Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 2869 in total

  1. Chaudhry MT, Ling TC, Hussain SA, Manzoor A
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:684501.
    PMID: 24987743 DOI: 10.1155/2014/684501
    A rise in inlet air temperature may lower the rate of heat dissipation from air cooled computing servers. This introduces a thermal stress to these servers. As a result, the poorly cooled active servers will start conducting heat to the neighboring servers and giving rise to hotspot regions of thermal stress, inside the data center. As a result, the physical hardware of these servers may fail, thus causing performance loss, monetary loss, and higher energy consumption for cooling mechanism. In order to minimize these situations, this paper performs the profiling of inlet temperature sensitivity (ITS) and defines the optimum location for each server to minimize the chances of creating a thermal hotspot and thermal stress. Based upon novel ITS analysis, a thermal state monitoring and server relocation algorithm for data centers is being proposed. The contribution of this paper is bringing the peak outlet temperatures of the relocated servers closer to average outlet temperature by over 5 times, lowering the average peak outlet temperature by 3.5% and minimizing the thermal stress.
    Matched MeSH terms: Temperature*
  2. Gitan AA, Zulkifli R, Abdullah S, Sopian K
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:767614.
    PMID: 24672370 DOI: 10.1155/2014/767614
    Pulsating twin jets mechanism (PTJM) was developed in the present work to study the effect of pulsating twin jets mixing region on the enhancement of heat transfer. Controllable characteristics twin pulsed jets were the main objective of our design. The variable nozzle-nozzle distance was considered to study the effect of two jets interaction at the mixing region. Also, the phase change between the frequencies of twin jets was taken into account to develop PTJM. All of these factors in addition to the ability of producing high velocity pulsed jet led to more appropriate design for a comprehensive study of multijet impingement heat transfer problems. The performance of PTJM was verified by measuring the pulse profile at frequency of 20 Hz, where equal velocity peak of around 64 m/s for both jets was obtained. Moreover, the jet velocity profile at different pulsation frequencies was tested to verify system performance, so the results revealed reasonable velocity profile configuration. Furthermore, the effect of pulsation frequency on surface temperature of flat hot plate in the midpoint between twin jets was studied experimentally. Noticeable enhancement in heat transfer was obtained with the increasing of pulsation frequency.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hot Temperature*
  3. Ismail MA, Tamchek N, Hassan MR, Dambul KD, Selvaraj J, Rahim NA, et al.
    Sensors (Basel), 2011;11(9):8665-73.
    PMID: 22164098 DOI: 10.3390/s110908665
    This paper reports the design, characterization and implementation of a fiber Bragg grating (FBG)-based temperature sensor for an insulted-gate Bipolar transistor (IGBT) in a solar panel inverter. The FBG is bonded to the higher coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) side of a bimetallic strip to increase its sensitivity. Characterization results show a linear relationship between increasing temperature and the wavelength shift. It is found that the sensitivity of the sensor can be categorized into three characterization temperature regions between 26 °C and 90 °C. The region from 41 °C to 90 °C shows the highest sensitivity, with a value of 14 pm/°C. A new empirical model that considers both temperature and strain effects has been developed for the sensor. Finally, the FBG-bimetal temperature sensor is placed in a solar panel inverter and results confirm that it can be used for real-time monitoring of the IGBT temperature.
    Matched MeSH terms: Temperature*
    Med J Malaya, 1956 Jun;10(4):326-31.
    PMID: 13399535
    Matched MeSH terms: Temperature*
  5. Muhammad Aniq Qayyum Mohamad Sukry, Norazlina Subani, Muhammad Arif Hannan, Faizzuddin Jamaluddin, Ahmad Danial Hidayatullah Badrolhisam
    Partial differential equations involve results of unknown functions when there are multiple independent variables. There is a need for analytical solutions to ensure partial differential equations could be solved accurately. Thus, these partial differential equations could be solved using the right initial and boundaries conditions. In this light, boundary conditions depend on the general solution; the partial differential equations should present particular solutions when paired with varied boundary conditions. This study analysed the use of variable separation to provide an analytical solution of the homogeneous, one-dimensional heat equation. This study is applied to varied boundary conditions to examine the flow attributes of the heat equation. The solution is verified through different boundary conditions: Dirichlet, Neumann, and mixed-insulated boundary conditions. the initial value was kept constant despite the varied boundary conditions. There are two significant findings in this study. First, the temperature profile changes are influenced by the boundary conditions, and that the boundary conditions are dependent on the heat equation’s flow attributes.

