Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 26 in total

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  1. Rajandram R, Perumal K, Yap NY
    Transl Androl Urol, 2019 May;8(Suppl 2):S138-S146.
    PMID: 31236331 DOI: 10.21037/tau.2018.11.10
    Obesity is a recognized risk factor for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) the commonest form of kidney cancer. Both obesity and RCC are serious diseases with increasing incidence yearly. This review examined certain obesity associated measurements and adipokines as detection/prognostic indicators for RCC. The obesity related measurements such as body mass index (BMI), waist circumstance (WC), waist-hip ratio (WHR) in predicting RCC are valid when used in conjunction with other risk factors such as age and sex or with histological findings. The adipokine adiponectin holds promising outcomes as a predictive marker in assessing the risk of developing RCC. In addition, tissue leptin/leptin receptor may be a distinguishing marker for RCC subtypes. However, circulating leptin may not be a suitable detection or prognostic biomarker for RCC. The other less investigated adipokines; omentin, visfatin, apelin and resistin are also expressed in RCC but their prognostic capabilities are still inconclusive. BMI, WC and adipokines may be useful additions in a nomogram which includes TNM staging and pathological grading system to detect, confirm and follow-up RCC cases.
  2. Jayasimhan S, Yap NY, Roest Y, Rajandram R, Chin KF
    Clin Nutr, 2013 Dec;32(6):928-34.
    PMID: 23561636 DOI: 10.1016/j.clnu.2013.03.004
    Probiotics is an emerging therapeutic agent which may alleviate the symptoms of constipation. We evaluated the effectiveness of microbial cell preparation (Hexbio(®)) containing fructooligosaccharide, Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus in improving stool frequency and symptoms of chronic constipation.
  3. Golkhalkhali B, Paliany AS, Chin KF, Rajandram R
    Nutr Cancer, 2018 01 11;70(2):184-191.
    PMID: 29324050 DOI: 10.1080/01635581.2018.1412470
    The prevalence of colorectal cancer (CRC) is on a steady rise over the years, with the World Health Organization (WHO) reporting CRC as the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. While treatment modalities may differ in accordance to the staging and severity of the disease itself, chemotherapy is almost unavoidable in most cases. Though effective in its mode of action, chemotherapy is commonly associated with undesirable side effects that negatively affects the patient in terms of quality of life, and in some cases may actually interfere with their treatment regimens, thus escalating to poor prognosis. Gastrointestinal disturbances is a major side effect of chemotherapy and in CRC, gastrointestinal disturbances may be further aggravated and grave in nature mainly due to the affected site, being the gastrointestinal tract. The use of complementary therapies as adjuncts to alleviate the side effects of chemotherapy in CRC patients is gaining prominence with dietary supplements being the most commonly employed adjunct. Some of the frequently used dietary supplements for CRC patients are probiotics, omega-3 fatty acid and glutamine. The successful crosstalk between these dietary supplements with important metabolic pathways is crucial in the alleviation of chemotherapy side effects.
  4. Mujtaba G, Shuib L, Raj RG, Rajandram R, Shaikh K
    J Forensic Leg Med, 2018 Jul;57:41-50.
    PMID: 29801951 DOI: 10.1016/j.jflm.2017.07.001
    OBJECTIVES: Automatic text classification techniques are useful for classifying plaintext medical documents. This study aims to automatically predict the cause of death from free text forensic autopsy reports by comparing various schemes for feature extraction, term weighing or feature value representation, text classification, and feature reduction.

    METHODS: For experiments, the autopsy reports belonging to eight different causes of death were collected, preprocessed and converted into 43 master feature vectors using various schemes for feature extraction, representation, and reduction. The six different text classification techniques were applied on these 43 master feature vectors to construct a classification model that can predict the cause of death. Finally, classification model performance was evaluated using four performance measures i.e. overall accuracy, macro precision, macro-F-measure, and macro recall.

    RESULTS: From experiments, it was found that that unigram features obtained the highest performance compared to bigram, trigram, and hybrid-gram features. Furthermore, in feature representation schemes, term frequency, and term frequency with inverse document frequency obtained similar and better results when compared with binary frequency, and normalized term frequency with inverse document frequency. Furthermore, the chi-square feature reduction approach outperformed Pearson correlation, and information gain approaches. Finally, in text classification algorithms, support vector machine classifier outperforms random forest, Naive Bayes, k-nearest neighbor, decision tree, and ensemble-voted classifier.

