A rise in inlet air temperature may lower the rate of heat dissipation from air cooled computing servers. This introduces a thermal stress to these servers. As a result, the poorly cooled active servers will start conducting heat to the neighboring servers and giving rise to hotspot regions of thermal stress, inside the data center. As a result, the physical hardware of these servers may fail, thus causing performance loss, monetary loss, and higher energy consumption for cooling mechanism. In order to minimize these situations, this paper performs the profiling of inlet temperature sensitivity (ITS) and defines the optimum location for each server to minimize the chances of creating a thermal hotspot and thermal stress. Based upon novel ITS analysis, a thermal state monitoring and server relocation algorithm for data centers is being proposed. The contribution of this paper is bringing the peak outlet temperatures of the relocated servers closer to average outlet temperature by over 5 times, lowering the average peak outlet temperature by 3.5% and minimizing the thermal stress.
Pulsating twin jets mechanism (PTJM) was developed in the present work to study the effect of pulsating twin jets mixing region on the enhancement of heat transfer. Controllable characteristics twin pulsed jets were the main objective of our design. The variable nozzle-nozzle distance was considered to study the effect of two jets interaction at the mixing region. Also, the phase change between the frequencies of twin jets was taken into account to develop PTJM. All of these factors in addition to the ability of producing high velocity pulsed jet led to more appropriate design for a comprehensive study of multijet impingement heat transfer problems. The performance of PTJM was verified by measuring the pulse profile at frequency of 20 Hz, where equal velocity peak of around 64 m/s for both jets was obtained. Moreover, the jet velocity profile at different pulsation frequencies was tested to verify system performance, so the results revealed reasonable velocity profile configuration. Furthermore, the effect of pulsation frequency on surface temperature of flat hot plate in the midpoint between twin jets was studied experimentally. Noticeable enhancement in heat transfer was obtained with the increasing of pulsation frequency.
This paper reports the design, characterization and implementation of a fiber Bragg grating (FBG)-based temperature sensor for an insulted-gate Bipolar transistor (IGBT) in a solar panel inverter. The FBG is bonded to the higher coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) side of a bimetallic strip to increase its sensitivity. Characterization results show a linear relationship between increasing temperature and the wavelength shift. It is found that the sensitivity of the sensor can be categorized into three characterization temperature regions between 26 °C and 90 °C. The region from 41 °C to 90 °C shows the highest sensitivity, with a value of 14 pm/°C. A new empirical model that considers both temperature and strain effects has been developed for the sensor. Finally, the FBG-bimetal temperature sensor is placed in a solar panel inverter and results confirm that it can be used for real-time monitoring of the IGBT temperature.
The heat transfer behaviour of a viscous fluid over a stretching/shrinking sheet driven by a uniform shear in the far field with a convective surface boundary condition is studied. The boundary layer equations governing the flow are reduced to ordinary differential equations using a similarity transformation. Using a numerical technique, these equations are then solved to obtain the temperature distributions and the heat transfer rate at the surface for various values of Prandtl number, stretching/shrinking parameter and convective parameter. Dual solutions are found to exist for the shrinking case, whereas for the stretching case, the solution is unique.
This paper looks at electrical power generation from solar concentrator using thermoelectric generator. An experiment was conducted on a concentrator thermoelectric generator (CTEG) utilising solar thermal energy. The CTEG used a parabolic dish as concentrator with thermoelectric device installed at the focal point to convert thermal energy to generate electricity. The investigation covered the cooling effect of the cold side of the thermoelectric generator using natural and forced convection cooling for optimum output. Forced convection cooling with a fan provided 69% more power output from the CTEG system as the temperature difference across the TEG was greater than the system cooled by natural convection. The outcome of this project showed maximum power output was obtained for the CTEG system cooled by forced convection cooling.
Matched MeSH terms: Body Temperature; Cold Temperature; Hot Temperature; Temperature
Occurrence of chalkiness in rice is attributed to genetic and environmental factors, especially high temperature (HT). The HT induces heat stress, which in turn compromises many grain qualities, especially transparency. Chalkiness in rice is commonly studied together with other quality traits such as amylose content, gel consistency, and protein storage. In addition to the fundamental QTLs, some other QTLs have been identified which accelerate chalkiness occurrence under HT condition. In this review, some of the relatively stable chalkiness, amylose content, and gel consistency related QTLs have been presented well. Genetically, HT effect on chalkiness is explained by the location of certain chalkiness gene in the vicinity of high-temperature-responsive genes. With regard to stable QTL distribution and availability of potential material resources, there is still feasibility to find out novel stable QTLs related to chalkiness under HT condition. A better understanding of those achievements is essential to develop new rice varieties with a reduced chalky grain percentage. Therefore, we propose the pyramiding of relatively stable and nonallelic QTLs controlling low chalkiness endosperm into adaptable rice varieties as pragmatic approach to mitigate HT effect.
