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  1. Ramli MI, Hamzaid NA, Engkasan JP
    J Voice, 2019 Jul 09.
    PMID: 31300185 DOI: 10.1016/j.jvoice.2019.06.006
    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the performance of mechanomyography (MMG) and electromyography (EMG) in monitoring the sternocleidomastoid (SCM) as accessory respiratory muscles when breathing during singing.

    METHODS: MMG and EMG were used to record the activity of the SCM in 32 untrained singers reciting a monotonous text and a standard folk song. Their voices were recorded and their pitch, or fundamental frequency (FF), and intensity were derived using Praat software. Instants of inhale and exhales were identified during singing from their voice recordings and the corresponding SCM MMG and EMG activities were analysed.

    RESULTS: The SCM MMG, and EMG signals during breathing while singing were significantly different than breathing at rest (p < 0.001). On the other hand, MMG was relatively better correlated to voice intensity in both reading and singing than EMG. EMG was better, but not significantly, correlated with FF in both reading and singing as compared to MMG.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study established MMG and EMG as the quantitative measurement tool to monitor breathing activities during singing. This is useful for applications related to singing therapy performance measure including potentially pathologically effected population. While the MMG and EMG could not distinguish FF and intensity significantly, it is useful to serve as a proxy of inhalation and exhalation levels throughout a particular singing session. Further studies are required to determine its efficacy in a therapeutic setting.

  2. Ramli MI, Hamzaid NA, Engkasan JP, Usman J
    Biomed Eng Online, 2023 May 22;22(1):50.
    PMID: 37217941 DOI: 10.1186/s12938-023-01103-0
    BACKGROUND: Over the decades, many publications have established respiratory muscle training (RMT) as an effective way in improving respiratory dysfunction in multiple populations. The aim of the paper is to determine the trend of research and multidisciplinary collaboration in publications related to RMT over the last 6 decades. The authors also sought to chart the advancement of RMT among people with spinal cord injury (SCI) over the last 60 years.

    METHODS: Bibliometric analysis was made, including the publications' profiles, citation analysis and research trends of the relevant literature over the last 60 years. Publications from all time frames were retrieved from Scopus database. A subgroup analysis of publications pertinent to people with SCI was also made.

    RESULTS: Research on RMT has been steadily increasing over the last 6 decades and across geographical locations. While medicine continues to dominate the research on RMT, this topic also continues to attract researchers and publications from other areas such as engineering, computer science and social science over the last 10 years. Research collaboration between authors in different backgrounds was observed since 2006. Source titles from non-medical backgrounds have also published articles pertinent to RMT. Among people with SCI, researchers utilised a wide range of technology from simple spirometers to electromyography in both intervention and outcome measures. With various types of interventions implemented, RMT generally improves pulmonary function and respiratory muscle strength among people with SCI.

    CONCLUSIONS: While research on RMT has been steadily increasing over the last 6 decades, more collaborations are encouraged in the future to produce more impactful and beneficial research on people who suffer from respiratory disorders.

  3. Zakaria MY, Sulong AB, Muhamad N, Raza MR, Ramli MI
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2019 Apr;97:884-895.
    PMID: 30678979 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2018.12.056
    Titanium-ceramic composites are potential implant material candidates because of their unique mechanical properties and biocompatibility. This review focused on the latest advancement in processing of titanium-ceramic materials. Previously, titanium-ceramic incorporated using different coating techniques, i.e., plasma spraying and electrophoretic depositions, to enhance the biocompatibility of the implants. A major drawback in these coating methods is the growth of tissue at only the surface of the composite and might peel off over time. Recently, metal-ceramic composite was introduced via powder metallurgy method such as powder injection moulding. A porous structure can be obtained via powder metallurgy. Producing a porous titanium-ceramic structure would improve the mechanical properties, biocompatibility and tissue growth within the structure. Hence, further research needed to be done by considering the potential of powder injection moulding method which offer lower costs and more complex shapes for future implant.
  4. Ramli MI, Sulong AB, Muhamad N, Muchtar A, Arifin A, Mohd Foudzi F, et al.
    PLoS One, 2018;13(10):e0206247.
    PMID: 30359433 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0206247
    The combination of metallic bio-inert material, stainless-steel 316L (SS316L) and a bio-active material, hydroxyapatite (HA) can produce a composite which has superior properties for orthopaedic applications. The main objective of this study is to investigate the effects of sintering temperature and holding time on the physical and mechanical properties of the sintered part. 50wt.% SS316L and 50wt.% HA were mixed with a binder system of palm stearin (PS) and polyethylene (PE) at 61 vol.% powder loading. Rheological properties show a pseudo-plastic behaviour of the feedstock, where viscosity decreases with increasing shear rate. The feedstock was injection moulded into a tensile bar shape while thermal debinding was carried out at 320°C and 500°C. The brown parts were sintered at 1000, 1100, 1200 and 1300°C, with three different sintering times of 1, 3 and 5 hours in the furnace. It was found that the highest sintered density measured was 95.61% of the theoretical density. In addition, the highest hardness and Young's modulus measured were 150.45 HV and 52.61 GPa respectively, which are higher than those of human bone. The lowest percentage of carbon content was 0.022wt.% given by the sample sintered at 1300°C for 1 hour. Therefore, SS316L/HA composite with good mechanical and physical properties was successfully produced through the PIM process.
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