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  1. Nozieana Khairuddin, Ida Idayu Muhamad
    MyJurnal
    An antimicrobial (AM) Active Packaging can be made by incorporating and immobilizing suitable AM agents into food package matrices and applying a bio switch concept. A starchbased film was prepared and incorporated with an antimicrobial agent, i.e. lysozyme with EDTA as a chelating agent. This film was then inoculated with the bacteria Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis to carry out the microbial contamination study. The inhibition of both E. coli and B. subtilis by the AM film was clearly observed as a clear zone formation in the culture agar test. The film appearance showed that lysozymes could give a better inhibition to the growth of E. coli and to B. subtilis, at a satisfying inhibition rate. From the broth test, the decreased in the optical densities were found to be 65.83% and 91.30%, suggesting an effective growth inhibition of E. coli and B. subtilis, respectively. Physically, the film which was incorporated with lysozymes was found to be slightly different from the control film. The moisture content of the film, with lysozymes, was found to be below 10.5%, as compared to the control, after 24 hours of formation in the storage at ambient temperature.
  2. Nooranis Mustapha, Nozieana Khairuddin, Ida Idayu Muhamad, Shahrir Hashim, Md. Bazlul Mobin Siddique
    Sains Malaysiana, 2016;45:1169-1176.
    Interest in the use of intelligent packaging systems for food products has increased in recent years. Intelligent packaging
    systems are those that monitor the condition of packaged foods to give information regarding the quality of the packaged
    food during transport and storage. The potential of HEC/PANI film as pH indicator and pH sensor were evaluated. HEC/
    PANI film was prepared by solution blending and casting method. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy showed
    that there was no chemical interaction between HEC and PANI. The film properties were retained chemically. The electrical
    conductivity increment from 1.14×105 to 2.2 ×105
    S/cm was observed when PANI was incorporated into the HEC film matrix.
    Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) showed that the electrical conductance network of PANI was formed
    in HEC/PANI film. The electrical sensitivity of the film has been studied with I-V characterization. The changes in color and
    current of HEC/PANI film on interaction to pH buffer 1-14 shows its suitability as pH indicator and pH sensor for food.
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