    CONCLUSION: Our results and comparisons hold practical importance and serve as references for future works. Moreover, the comparison outputs will act as state-of-art techniques to compare future proposals with existing automated text classification techniques.

  5. Bennett NC, Rajandram R, Ng KL, Gobe GC
    J Kidney Cancer VHL, 2014;1(2):17-25.
    PMID: 28326246 DOI: 10.15586/jkcvhl.2014.9
    Steroid hormones and their receptors have important roles in normal kidney biology, and alterations in their expression and function help explain the differences in development of kidney diseases, such as nephrotic syndrome and chronic kidney disease. The distinct gender difference in incidence of renal cell carcinoma (RCC), with males having almost twice the incidence as females globally, also suggests a role for sex hormones or their receptors in RCC development and progression. There was a peak in interest in evaluating the roles of androgen and estrogen receptors in RCC pathogenesis in the late 20th century, with some positive outcomes for RCC therapy that targeted estrogen receptors, especially for metastatic disease. Since that time, however, there have been few studies that look at use of steroid hormone modulators for RCC, especially in the light of new therapies such as the tyrosine kinase inhibitors and new immune therapies, which are having some success for treatment of metastatic RCC. This review summarises past and current literature and attempts to stimulate renewed interest in research into the steroid hormones and their receptors, which might be used to effect, for example, in combination with the other newer targeted therapies for RCC.
  6. Rajandram R, Razack AH, Ng KL, Gobe GC
    J Kidney Cancer VHL, 2016;3(1):1-11.
    PMID: 28326275 DOI: 10.15586/jkcvhl.2016.47
    Although primary localised tumours of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) can be treated relatively successfully with surgery, metastatic RCC has poor prognosis because of late diagnosis and resistance to therapies. In the present study, we were interested in profiling the protein expression of "inhibitor of caspase-activated DNase" (ICAD), an apoptosis inhibitor, in kidney cancer and its paired normal kidney. Immunohistochemistry with automated batch staining and morphometry using digital pathology were used to compare ICAD in 121 RCC specimens with their paired normal kidney tissue. Tissue microarray of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded archival tissue was used. Intensity and localisation of ICAD were compared between normal and cancer samples, and against grading within the cancers. The results demonstrated that, in this cohort, ICAD was highly expressed in the proximal tubular epithelium of normal kidney, and significantly decreased in clear cell RCC tissue (p < 0.05) as well as other subtypes of RCC (p < 0.01) compared with normal kidney. There was a tendency towards nuclear localisation of ICAD in clear cell RCC, but not in other subtypes of RCC. No significant association was found between ICAD intensity and grade of RCC. In summary, down-regulation of ICAD occurs in RCC. ICAD normally inhibits DNA fragmentation and apoptosis; thus, its down-regulation was unexpected in a cancer known for its resistance to apoptosis. However, these RCC samples were from primary, not metastatic, RCC sites, and down-regulated ICAD may be part of a progressive pathway that promotes RCC metastasis.
  7. Yap NY, Yap FN, Perumal K, Rajandram R
    Biomarkers, 2019 Sep;24(6):607-614.
    PMID: 31215811 DOI: 10.1080/1354750X.2019.1634763
    Context: Metabolic imbalance in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) can lead to abnormal adiponectin levels. Objective: To evaluate circulating adiponectin as a detection or predictive marker for RCC. Methods: A comprehensive literature search and meta-analysis was performed on studies reporting circulating adiponectin levels and RCC. The meta-analysis was performed using RevMan. Results: Seven studies compared the circulating adiponection levels between RCC cases and controls. Adiponectin level was significantly lower in RCC cases compared to controls at pre-diagnosis and pre-operative time-points. RCC stage, grade and subtype did not affect adiponectin levels. Conclusion: Low circulating adiponectin could be a predictive or risk factor for RCC.
  8. Anbarasen L, Lim J, Rajandram R, Mun KS, Sia SF
    PeerJ, 2019;7:e7058.
    PMID: 31275742 DOI: 10.7717/peerj.7058
    Background: Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and -9 are Osteopontin (OPN) dependent molecules implicated in the destabilization of blood vessels. OPN and MMPs have been studied in brain arteriovenous malformation (BAVM) patients' tissues and blood samples before intervention. In this study, we compared the serum level of these markers before and after treatment, as well as assessed their protein expressions in BAVM tissues to evaluate their roles in this disease.

