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  1. Saad S, Taher M, Susanti D, Qaralleh H, Awang AF
    Asian Pac J Trop Biomed, 2012 Jun;2(6):427-9.
    PMID: 23569943 DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(12)60069-0
    To investigate the antimicrobial property of mangrove plant Sonneratia alba (S. alba).
  2. Althunibat OY, Ridzwan BH, Taher M, Daud JM, Jauhari Arief Ichwan S, Qaralleh H
    Acta. Biol. Hung., 2013 Mar;64(1):10-20.
    PMID: 23567827 DOI: 10.1556/ABiol.64.2013.1.2
    Sea cucumbers are marine invertebrates of the phylum of Echinodermata that have been used in Asian traditional medicine since ancient times. This study was conducted to investigate the antioxidant and cytotoxic properties of aqueous and organic extracts from two sea cucumber species, Holothuria edulis Lesson (Holothuriidae) and Stichopus horrens Selenka (Stichopodidae). Antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated by DPPH· and β-carotene bleaching assays, while MTT and trypan blue exclusion assays were used to demonstrate the cytotoxic effects of the extracts against two human cancer cell lines, non-small cell lung cancer cells (A549) and esophageal cancer cells (TE1). The results showed that both aqueous and organic extracts of H. edulis were able to scavenge DPH radical (IC50 at 2.04 mg/ml and 8.73 mg/ml, respectively). Aqueous and organic extracts of S. horrens inhibited 79.62% and 46.66% of β-carotene oxidation by linoleate free radical. On the other hand, the organic extract of S. horrens exhibited the highest cytotoxic effects against A549 and TE1 cancer cells giving IC50 at 15.5 and 4.0 μg/ml, respectively. In conclusion, the present study revealed that H. edulis and S. horrens contain promising levels of antioxidant and cytotoxic natural products that might be used for cancer prevention and treatment.
  3. Kamazeri TS, Samah OA, Taher M, Susanti D, Qaralleh H
    Asian Pac J Trop Med, 2012 Mar;5(3):202-9.
    PMID: 22305785 DOI: 10.1016/S1995-7645(12)60025-X
    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the chemical composition of the essential oils of Curcuma aeruginosa (C. aeruginosa), Curcuma mangga (C. mangga), and Zingiber cassumunar (Z. cassumunar), and study their antimicrobial activity.

    METHODS: Essential oils obtained by steam distillation were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The antimicrobial activity of the essential oils was evaluated against four bacteria: Bacillus cereus (B. cereus), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Escherichia coli (E. coli), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa); and two fungi: Candida albicans (C. albicans) and Cyptococcus neoformans (C. neoformans), using disc-diffusion and broth microdilution methods.

    RESULTS: Cycloisolongifolene, 8,9-dehydro formyl (35.29%) and dihydrocostunolide (22.51%) were the major compounds in C. aeruginosa oil; whereas caryophyllene oxide (18.71%) and caryophyllene (12.69%) were the major compounds in C. mangga oil; and 2,6,9,9-tetramethyl-2,6,10-cycloundecatrien-1-one (60.77%) and α-caryophyllene (23.92%) were abundant in Z. cassumunar oil. The essential oils displayed varying degrees of antimicrobial activity against all tested microorganisms. C. mangga oil had the highest and most broad-spectrum activity by inhibiting all microorganisms tested, with C. neoformans being the most sensitive microorganism by having the lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) values of 0.1 μL/mL. C. aeruginosa oil showed mild antimicrobial activity, whereas Z. cassumunar had very low or weak activity against the tested microorganisms.

    CONCLUSIONS: The preliminary results suggest promising antimicrobial properties of C. mangga and C. aeruginosa, which may be useful for food preservation, pharmaceutical treatment and natural therapies.

