METHODS: Essential oils obtained by steam distillation were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The antimicrobial activity of the essential oils was evaluated against four bacteria: Bacillus cereus (B. cereus), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Escherichia coli (E. coli), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa); and two fungi: Candida albicans (C. albicans) and Cyptococcus neoformans (C. neoformans), using disc-diffusion and broth microdilution methods.
RESULTS: Cycloisolongifolene, 8,9-dehydro formyl (35.29%) and dihydrocostunolide (22.51%) were the major compounds in C. aeruginosa oil; whereas caryophyllene oxide (18.71%) and caryophyllene (12.69%) were the major compounds in C. mangga oil; and 2,6,9,9-tetramethyl-2,6,10-cycloundecatrien-1-one (60.77%) and α-caryophyllene (23.92%) were abundant in Z. cassumunar oil. The essential oils displayed varying degrees of antimicrobial activity against all tested microorganisms. C. mangga oil had the highest and most broad-spectrum activity by inhibiting all microorganisms tested, with C. neoformans being the most sensitive microorganism by having the lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) values of 0.1 μL/mL. C. aeruginosa oil showed mild antimicrobial activity, whereas Z. cassumunar had very low or weak activity against the tested microorganisms.
CONCLUSIONS: The preliminary results suggest promising antimicrobial properties of C. mangga and C. aeruginosa, which may be useful for food preservation, pharmaceutical treatment and natural therapies.
METHODS: The antimicrobial activity was evaluated using disc diffusion and microdilution methods.
RESULTS: The antimicrobial activities of the crude extracts were increased with increasing the concentration. It is clear that n-hexane extract was the most effective extract. Additionally, Gram positive Bacillus cereus (B. cereus) appear to be the most sensitive strain while Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) and the yeast strains (Candida albicans (C. albicans) and Cryptococcus neoformans (C. neoformans)) appear to be resistance to the tested concentrations since no inhibition zone was observed. The inhibition of microbial growth at concentration as low as 0.04 mg/mL indicated the potent antimicrobial activity of L. littorea extracts.
CONCLUSIONS: The obtained results are considered sufficient for further study to isolate the compounds responsible for the activity and suggesting the possibility of finding potent antibacterial agents from L. littorea extracts.