OBJECTIVE: To assess whether favourable perceptions of the learning environment (LE) were associated with better quality of life, less burnout and more empathy across three undergraduate medical education programmes in Israel, Malaysia and China.
METHODS: Cross-sectional surveys were administered at the end of the 2013-2014 academic year at three medical schools: Technion American Medical Students Program (TAMS) in Israel, Perdana University-Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland School of Medicine (PURCSI) in Malaysia and Peking Union Medical College (PUMC) in China. LE perceptions were assessed using the Johns Hopkins Learning Environment Scale (JHLES). Well-being was assessed using validated items for quality of life and the depersonalisation and emotional exhaustion domains of burnout. The 20-item Jefferson Empathy Scale assessed empathy. Statistical analyses included bivariate regressions and multivariate regressions that adjusted for gender, school, class year and perceived academic rank.
RESULTS: Overall, 400/622 (64.3%) students responded, with the following rates by site: TAMS 92/121 (76.0%), PURCSI 160/198 (80.1%) and PUMC 148/303 (48.8%). In multivariate models, favourable overall LE perceptions were associated with higher odds of good quality of life (odds ratio [OR], 3.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.8-5.8; p < 0.001) and lower odds of emotional exhaustion (OR, 0.34; 95% CI, 0.24-0.50; p < 0.001) and depersonaliation (OR, 0.30; 95% CI, 0.24-0.37; p = 0.001). 'Community of Peers', one of seven factors in the JHLES, was the only one to be independently associated with better quality of life and less emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation. After adjusting for covariates, there was not a statistically significant association between overall LE and empathy (OR, 1.4; 95% CI, 0.91-2.2; p = 0.12).
CONCLUSIONS: Students' LE perceptions are closely associated with their well-being, and fostering peer community may hold promise for enhancing quality of life and protecting against burnout. Across these three settings, LE and empathy were not closely related, suggesting that any influence of learning environment on empathy would be modest.
The combination of novel materials with flexible electronic technology may yield new concepts of flexible electronic devices that effectively detect various biological chemicals to facilitate understanding of biological processes and conduct health monitoring. This paper demonstrates single- or multichannel implantable flexible sensors that are surface modified with conductive metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) such as copper-MOF and cobalt-MOF with large surface area, high porosity, and tunable catalysis capability. The sensors can monitor important nutriments such as ascorbicacid, glycine, l-tryptophan (l-Trp), and glucose with detection resolutions of 14.97, 0.71, 4.14, and 54.60 × 10-6 m, respectively. In addition, they offer sensing capability even under extreme deformation and complex surrounding environment with continuous monitoring capability for 20 d due to minimized use of biological active chemicals. Experiments using live cells and animals indicate that the MOF-modified sensors are biologically safe to cells, and can detect l-Trp in blood and interstitial fluid. This work represents the first effort in integrating MOFs with flexible sensors to achieve highly specific and sensitive implantable electrochemical detection and may inspire appearance of more flexible electronic devices with enhanced capability in sensing, energy storage, and catalysis using various properties of MOFs.
Hydroxyapatite (HAP) is a significant bone mineral that establishes bone strength. HAP composites in combination with biodegradable and bioactive polymer poly xylitol sebacic adipate (PXSA) would result in a constant release at target sites. Numerous studies have shown that vitamin K (VK) might possess a vital function in bone metabolism. The purpose of the present study was to inspect the synthesized composite HAP/PXSA/VK in developing polymeric biomaterials composite for the application of bone tissue regeneration. FTIR, X-ray diffraction, SEM and TEM techniques were applied to characterize the prepared composites. The release of VK from the HAP/PXSA/VK composite was evidenced through UV-Vis spectroscopy. In vitro studies proved that the HAP/PXSA/VK composite is appropriate for mesenchymal stem cell culture. Compared to pure HAP prepared following the same method, HAP/PXSA/VK composite provided favourable microstructures and good biodegradation distinctiveness for the application of tissue engineering, as well as tissue in-growth characteristics and improved scaffold cell penetration. This work reveals that the HAP/PXSA/VK composites have the potential for applications in bone tissue engineering.
The phase III, randomized, open-label ENSURE study (NCT01342965) evaluated first-line erlotinib versus gemcitabine/cisplatin (GP) in patients from China, Malaysia and the Philippines with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation-positive non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
Several distributions of country-specific blood pressure (BP) percentiles by sex, age, and height for children and adolescents have been established worldwide. However, there are no globally unified BP references for defining elevated BP in children and adolescents, which limits international comparisons of the prevalence of pediatric elevated BP. We aimed to establish international BP references for children and adolescents by using 7 nationally representative data sets (China, India, Iran, Korea, Poland, Tunisia, and the United States).