Hyperdontia is the condition of having supernumerary tooth, or teeth, which appear
in addition to the regular number of teeth. It is a developmental anomaly and has been argued to
arise from multiple aetiologies. It may remain embedded in the alveolar bone or can erupt into the
oral cavity. Mesiodens is a supernumerary tooth located in the anterior maxilla, placed palatally or
in between the maxillary central incisors. (Copied from article).
Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) plays important roles in osteoblast
differentiation, tooth development and chondrocyte maturation; hence its involvement in
craniofacial development is paramount. Mutation in RUNX2 is implicated with cleidocranial
dysplasia; a bone development disorder, while single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in RUNX2 is
associated with Class II/2 malocclusion. This study aimed to determine RUNX2 SNP of DNA marker
(rs6930053) in malocclusion patients from local population. (Copied from article).
PAX9 (Paired box 9) gene is one of the genes which play significant role during
craniofacial development. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in PAX9 has been associated with
Class II/Division 2 malocclusion (with or without hypodontia). However, the relationship between
PAX9 SNP marker (rs8004560) with mandibular prognathism (MP) has not been analysed, at least in
our local population. This study aimed to detect the presence of PAX9 (rs8004560) SNP in Class III
malocclusion patients (with MP) in the local population. (Copied from article).
Orthodontic fixed appliance is now considered as fashion accessory and a symbol of
wealth. Due to overwhelming demand, 'fake' and 'real' braces services have been offered through
social media by unqualified personnel using poor quality orthodontic brackets and cases of metal
toxicity from using these type of braces has been reported. (Copied from article).
The growing demand for orthodontic braces among Malaysian community has led to
the development of "fake" and "real" braces. "Fake" braces refer to braces that are worn as costume
and are not bonded to teeth hence unable to produce movement of teeth. "Real" braces refer to
braces that are bonded to tooth structure and are able to produce tooth movement. The braces are
bonded by unqualified practitioners with no formal dental education and they provide braces
treatment in unlicensed premises such as hotel rooms or patients' own homes. (Copied from article).
In this study, extracted plumeria and celosia cristata flowers have been used as the sensitizer for dyesensitized
solar cells (DSSC). The cells were fabricated using TiO2 as a semiconductor layer
deposited on transparent Indium doped tin oxide (ITO) conductive glass using a spin coating
technique. The films with dyes were characterized by UV-VIS absorption spectra. The photovoltaic
properties of DSSC were studied under an incident irradiation of 100 mW/cm2
. The I-V characteristic
curves of all fabricated cells were measured and analysed. The energy conversion efficiency (η) of the
cells consisting of plumeria extract and celosia cristata extract was 3.73 × 10-6
and 1.18 × 10-7 respectively.
Evidence suggests that several genes; including MYO1H, play an important role in the
etiology of Class III malocclusion. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in marker rs10850110 (locus
12q24.11) within MYO1H gene has been associated with the incidence of mandibular prognathism
(MP). MYO is a class 1 myosin that is responsible for the synthesis of Matrilin-1; an important
protein involved in the formation of cartilage's extracellular matrix, hence is implicated in the
formation of mandibular condyle cartilage. This study aimed to detect the presence of MYO1H
(rs10850110) SNP and to determine its genotype and allele distribution in MP patient in the local
population. (Copied from article).
Polymorphism in PAX9 (rs8004560), a gene responsible for craniofacial and tooth development, is often associated with Class II/Div2 malocclusion. This study aimed to detect the presence of PAX9 SNP (rs8004560) and to determine its genotype and allele distribution in Class II skeletal base malocclusion, contributed by retrognathic mandible, in the local Malaysian population. The association of PAX9 SNP (rs8004560) with Class II skeletal base malocclusion was also determined. A case control study was performed on 30 samples; 15 from Class II skeletal base malocclusion, and 15 from Class I skeletal base subject as control. Cephalometric measurements were performed prior to saliva samples collection. Genomic DNA was extracted from unstimulated saliva of all subjects, and the DNA was amplified using specific primers for marker rs8004560, followed by genotyping by sequencing. SHEsis online software was used to analyse Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE) for cases and controls. Allelic and genotypic frequencies were compared between cases and controls. Significant difference in allele frequency was observed within the group whereby G allele was over-represented in the analysed population (p0.05). Although no genetic association between PAX9 SNP (rs8004560) with Class II skeletal base malocclusion was observed, significant difference in allele frequency observed might provide some indication in the involvement of PAX9 polymorphism in Class II skeletal base malocclusion contributed by retrognathic mandible. Further research utilising larger sample size will be required in order to determine the role of PAX9 gene in the aetiology of Class II skeletal base malocclusion observed in the local Malaysian population.
An ideal model organism for neurotoxicology research should meet several characteristics, such as low cost and amenable for high throughput testing. Javanese medaka (JM) has been widely used in the ecotoxicological studies related to the marine and freshwater environment, but rarely utilized for biomedical research. Therefore, in this study, the applicability of using JM in the neurotoxicology research was assessed using biochemical comparison with an established model organism, the zebrafish. Identification of biochemical changes due to the neurotoxic effects of ethanol and endosulfan was assessed using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) analysis. Treatment with ethanol affected the level of lipids, proteins, glycogens and nucleic acids in the brain of JM. Meanwhile, treatment with endosulfan showed alteration in the level of lipids and nucleic acids. For the zebrafish, exposure to ethanol affected the level of protein, fatty acid and amino acid, and exposure to endosulfan induced alteration in the fatty acids, amino acids, nucleic acids and protein in the brain of zebrafish. The sensitive response of the JM toward chemicals exposure proved that it was a valuable model for neurotoxicology research. More studies need to be conducted to further develop JM as an ideal model organism for neurotoxicology research.