 15 articles were included for the systematic review. The included studies were heterogeneous in study design; hence, meta-analysis was not performed. The overall risk of bias for the selected studies was moderate. Overall, UAI showed superior reduction of microbial counts, resulting in better disinfection compared to other irrigation systems chosen for comparison in this review.

    CONCLUSION: The use of UAI can bring about superior microbial reduction within the root canal system compared to other irrigant activation techniques.

    CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Activation of irrigants with ultrasonic brings about significant bacterial reduction from the root canal systems compared to other methods of irrigant activation and conventional syringe irrigation. This might help in improving the outcome of root canal treatment.

  3. Ordinola-Zapata R, Peters OA, Nagendrababu V, Azevedo B, Dummer PMH, Neelakantan P
    Int Endod J, 2020 Jan;53(1):36-52.
    PMID: 31454086 DOI: 10.1111/iej.13210
    AIM: To report the most common terminology used in titles of scientific papers published in the International Endodontic Journal (IEJ) and Journal of Endodontics (JOE) between 1980 and 2019 and to identify the most-cited papers in these journals.

    METHODOLOGY: The Web of Science database was searched to retrieve all the manuscripts published in the IEJ and JOE between 1980 and 2019. The articles were analysed using the VOS viewer software and the terms within the titles extracted. The top-10 terms were categorized according to the number of occurrences and the decade of publication. Maps were created using the text data for each decade of publication. Classic papers were identified when the number of citations was >400. During the same period of time, highly cited studies were identified including the authors, institutions and countries associated with these papers.

    RESULTS: Terms such as canal, molar and periapical lesion were the most commonly used in titles between 1980 and 1999. The terms instruments, expression, case report and cell were the most often terms used between 2000 and 2019. During the last 10 years, an increase in the number of reviews and papers on cone beam computed tomography occurred. The organizations with the largest number of citations in each decade were University of São Paulo, University College London, Loma Linda University and United States Army. The country with the largest number of citations and greatest number of top 10 and top 100 manuscripts was the United States. A paper had to be associated with more than 167 citations to be included in the top-100 most-cited list; at least 14 papers met the criteria to be categorized as a citation classic (>400 citations).

    CONCLUSION: While many diverse areas of endodontics have been explored in the last 40 years within the IEJ and JOE, only a relatively few topics are highly cited and can be considered as classics.

  4. Daood U, Tsoi JKH, Neelakantan P, Matinlinna JP, Omar HAK, Al-Nabulsi M, et al.
    Dent Mater, 2018 08;34(8):1175-1187.
    PMID: 29779627 DOI: 10.1016/j.dental.2018.05.005
    OBJECTIVE: Collagen fibrils aid in anchoring resin composite restorations to the dentine substrate. The aim of the study was to investigate effect of non-enzymatic glycation on bond strength and durability of demineralized dentine specimens in a modified two-step etch-and-rinse dentine adhesive.

    METHODS: Dentine surfaces were etched with 37% phosphoric acid, bonded with respective in vitro ethanol and acetone adhesives modified with (m/m, 0, 1%, 2% and 3% ribose), restored with restorative composite-resin, and sectioned into resin-dentine slabs and beams to be stored for 24h or 12 months in artificial saliva. Bond-strength testing was performed with bond failure analysis. Pentosidine assay was performed on demineralized ribose modified dentine specimens with HPLC sensitive fluorescent detection. The structural variations of ribose-modified dentine were analysed using TEM and human dental pulpal cells were used for cell viability. Three-point bending test of ribose-modified dentine beams were performed and depth of penetration of adhesives evaluated with micro-Raman spectroscopy. The MMP-2 and cathepsin K activities in ribose-treated dentine powder were also quantified using ELISA. Bond strength data was expressed using two-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's test. Paired T tests were used to analyse the specimens for pentosidine crosslinks. The modulus of elasticity and dentinal MMP-2 and cathepsin K concentrations was separately analyzed using one-way ANOVA.

    RESULTS: The incorporation of RB in the experimental two-step etch-and-rinse adhesive at 1% improved the adhesive bond strength without adversely affecting the degree of polymerisation. The newly developed adhesive increases the resistance of dentine collagen to degradation by inhibiting endogenous matrix metalloproteinases and cysteine cathepsins. The application of RB to acid-etched dentine helps maintain the mechanical properties.

    SIGNIFICANCE: The incorporation of 1%RB can be considered as a potential candidate stabilizing resin dentine bond.