    Matched MeSH terms: Hot Temperature; Temperature
  6. Fazlian Aman, Anuar Ishak, Pop J
    Sains Malaysiana, 2011;40:1369-1374.
    The heat transfer behaviour of a viscous fluid over a stretching/shrinking sheet driven by a uniform shear in the far field with a convective surface boundary condition is studied. The boundary layer equations governing the flow are reduced to ordinary differential equations using a similarity transformation. Using a numerical technique, these equations are then solved to obtain the temperature distributions and the heat transfer rate at the surface for various values of Prandtl number, stretching/shrinking parameter and convective parameter. Dual solutions are found to exist for the shrinking case, whereas for the stretching case, the solution is unique.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hot Temperature; Temperature
  7. Dee, S., Singh, B., Remeli, M.F., Tan, L., Oberoi, A.
    This paper looks at electrical power generation from solar concentrator using thermoelectric generator. An experiment was conducted on a concentrator thermoelectric generator (CTEG) utilising solar thermal energy. The CTEG used a parabolic dish as concentrator with thermoelectric device installed at the focal point to convert thermal energy to generate electricity. The investigation covered the cooling effect of the cold side of the thermoelectric generator using natural and forced convection cooling for optimum output. Forced convection cooling with a fan provided 69% more power output from the CTEG system as the temperature difference across the TEG was greater than the system cooled by natural convection. The outcome of this project showed maximum power output was obtained for the CTEG system cooled by forced convection cooling.
    Matched MeSH terms: Body Temperature; Cold Temperature; Hot Temperature; Temperature
  8. Jaafar NR, Mahadi NM, Mackeen MM, Illias RM, Murad AMA, Abu Bakar FD
    J Biotechnol, 2021 Mar 10;329:118-127.
    PMID: 33539893 DOI: 10.1016/j.jbiotec.2021.01.019
    Dehydroquinase or 3-dehydroquinate dehydratase (DHQD) reversibly cleaves 3-dehydroquinate to form 3-dehydroshikimate. Here, we describe the functional and structural features of a cold active type II 3-dehydroquinate dehydratase from the psychrophilic yeast, Glaciozyma antarctica PI12 (GaDHQD). Functional studies showed that the enzyme was active at low temperatures (10-30 °C), but displayed maximal activity at 40 °C. Yet the enzyme was stable over a wide range of temperatures (10-70 °C) and between pH 6.0-10.0 with an optimum pH of 8.0. Interestingly, the enzyme was highly thermo-tolerant, denaturing only at approximately 84 °C. Three-dimensional structure analyses showed that the G. antarctica dehydroquinase (GaDHQD) possesses psychrophilic features in comparison with its mesophilic and thermophilic counterparts such as higher numbers of non-polar residues on the surface, lower numbers of arginine and higher numbers of glycine-residues with lower numbers of hydrophobic interactions. On the other hand, GaDHQD shares some traits (i.e. total number of hydrogen bonds, number of proline residues and overall folding) with its mesophilic and thermophilic counterparts. Combined, these features contribute synergistically towards the enzyme's ability to function at both low and high temperatures.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cold Temperature*; Hot Temperature*
  9. Nevame AYM, Emon RM, Malek MA, Hasan MM, Alam MA, Muharam FM, et al.
    Biomed Res Int, 2018;2018:1653721.
    PMID: 30065932 DOI: 10.1155/2018/1653721
    Occurrence of chalkiness in rice is attributed to genetic and environmental factors, especially high temperature (HT). The HT induces heat stress, which in turn compromises many grain qualities, especially transparency. Chalkiness in rice is commonly studied together with other quality traits such as amylose content, gel consistency, and protein storage. In addition to the fundamental QTLs, some other QTLs have been identified which accelerate chalkiness occurrence under HT condition. In this review, some of the relatively stable chalkiness, amylose content, and gel consistency related QTLs have been presented well. Genetically, HT effect on chalkiness is explained by the location of certain chalkiness gene in the vicinity of high-temperature-responsive genes. With regard to stable QTL distribution and availability of potential material resources, there is still feasibility to find out novel stable QTLs related to chalkiness under HT condition. A better understanding of those achievements is essential to develop new rice varieties with a reduced chalky grain percentage. Therefore, we propose the pyramiding of relatively stable and nonallelic QTLs controlling low chalkiness endosperm into adaptable rice varieties as pragmatic approach to mitigate HT effect.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hot Temperature*; Temperature
  10. Zainuddin N, Saleh H, Hashim I, Roslan R
    Sains Malaysiana, 2016;45:315-321.
