• 1 Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia
  • 2 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sriwijaya University, Indralaya, Sumatera Selatan, Indonesia
  • 3 School of Mechanical Engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University, PR China
PLoS One, 2018;13(10):e0206247.
PMID: 30359433 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0206247


The combination of metallic bio-inert material, stainless-steel 316L (SS316L) and a bio-active material, hydroxyapatite (HA) can produce a composite which has superior properties for orthopaedic applications. The main objective of this study is to investigate the effects of sintering temperature and holding time on the physical and mechanical properties of the sintered part. 50wt.% SS316L and 50wt.% HA were mixed with a binder system of palm stearin (PS) and polyethylene (PE) at 61 vol.% powder loading. Rheological properties show a pseudo-plastic behaviour of the feedstock, where viscosity decreases with increasing shear rate. The feedstock was injection moulded into a tensile bar shape while thermal debinding was carried out at 320°C and 500°C. The brown parts were sintered at 1000, 1100, 1200 and 1300°C, with three different sintering times of 1, 3 and 5 hours in the furnace. It was found that the highest sintered density measured was 95.61% of the theoretical density. In addition, the highest hardness and Young's modulus measured were 150.45 HV and 52.61 GPa respectively, which are higher than those of human bone. The lowest percentage of carbon content was 0.022wt.% given by the sample sintered at 1300°C for 1 hour. Therefore, SS316L/HA composite with good mechanical and physical properties was successfully produced through the PIM process.

* Title and MeSH Headings from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.