  5. Soh JA, Sheriff SO, Ramar NA, Pulikkotil SJ, Nagendrababu V, Neelakantan P, et al.
    Aust Endod J, 2019 Aug;45(2):171-176.
    PMID: 30230109 DOI: 10.1111/aej.12303
    In endodontic infections, inflammatory mediators such as cytokines are released, recruited and retained until the infection is eradicated. Root canal therapy is performed to prevent the spread of infection. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of root canal debridement (cleaning and shaping) on periapical inflammation by measuring the levels of inflammatory cytokines, Interleukin-8 (IL-8) and Interleukin-10 (IL-10). The study includes twenty patients with pulp necrosis and asymptomatic apical periodontitis. Periradicular sample was collected using paper points before and after root canal debridement. Cytokine levels were determined by Sandwich Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Data were analysed using paired t-test (PASW Statistics 18) (P = 0.05). All samples showed the presence of IL-8 and IL-10 prior to root canal debridement. Significantly reduced levels (P < 0.05) of IL-8 and IL-10 were detected after root canal debridement. In conclusion, root canal debridement significantly decreased the levels of the tested pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine in the periradicular interstitial fluid.
  6. Neelakantan P, Romero M, Vera J, Daood U, Khan AU, Yan A, et al.
    Int J Mol Sci, 2017 Aug 11;18(8).
    PMID: 28800075 DOI: 10.3390/ijms18081748
    Microbiota are found in highly organized and complex entities, known as biofilms, the characteristics of which are fundamentally different from microbes in planktonic suspensions. Root canal infections are biofilm mediated. The complexity and variability of the root canal system, together with the multi-species nature of biofilms, make disinfection of this system extremely challenging. Microbial persistence appears to be the most important factor for failure of root canal treatment and this could further have an impact on pain and quality of life. Biofilm removal is accomplished by a chemo-mechanical process, using specific instruments and disinfecting chemicals in the form of irrigants and/or intracanal medicaments. Endodontic research has focused on the characterization of root canal biofilms and the clinical methods to disrupt the biofilms in addition to achieving microbial killing. In this narrative review, we discuss the role of microbial biofilms in endodontics and review the literature on the role of root canal disinfectants and disinfectant-activating methods on biofilm removal.
  7. Nagendrababu V, Sheriff Sultan O, Kannathasan S, Patel AS, Chitra E, Neelakantan P, et al.
    Restor Dent Endod, 2018 Feb;43(1):e1.
    PMID: 29487832 DOI: 10.5395/rde.2018.43.e1
    Objectives: To determine the effect of root canal irrigants on the hydrophobicity and adherence ofStaphylococcus epidermidis(S. epidermidis) to root canal dentinin vitro.

    Materials and Methods: Root dentin blocks (n= 60) were randomly divided into 4 groups based on the irrigation regimen: group 1, saline; group 2, 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl); group 3, 5.25% NaOCl followed by 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA); group 4, same as group 3 followed by 2% chlorhexidine (CHX). The hydrophobicity ofS. epidermidisto root dentin was calculated by cell surface hydrophobicity while the adherence was observed by fluorescence microscopy, and bacteria were quantified using ImageJ software (National Institutes of Health). Statistical analysis of the data was done using Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-WhitneyUtest (p= 0.05).

    Results: The hydrophobicity and adherence ofS. epidermidisto dentin were significantly increased after irrigating with group 3 (NaOCl-EDTA) (p< 0.05), whereas in group 4 (NaOCl-EDTA-CHX) both hydrophobicity and adherence were significantly reduced (p< 0.05).

    Conclusions: The adherence ofS. epidermidisto dentin was influenced differently by root canal irrigants. Final irrigation with CHX reduces the bacterial adherence and may impact biofilm formation.

  8. Neelakantan P, Ahmed HMA, Wong MCM, Matinlinna JP, Cheung GSP
    Int Endod J, 2018 Aug;51(8):847-861.
    PMID: 29377170 DOI: 10.1111/iej.12898
    The aim of this systematic review was to address the question: Do different irrigating protocols have an impact on the dislocation resistance of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA)-based materials? The review was performed using a well-defined search strategy in three databases (PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science) to include laboratory studies performed between January 1995 and May 2017, in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. Two reviewers analysed the papers, assessed the risk of bias and extracted data on teeth used, sample size, size of root canal preparation, type of MTA-based material, irrigants, canal filling method, storage method and duration, region of roots and the parameters of push-out testing (slice thickness, plunger dimensions and plunger loading direction), the main results and dislocation resistance values (in MPa). From 255 studies, 27 were included for full-text analysis. Eight papers that met the inclusion criteria were included in this review. There was a wide variation in dislocation resistance due to differences in irrigation sequence, time and concentration of irrigants, storage method and duration, and the parameters of push-out bond strength testing. A meta-analysis was not done but qualitative synthesis of the included studies was performed. No definitive conclusion could be drawn to evaluate the effect of irrigation protocols on dislocation resistance of MTA-based materials. Recommendations have been provided for standardized testing methods and reporting of future studies, so as to obtain clinically relevant information and to understand the effects of irrigating protocols on root canal sealers and their interactions with the dentine walls of root canals.
  9. Neelakantan P, Ahmed HMA, Chang JWW, Nabhan MS, Wei X, Cheung GSP, et al.
    Aust Endod J, 2019 Dec;45(3):407-413.
    PMID: 30520194 DOI: 10.1111/aej.12333
    This systematic review assessed the effect of different root canal instrumentation systems on endotoxin reduction from the root canal system. The literature search was conducted in two electronic databases (PubMed and Scopus) using specific key words. The search strategy followed the PRISMA guidelines. Qualitative synthesis and quantitative synthesis of the data were performed and data interpretation was done based on the guidelines in the Cochrane Handbook. The risk of bias was assessed using Cochrane criteria. The initial search yielded 600 citations, of which three papers met the criteria for inclusion in this review. Studies showed a significant reduction in endotoxin following rotary and reciprocating instrumentation, with no significant differences between them. The meta-analysis showed no statistical significant difference between reciprocation and rotary files (P > 0.05). In conclusion, the instrumentation techniques compared in this review decrease endotoxin content from root canals, with no significant difference between them.
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