    Methodology: Serum samples from six BAVM patients and three control subjects were analyzed using enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA) for OPN. A total of 10 BAVM patients and five control subjects were analyzed using Multiplex ELISA for MMPs. A total of 16 BAVM tissue samples and two normal brain tissue samples were analyzed using immunohistochemistry.

    Result: MMP-2 and -9 were significantly higher in the serum of BAVM patients before and after treatment than in control patients. There were no significant differences of OPN and MMP-9 serum level in BAVM patients before and after treatment. MMP-2 showed a significant elevation after the treatment. Expression of OPN, MMP-2 and -9 proteins were seen in endothelial cells, perivascular cells and brain parenchyma of BAVM tissues.

    Conclusion: Findings revealed that the level of MMP-2 and -9 in the serum correlated well with the expression in BAVM tissues in several cases. Knockdown studies will be required to determine the relationships and mechanisms of action of these markers in the near future. In addition, studies will be required to investigate the expression of these markers' potential applications as primary medical therapy targets for BAVM patients.

  9. Rajandram R, Ong TA, Razack AH, MacIver B, Zeidel M, Yu W
    Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol., 2016 05 01;310(9):F885-94.
    PMID: 26911853 DOI: 10.1152/ajprenal.00483.2015
    Ketamine is a popular choice for young drug abusers. Ketamine abuse causes lower urinary tract symptoms, with the underlying pathophysiology poorly understood. Disruption of urothelial barrier function has been hypothesized to be a major mechanism for ketamine cystitis, yet the direct evidence of impaired urothelial barrier function is still lacking. To address this question, 8-wk-old female C57BL/6J mice were injected intraperitoneally with 30 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) ketamine for 12 wk to induce ketamine cystitis. A spontaneous voiding spot assay showed that ketamine-treated mice had increased primary voiding spot numbers and smaller primary voiding spot sizes than control mice (P < 0.05), indicating a contracted bladder and bladder overactivity. Consistently, significantly increased voiding frequency was observed in ketamine-treated mice on cystometrograms. These functional experiments indicate that ketamine induces voiding dysfunction in mice. Surprisingly, urothelial permeability in ketamine-treated mice was not changed when measured using an Ussing chamber system with isotopic urea and water. Mouse urothelial structure was also not altered, and intact umbrella cell structure was observed by both transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Furthermore, immunostaining and confocal microscopy confirmed the presence of a well-defined distribution of zonula occuldens-1 in tight junctions and uroplakin in umbrella cells. In conclusion, these data indicate that ketamine injection induces voiding dysfunction in mice but does not necessarily disrupt mouse bladder barrier function. Disruption of urothelial barrier function may not be the major mechanism in ketamine cystitis.
  10. Tan CK, Said S, Rajandram R, Wang Z, Roslani AC, Chin KF
    World J Surg, 2016 08;40(8):1985-92.
    PMID: 27098538 DOI: 10.1007/s00268-016-3499-9
    INTRODUCTION: Disruption of normal gut function is a common side effect post abdominal surgery. It may result in reduced tolerance to oral nutrition and progress to postoperative ileus. Microbial cell preparation is beneficial as a pre-surgical nutritional supplement to aid in bowel recovery and promote the return of normal gut function following abdominal surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of pre-surgical administration of microbial cell preparation in promoting the return of normal gut function.

    METHOD: The study is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. In total, 40 patients were recruited. Patients were randomized to receive either microbial cell preparation (n = 20) or placebo (n = 20) for 7 days prior to elective surgery. The primary end point was the time to return of normal gut function, while the secondary end point was the duration of hospital stay.

    RESULTS: The treatment group demonstrated significantly faster return of normal gut function with a median of 108.5 h (80-250 h) which was 48 h earlier than the placebo group at a median of 156.5 h (94-220 h), p = 0.022. The duration of hospital stay in the treatment group was also shorter at a median of 6.5 days (4-30 days), in comparison to the placebo group at 13 days (5-25 days), p = 0.012.