    Effects of radiation on free convection about a heated horizontal circular cylinder in the presence of heat generation is investigated numerically. The cylinder is fixed and immersed in a stationary fluid, in which the temperature is uniformly heated about the temperature of the surrounding fluid. The governing equations are transformed into dimensionless non-linear partial differential equations and solved by employing a finite difference method. An implicit finite difference scheme of Crank Nicolson method is used to analyze the results. This study determined the effects of radiation parameter, heat generation parameter, and the Prandtl number, on the temperature and velocity profiles. The results of the local heat transfer and skin-friction coefficient in the presence of radiation for some selected values of and are shown graphically.
    Matched MeSH terms: Body Temperature Regulation; Hot Temperature; Temperature
  11. Yahaya Shagaiya Daniel, Zainal Abdul Aziz, Zuhaila Ismail, Faisal Salah
    MATEMATIKA, 2018;34(2):393-417.
    Analyzed the effects of thermal radiation, chemical reaction, heat gener-
    ation/absorption, magnetic and electric fields on unsteady flow and heat transfer of
    nanofluid. The transport equations used passively controlled. A similarity solution is
    employed to transformed the governing equations from partial differential equations to
    a set of ordinary differential equations, and then solve using Keller box method. It was
    found that the temperature is a decreasing function with the thermal stratification due to
    the fact the density of the fluid in the lower vicinity is much higher compared to the upper
    region, whereas the thermal radiation, viscous dissipation and heat generation enhanced
    the nanofluid temperature and thermal layer thickness.
    Matched MeSH terms: Body Temperature Regulation; Hot Temperature; Temperature
  12. Normah, I., Cheow, C.S., Chong, C.L.
    Refined bleached and deodorized palm oil (RBDPO) was crystallized from the melt in a thermally controlled water bath at 14 and 22°C for 90 min. Slurries were withdrawn after 5, 15, 30, 60 and 90 min of crystallization for crystal morphology studies. Crystallization was also performed in a similar manner using a Labmax reactor connected to a FBRM detector to obtain the information on crystal count and size distribution during crystallization. Based on the shape of the crystals viewed under the microscope, all crystals appeared as needle shaped spherulitic β´- form at both crystallization temperatures studied. Crystals were slightly larger with increase in crystallization time and at higher crystallization temperature (22°C). Crystals size range between 4.34 to 22.29µm. FBRM recorded high count of crystals with increased in crystallization time and at lower temperature (14°C).
    Matched MeSH terms: Cold Temperature; Hot Temperature; Temperature
  13. Ullah I, Khan I, Shafie S
    Sci Rep, 2017 04 25;7(1):1113.
    PMID: 28442747 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-017-01205-5
    Unsteady mixed convection flow of Casson fluid towards a nonlinearly stretching sheet with the slip and convective boundary conditions is analyzed in this work. The effects of Soret Dufour, viscous dissipation and heat generation/absorption are also investigated. After using some suitable transformations, the unsteady nonlinear problem is solved by using Keller-box method. Numerical solutions for wall shear stress and high temperature transfer rate are calculated and compared with previously published work, an excellent arrangement is followed. It is noticed that fluid velocity reduces for both local unsteadiness and Casson parameters. It is likewise noticed that the influence of a Dufour number of dimensionless temperature is more prominent as compared to species concentration. Furthermore, the temperature was found to be increased in the case of nonlinear thermal radiation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Body Temperature Regulation; Hot Temperature; Temperature
  14. Yiin CL, Quitain AT, Yusup S, Uemura Y, Sasaki M, Kida T
    Bioresour Technol, 2018 Aug;261:361-369.
    PMID: 29680702 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2018.04.039
    Natural hydro-low-transition-temperature mixtures (NH-LTTMs) tend to be the most favorable next-generation green solvents for biomass pretreatment, as they are cheap and environmental friendly. The amount of water bound into the NH-LTTMs greatly affected their thermal stability, whereby the highest thermal stability was observed with the water content of 7.6 wt%. It is worth noting that, the highest molar transition energy of NH-LTTMs (47.57 kcal mol-1), which indicated the highest solubility, was optimized with the molar ratio of hydrogen bond donor (HBD)-hydrogen bond acceptor (HBA)-water (2:4:3) at a temperature of 60 °C. Hydrogen bonding networks of the NH-LTTMs, which led to the dissolution of biomass, were confirmed by the alteration in the peaks of the involved bonds and resonance signal to lower field through FTIR and 1H NMR spectra, respectively. The components evidenced in high-resolution mass spectra of extracted lignin showed its high potential to be valorized into useful fuels and chemicals.