  4. Alkhamaiseh SI, Taher M, Ahmad F, Qaralleh H, Althunibat OY, Susanti D, et al.
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2012 Jul;25(3):555-63.
    PMID: 22713941
    Recently there was huge increase in using of 'herbal products'. These can be defined as plants, parts of plants or extracts from plants that are used for curing disease. However, Calophyllum species is a tropical plant and it has been used in traditional medicine, the limitation in safety and effectiveness information could lead to serious health problems. Providing information for communities by evaluating the phytochemical contents, antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities will improve the therapeutic values. Three main Calophyllum canum fractions (none - high polar) were tested to find out the phenolic, flavonoid, flavonol content, DPPH radical scavenging, reducing power and chelating iron ions. Also were tested against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Psedomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, and Cryptococcus neoformans. In addition, cytotoxic activity was assayed against lung cancer A549 cell line. The methanol fraction showed no bioactivity but achieved the highest amount of phenolic, flavonol and flavonoid contents, also it showed a significant result as antioxidant, reducing power and chelating agent. The n-hexane fraction achieved the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value 12.5 μg. mL(-1) against B. cereus while the MIC value for DCM fraction was 25 μg. mL(-1). The DCM fraction was more active against S. aureus where the result was 50 μg. mL(-1) while the n-hexane fraction was 100 μg. mL(-1). The three main fractions have shown no activity against gram negative bacterial and fungal. The n-hexane and DCM fractions have shown cytotoxicity against lung cancer cell line; the 50% inhibition concentration (IC(50)) was 22 ± 2.64 and 32 ± 3.78 μg. mL(-1) respectively. The results were statistically significant (P < 0.05). Among the results, C. canum fractions proved to be effective against gram positive bacterial and anti-proliferation activity. Also it showed antioxidant activity as well. The results provided beneficial information for communities as well as can help to search for alternative drugs, and will contribute to establish safe and effective use of phytomedicines in the treatment of diseases.
  5. Saad S, Taher M, Susanti D, Qaralleh H, Rahim NA
    Asian Pac J Trop Med, 2011 Jul;4(7):523-5.
    PMID: 21803301 DOI: 10.1016/S1995-7645(11)60138-7
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the antimicrobial activities of n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of the leaves of Lumnitzera littorea (L. littorea) against six human pathogenic microbes.

    METHODS: The antimicrobial activity was evaluated using disc diffusion and microdilution methods.

    RESULTS: The antimicrobial activities of the crude extracts were increased with increasing the concentration. It is clear that n-hexane extract was the most effective extract. Additionally, Gram positive Bacillus cereus (B. cereus) appear to be the most sensitive strain while Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) and the yeast strains (Candida albicans (C. albicans) and Cryptococcus neoformans (C. neoformans)) appear to be resistance to the tested concentrations since no inhibition zone was observed. The inhibition of microbial growth at concentration as low as 0.04 mg/mL indicated the potent antimicrobial activity of L. littorea extracts.

    CONCLUSIONS: The obtained results are considered sufficient for further study to isolate the compounds responsible for the activity and suggesting the possibility of finding potent antibacterial agents from L. littorea extracts.

  6. Al Fraijat B, Al-Tawarah NM, Khlaifat AM, Qaralleh H, Khleifat KM, M A, et al.
    Trop Biomed, 2019 Sep 01;36(3):620-629.
    PMID: 33597484
    Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) consider as the most common infections worldwide, with higher risk in patients experienced Acute Appendicitis (AA). The purpose of this study was, to investigate the bacterial profile of UTIs in patients with non-ruptured AA postsurgically, and to assess age- and gender-related links of all AA cases in Karak region, Jordan. Urine samples obtained from 46 cases (32 male and 14 female) aged between 16-70 years were diagnosed as non-ruptured AA, following with isolation and characterization of isolated bacteria. Out of 46 AA cases, uropathogens isolated from 25 (54.3%) UTI cases. Out of these isolates; 42 (73.7%) were gram-negative isolates and 15 (26.3%) were gram-positive bacteria. The percentage of isolates were E. coli (26.3%), Enterobacter species (21%), Enterococcus faecalis and Klebsiella pneumoniea (10.5%) for each, Streptococcus saprophytics and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (7%) for each, Yersinia spp. and S. milleri (8.8%). Out of UTI cases, 20 cases (80%) possessed mixed culture, each of them had at least one of Enterobacterial species. i.e. Enterobacter spp. or E. coli or both. More precisely, out of all these positivecases, 2 cases had pure gram positive-bacterial infection (8%), while pure gram negative bacterial infection comprised 48% of them and the rest (44%) were mixed (gram-negative and gram-positive) bacterial infection. Moreover, study revealed a high prevalence rate of AA cases 24 (52.2%) in the ages of 16-22 years, then declining the rate with increasing the age, reaching the lowest rate (4.3%) in ages of 60-70. In addition to age factor, the males significantly more susceptible to AA cases than females by 2.2-fold. Antibiotic sensitivity test revealed high resistance capability of E. coli to the most used antibiotics except for nitrofurantoin. Bacterial isolates showing sensitivity against ciprofloxacin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, amoxicillin-Clavulanic acid and nitrofurantoin, with a superiority for the first two. Results demonstrate high prevalence rate of UTIs in patients with AA. For avoiding, the needless use of antibiotics through sticking to our accountability as healthcare provisioner to pursuit the antimicrobial management.
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