    CONCLUSION: Pre-surgical administration of microbial cell preparation promotes the return of normal gut function in patients after colorectal cancer surgery, thus associated with faster recovery and shorter duration of hospital stay.

  11. Yap NY, Rajandram R, Ng KL, Pailoor J, Fadzli A, Gobe GC
    Biomed Res Int, 2015;2015:476508.
    PMID: 26448938 DOI: 10.1155/2015/476508
    The most common form of malignant renal neoplasms is renal cell carcinoma (RCC), which is classified into several different subtypes based on the histomorphological features. However, overlaps in these characteristics may present difficulties in the accurate diagnosis of these subtypes, which have different clinical outcomes. Genomic and molecular studies have revealed unique genetic aberrations in each subtype. Knowledge of these genetic changes in hereditary and sporadic renal neoplasms has given an insight into the various proteins and signalling pathways involved in tumour formation and progression. In this review, the genetic aberrations characteristic to each renal neoplasm subtype are evaluated along with the associated protein products and affected pathways. The potential applications of these genetic aberrations and proteins as diagnostic tools, prognostic markers, or therapeutic targets are also assessed.
  12. Rajandram R, Yap NY, Pailoor J, Razack AH, Ng KL, Ong TA, et al.
    Pathology, 2014 Oct;46(6):518-22.
    PMID: 25158810 DOI: 10.1097/PAT.0000000000000145
    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) generally has a poor prognosis because of late diagnosis and metastasis. We have previously described decreased tumour necrosis factor receptor-associated factor-1 (TRAF-1) in RCC compared with paired normal kidney in a patient cohort in Australia. In the present study, TRAF-1 expression in clear cell RCC (ccRCC) and normal kidney was again compared, but in a cohort from University Malaya Medical Centre. Serum TRAF-1 was also evaluated in RCC and normal samples.Immunohistochemistry with automated batch staining and Aperio ImageScope morphometry was used to compare TRAF-1 in 61 ccRCC with paired normal kidney tissue. Serum from 15 newly diagnosed and untreated ccRCC and 15 healthy people was tested for TRAF-1 using ELISA.In this cohort, TRAF-1 was highly expressed in proximal tubular epithelium of normal kidney, and significantly decreased in ccRCC tissue (p 
  13. Malik AA, Rajandram R, Tah PC, Hakumat-Rai VR, Chin KF
    J Crit Care, 2016 Apr;32:182-8.
    PMID: 26777745 DOI: 10.1016/j.jcrc.2015.12.008
    Gut failure is a common condition in critically ill patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). Enteral feeding is usually the first line of choice for nutrition support in critically ill patients. However, enteral feeding has its own set of complications such as alterations in gut transit time and composition of gut eco-culture. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the effect of microbial cell preparation on the return of gut function, white blood cell count, C-reactive protein levels, number of days on mechanical ventilation, and length of stay in ICU. A consecutive cohort of 60 patients admitted to the ICU in University Malaya Medical Centre requiring enteral feeding were prospectively randomized to receive either treatment (n = 30) or placebo (n = 30). Patients receiving enteral feeding supplemented with a course of treatment achieved a faster return of gut function and required shorter duration of mechanical ventilation and shorter length of stay in the ICU. However, inflammatory markers did not show any significant change in the pretreatment and posttreatment groups. Overall, it can be concluded that microbial cell preparation enhances gut function and the overall clinical outcome of critically ill patients receiving enteral feeding in the ICU.
  14. Pailoor J, Rajandram R, Yap NY, Ng KL, Wang Z, Iyengar KR
    Indian J Pathol Microbiol, 2013 Apr-Jun;56(2):98-102.
    PMID: 24056643 DOI: 10.4103/0377-4929.118688
    Chromosome 7 aberrations in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) have been reported in papillary renal cell carcinoma (pRCC) and clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). However, the implication of these anomalies on prognosis and survival is still unclear. RCC Chromosome 7 aberrations have commonly been detected by fluorescent in situ hybridization and chromogenic in situ hybridization but not silver in situ hybridization (SISH).
  15. Mujtaba G, Shuib L, Raj RG, Rajandram R, Shaikh K, Al-Garadi MA
    PLoS ONE, 2017;12(2):e0170242.
    PMID: 28166263 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0170242
    OBJECTIVES: Widespread implementation of electronic databases has improved the accessibility of plaintext clinical information for supplementary use. Numerous machine learning techniques, such as supervised machine learning approaches or ontology-based approaches, have been employed to obtain useful information from plaintext clinical data. This study proposes an automatic multi-class classification system to predict accident-related causes of death from plaintext autopsy reports through expert-driven feature selection with supervised automatic text classification decision models.