    Matched MeSH terms: Temperature; Transition Temperature*
  15. Mustafa Hj. Abdullah, Ahmad Nazlim Yusoff
    The electrical resistivity of Mg0.6Zn0.4Fe2O4 ferrite was measured as a function of temperature in the range 300-630 K. Two anomalies are observed in the resistivity curves for measurements during heating up. These anomalies are identified as a magnetic anomaly at the Neel temperature, TN = 598 K, while the other one at TOt = 445 K is discussed as due to the contribution of conduction from the tetrahedral sites. The anomaly at Tot was reduced in the measurements during recooling, while the anomaly at TN was disappeared completely during recooling and second cycle. These effects are discussed as due to the increase of Fe2+ ions at the octahedral sites as a result of cation redistribution at higher temperatures. A relatively small anomaly at Tot still can be observed during the second run. This is possible if the Fe2+ ions have a preference to be relocated at the tetrahedral sites at lower temperatures.
    Kerintangan elektrik Mg0.6Zn0.4Fe2O4 ferit telah diukur sebagai fungsi suhu dalam julat 300 - 630 K. Dua anomali dapat dicerap pada lengkung kerintangan bagi pengukuran semasa pemanasan. Dua anomali tersebut dikenalpasti sebagai anomali magnet pada suhu Neel, TN = 598 K, manakala yang satu lagi pada Tot = 445 K dibincangkan sebagai berpunca daripada sumbangan kekonduksian pada tapak tetrahedron. Anomali pada Tot mengurang dalam pengukuran semasa penyejukan semula pada julat suhu yang sarna, manakala anomali pada TN terus lenyap dalam pengukuran semasa penyejukan semula dan juga semasa kitar kedua. Kesan ini dibincangkan sebagai disebabkan oleh peningkatan ion Fe2+ pada tapak oktahedron daripada proses taburan semula kation pada suhu tinggi. Anomali yang berkurang pada Tot masih boleh dicerap semasa pengukuran kitar kedua. Keadaan seperti ini adalah mungkin jika ion Fe2+ mempunyai kecenderongan untuk bertempat semula pada tapak tetrahedron apabila suhu menurun.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cold Temperature; Hot Temperature; Temperature
  16. Syazwani Mohd Zokri, Nur Syamilah Arifin, Muhammad Khairul Anuar Mohamed, Abdul Rahman Mohd Kasim, Mohd Zuki Salleh, Nurul Farahain Mohammad
    Sains Malaysiana, 2018;47:1607-1615.
    This paper delves into the problem of mixed convection boundary layer flow from a horizontal circular cylinder filled in
    a Jeffrey fluid with viscous dissipation effect. Both cases of cooled and heated cylinders are discussed. The governing
    equations which have been converted into a dimensionless form using the appropriate non-dimensional variables are solved
    numerically through the Keller-box method. A comparative study is performed and authentication of the present results
    with documented outcomes from formerly published works is excellently achieved. Tabular and graphical representations
    of the numerical results are executed for the specified distributions, considering the mixed convection parameter, Jeffrey
    fluid parameters and the Prandtl and Eckert numbers. Interestingly, boundary layer separation for mixed convection
    parameter happens for some positive (assisting flow) and negative (opposing flow) values. Strong assisting flow means
    the cylinder is heated, which causes the delay in boundary layer separation, whereas strong opposing flow means the
    cylinder is cooled, which conveys the separation point close to the lower stagnation point. Contradictory behaviours
    of both Jeffrey fluid parameters are observed over the velocity and temperature profiles together with the skin friction
    coefficient and Nusselt number. The increase of the Prandtl number leads to the decrement of the temperature profile,
    while the increase of the Eckert number results in the slight increment of the skin friction coefficient and decrement of
    the Nusselt number. Both velocity and temperature profiles of Eckert number show no effects at the lower stagnation
    point of the cylinder.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cold Temperature; Hot Temperature; Temperature
  17. Haibo Jiang, Zuguo Mo, Xiongbin Hou, Haijuan Wang
    Sains Malaysiana, 2017;46:2205-2213.