    METHODS: Accident-related autopsy reports were obtained from one of the largest hospital in Kuala Lumpur. These reports belong to nine different accident-related causes of death. Master feature vector was prepared by extracting features from the collected autopsy reports by using unigram with lexical categorization. This master feature vector was used to detect cause of death [according to internal classification of disease version 10 (ICD-10) classification system] through five automated feature selection schemes, proposed expert-driven approach, five subset sizes of features, and five machine learning classifiers. Model performance was evaluated using precisionM, recallM, F-measureM, accuracy, and area under ROC curve. Four baselines were used to compare the results with the proposed system.

    RESULTS: Random forest and J48 decision models parameterized using expert-driven feature selection yielded the highest evaluation measure approaching (85% to 90%) for most metrics by using a feature subset size of 30. The proposed system also showed approximately 14% to 16% improvement in the overall accuracy compared with the existing techniques and four baselines.

    CONCLUSION: The proposed system is feasible and practical to use for automatic classification of ICD-10-related cause of death from autopsy reports. The proposed system assists pathologists to accurately and rapidly determine underlying cause of death based on autopsy findings. Furthermore, the proposed expert-driven feature selection approach and the findings are generally applicable to other kinds of plaintext clinical reports.

  16. Golkhalkhali B, Rajandram R, Paliany AS, Ho GF, Wan Ishak WZ, Johari CS, et al.
    Asia Pac J Clin Oncol, 2018 Jun;14(3):179-191.
    PMID: 28857425 DOI: 10.1111/ajco.12758
    AIM: Colorectal cancer patients on chemotherapy usually have elevated levels of inflammatory markers and experience numerous side effects from chemotherapy thereby leading to poor quality of life. Omega-3 fatty acid and microbial cell preparation (MCP) have been known to provide significant benefits in patients on chemotherapy. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of supplementation of omega-3 fatty acid and MCP in quality of life, chemotherapy side effects and inflammatory markers in colorectal cancer patients on chemotherapy.

    METHODS: A double-blind randomized study was carried out with 140 colorectal cancer patients on chemotherapy. Subjects were separated into two groups to receive either placebo or MCP [30 billion colony-forming unit (CFUs) per sachet] at a dose of two sachets daily for 4 weeks, and omega-3 fatty acid at a dose of 2 g daily for 8 weeks. Outcomes measured were quality of life, side effects of chemotherapy and levels of inflammatory markers such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and C-reactive protein.

    RESULTS: The supplementation with MCP and omega-3 fatty acid improved the overall quality of life and alleviated certain side effects of chemotherapy. The supplementation with MCP and omega-3 fatty acid also managed to reduce the level of IL-6 (P = 0.002). There was a significant rise in the placebo group's serum TNF-α (P = 0.048) and IL-6 (P = 0.004).

    CONCLUSION: The combined supplementation with MCP and omega-3 fatty acid may improve quality of life, reduce certain inflammatory biomarkers and relieve certain side effects of chemotherapy in colorectal patients on chemotherapy.

  17. Mujtaba G, Shuib L, Raj RG, Rajandram R, Shaikh K, Al-Garadi MA
    J Biomed Inform, 2018 06;82:88-105.
    PMID: 29738820 DOI: 10.1016/j.jbi.2018.04.013
    Text categorization has been used extensively in recent years to classify plain-text clinical reports. This study employs text categorization techniques for the classification of open narrative forensic autopsy reports. One of the key steps in text classification is document representation. In document representation, a clinical report is transformed into a format that is suitable for classification. The traditional document representation technique for text categorization is the bag-of-words (BoW) technique. In this study, the traditional BoW technique is ineffective in classifying forensic autopsy reports because it merely extracts frequent but discriminative features from clinical reports. Moreover, this technique fails to capture word inversion, as well as word-level synonymy and polysemy, when classifying autopsy reports. Hence, the BoW technique suffers from low accuracy and low robustness unless it is improved with contextual and application-specific information. To overcome the aforementioned limitations of the BoW technique, this research aims to develop an effective conceptual graph-based document representation (CGDR) technique to classify 1500 forensic autopsy reports from four (4) manners of death (MoD) and sixteen (16) causes of death (CoD). Term-based and Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine-Clinical Terms (SNOMED CT) based conceptual features were extracted and represented through graphs. These features were then used to train a two-level text classifier. The first level classifier was responsible for predicting MoD. In addition, the second level classifier was responsible for predicting CoD using the proposed conceptual graph-based document representation technique. To demonstrate the significance of the proposed technique, its results were compared with those of six (6) state-of-the-art document representation techniques. Lastly, this study compared the effects of one-level classification and two-level classification on the experimental results. The experimental results indicated that the CGDR technique achieved 12% to 15% improvement in accuracy compared with fully automated document representation baseline techniques. Moreover, two-level classification obtained better results compared with one-level classification. The promising results of the proposed conceptual graph-based document representation technique suggest that pathologists can adopt the proposed system as their basis for second opinion, thereby supporting them in effectively determining CoD.
  18. Ng KL, Del Vecchio SJ, Samaratunga H, Morais C, Rajandram R, Vesey DA, et al.
    Pathology, 2018 Aug;50(5):504-510.
    PMID: 29970253 DOI: 10.1016/j.pathol.2018.01.007
    One of the challenges in differentiating chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (chRCC) from benign renal oncocytoma (RO) is overlapping morphology between the two subtypes. The aim of this study was to investigate the usefulness of expression of leptin (Ob) and its receptor (ObR) in discriminating chRCC from RO. Sections from paraffin-embedded, formalin-fixed tumour nephrectomy specimens of 45 patients, made up of 30 chRCC (15 eosinophilic variant and 15 non-eosinophilic variant) and 15 RO, were used in this study. Samples (30) of clear cell RCC (ccRCC), the most common histological subtype, were used to verify staining patterns found by others in our cohort of Australasian patients. Matched morphologically normal non-cancer kidney tissues were included for each specimen. Sections were batch-immunostained using antibodies against Ob and ObR. Stained sections were digitally scanned using Aperio ImageScope, and the expression pattern of Ob and ObR was studied. In this cohort, male to female ratio was 2:1; median age was 64 (45-88 years); and median tumour size was 3.8 cm (range 1.2-18 cm). There were 47 (62.7%) T1, seven T2, 20 T3 and one T4 stage RCC. Two patients with ccRCC presented with metastases. Nuclear expression of Ob was significantly higher in RO compared with chRCC. The increased nuclear expression of Ob in RO compared with chRCC may be a useful aid in the difficult histological differentiation of RO from chRCC, especially eosinophilic variants of chRCC.
  19. Yap NY, Ong TA, Morais C, Pailoor J, Gobe GC, Rajandram R
    Cell Biol. Int., 2019 Jun;43(6):715-725.
    PMID: 31062478 DOI: 10.1002/cbin.11150
    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is one of the most lethal urogenital cancers and effective treatment of metastatic RCC remains an elusive target. Cell lines enable the in vitro investigation of molecular and genetic changes leading to renal carcinogenesis and are important for evaluating cellular drug response or toxicity. This study details a fast and easy protocol of establishing epithelial and fibroblast cell cultures or cell lines concurrently from renal cancer nephrectomy tissue. The protocol involves mechanical disaggregation, collagenase digestion and cell sieving for establishing epithelial cells while fibroblast cells were grown from explants. This protocol has been modified from previous published reports with additional antibiotics and washing steps added to eliminate microbial contamination from the surgical source. Cell characterisation was carried out using immunofluorescence and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Eleven stable epithelial renal tumour cell lines of various subtypes, including rare subtypes, were established with a spontaneous immortalisation rate of 21.6% using this protocol. Eight fibroblast cell cultures grew successfully but did not achieve spontaneous immortalisation. Cells of epithelial origin expressed higher expressions of epithelial markers such as pan-cytokeratin, cytokeratin 8 and E-cadherin whereas fibroblast cells expressed high α-smooth muscle actin. Further mutational analysis is needed to evaluate the genetic or molecular characteristics of the cell lines.
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