    The mechanical properties of fractured rock mass are largely dependent on the fracture structure under the coupling of freeze-thaw cycles and large temperature difference. Based on the traditional macroscopic continuum theory, the thermal and mechanical model and the corresponding theories ignore the material internal structure characteristics, which add difficulty in describing the mesoscopic thermal and mechanical behavior of the fractured rock mass among different phases. In order to uncover the inherent relationship and laws among the internal crack development, structural change and the physical and mechanical properties of rock under strong cold and frost weathering in cold area, typical granite and sandstone in cold region were analyzed in laboratory tests. The SEM scanning technology was introduced to record the microstructural change of rock samples subject to freeze-thaw cycles and large temperature difference. Association rules between the microstructure and the physical mechanical properties of rock mass were analyzed. The results indicated that, with the increase of the cyclic number, the macroscopic physical and mechanical indexes and the microscopic fracture index of granite and sandstone continuously and gradually deteriorate. The width of original micro crack continues to expand and extend and new local micro cracks are generated and continue to expand. The fracture area and width of the rock increase and the strength of the rock is continuously damaged. In particular, the strength and elastic modulus of granite decrease by 20.2% and 33.36%, respectively; the strength and elastic modulus of sandstone decrease by 33.4% and 36.43%, respectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Body Temperature; Cold Temperature; Temperature
  18. Lee JY, Saat M, Chou C, Hashiguchi N, Wijayanto T, Wakabayashi H, et al.
    J Therm Biol, 2010 Feb;35(2):70-76.
    PMID: 28799915 DOI: 10.1016/j.jtherbio.2009.11.002
    The purpose of this study was to investigate ethnic differences in cutaneous thermal sensation thresholds and the inter-threshold sensory zone between tropical (Malaysians) and temperate natives (Japanese). The results showed that (1) Malaysian males perceived warmth on the forehead at a higher skin temperature (Tsk) than Japanese males (p<0.05), whereas cool sensations on the hand and foot were perceived at a lower Tsk in Malaysians (p<0.05); (2) Overall, the sensitivity to detect warmth was greater in Japanese than in Malaysian males; (3) The most thermally sensitive body region of Japanese was the forehead for both warming and cooling, while the regional thermal sensitivity of Malaysians had a smaller differential than that of Japanese; (4) The ethnic difference in the inter-threshold sensory zone was particularly noticeable on the forehead (1.9±1.2C for Japanese, 3.2±1.6°C for Malaysians, p<0.05). In conclusion, tropical natives had a tendency to perceive warmth at a higher Tsk and slower at an identical speed of warming, and had a wider range of the inter-threshold sensory zone than temperate natives.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cold Temperature; Hot Temperature; Skin Temperature
  19. Teh, Chiew Peng, Tan, Aileen Shau Hwai, Vengatesen, Thiyagarajan
    Trop Life Sci Res, 2016;27(11):111-116.
    The influence of the cool and warm temperatures on early life development and
    survival of tropical oyster, Crassostrea iredalei was studied. D-hinged larvae (day 1 larvae)
    were reared to three different temperatures (20°C, 27°C, and 34°C) for nine days. Oyster
    larvae reared in temperature 27°C, acted as control (ambient temperature). The highest
    survival rate occurred when the larvae were reared in 20°C and 27°C. Larvae reared at
    34°C exhibited reduced survival but increase in the growth rate. The growth rate in larvae
    reared in high temperature (34°C) was significantly higher compared to larvae reared in
    20°C and 27°C (p
    Matched MeSH terms: Cold Temperature; Hot Temperature; Temperature
  20. Barrett RJ, Lucas RH
    Soc Sci Med, 1994 Jan;38(2):383-93.
    PMID: 8140465
    Iban categories of hot and cold are examined in the context of humoral medical systems in southeast Asia. These categories are more than binary and oppositional: they are also contradictory and can only be understood in terms of their capacity for transformation in 'depth'. Analysis of the Iban epistemology of temperature sensation reveals the limitations of reductionist empirical approaches to hot and cold. Illness is apprehended, at one level, in terms of unusual conjunctions of opposite temperatures which signify a deeper disturbance in the relationship between body and soul, humans and spirits. Iban therapy redefines and relocates these categories in their proper place and at their appropriate level. It progresses from hot lay treatments to cool ritual treatments, yet cannot be accounted for within a limited framework of homeostatic balance. This paper develops an ethnographically grounded definition of humoralism which emphasizes non-reductive logic, cultural practice and transformation. The key element, transformation, is defined as a transition between categories and a shift in the level of interpretation which fundamentally alter the Iban experience of body and illness.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cold Temperature; Hot Temperature; Temperature*
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