Effects of radiation on free convection about a heated horizontal circular cylinder in the presence of heat generation is investigated numerically. The cylinder is fixed and immersed in a stationary fluid, in which the temperature is uniformly heated about the temperature of the surrounding fluid. The governing equations are transformed into dimensionless non-linear partial differential equations and solved by employing a finite difference method. An implicit finite difference scheme of Crank Nicolson method is used to analyze the results. This study determined the effects of radiation parameter, heat generation parameter, and the Prandtl number, on the temperature and velocity profiles. The results of the local heat transfer and skin-friction coefficient in the presence of radiation for some selected values of and are shown graphically.
Matched MeSH terms: Body Temperature Regulation; Hot Temperature; Temperature
Analyzed the effects of thermal radiation, chemical reaction, heat gener-
ation/absorption, magnetic and electric fields on unsteady flow and heat transfer of
nanofluid. The transport equations used passively controlled. A similarity solution is
employed to transformed the governing equations from partial differential equations to
a set of ordinary differential equations, and then solve using Keller box method. It was
found that the temperature is a decreasing function with the thermal stratification due to
the fact the density of the fluid in the lower vicinity is much higher compared to the upper
region, whereas the thermal radiation, viscous dissipation and heat generation enhanced
the nanofluid temperature and thermal layer thickness.
Matched MeSH terms: Body Temperature Regulation; Hot Temperature; Temperature
Natural hydro-low-transition-temperature mixtures (NH-LTTMs) tend to be the most favorable next-generation green solvents for biomass pretreatment, as they are cheap and environmental friendly. The amount of water bound into the NH-LTTMs greatly affected their thermal stability, whereby the highest thermal stability was observed with the water content of 7.6 wt%. It is worth noting that, the highest molar transition energy of NH-LTTMs (47.57 kcal mol-1), which indicated the highest solubility, was optimized with the molar ratio of hydrogen bond donor (HBD)-hydrogen bond acceptor (HBA)-water (2:4:3) at a temperature of 60 °C. Hydrogen bonding networks of the NH-LTTMs, which led to the dissolution of biomass, were confirmed by the alteration in the peaks of the involved bonds and resonance signal to lower field through FTIR and 1H NMR spectra, respectively. The components evidenced in high-resolution mass spectra of extracted lignin showed its high potential to be valorized into useful fuels and chemicals.
Refined bleached and deodorized palm oil (RBDPO) was crystallized from the melt in a thermally controlled water bath at 14 and 22°C for 90 min. Slurries were withdrawn after 5, 15, 30, 60 and 90 min of crystallization for crystal morphology studies. Crystallization was also performed in a similar manner using a Labmax reactor connected to a FBRM detector to obtain the information on crystal count and size distribution during crystallization. Based on the shape of the crystals viewed under the microscope, all crystals appeared as needle shaped spherulitic β´- form at both crystallization temperatures studied. Crystals were slightly larger with increase in crystallization time and at higher crystallization temperature (22°C). Crystals size range between 4.34 to 22.29µm. FBRM recorded high count of crystals with increased in crystallization time and at lower temperature (14°C).
Matched MeSH terms: Cold Temperature; Hot Temperature; Temperature
This paper delves into the problem of mixed convection boundary layer flow from a horizontal circular cylinder filled in
a Jeffrey fluid with viscous dissipation effect. Both cases of cooled and heated cylinders are discussed. The governing
equations which have been converted into a dimensionless form using the appropriate non-dimensional variables are solved
numerically through the Keller-box method. A comparative study is performed and authentication of the present results
with documented outcomes from formerly published works is excellently achieved. Tabular and graphical representations
of the numerical results are executed for the specified distributions, considering the mixed convection parameter, Jeffrey
fluid parameters and the Prandtl and Eckert numbers. Interestingly, boundary layer separation for mixed convection
parameter happens for some positive (assisting flow) and negative (opposing flow) values. Strong assisting flow means
the cylinder is heated, which causes the delay in boundary layer separation, whereas strong opposing flow means the
cylinder is cooled, which conveys the separation point close to the lower stagnation point. Contradictory behaviours
of both Jeffrey fluid parameters are observed over the velocity and temperature profiles together with the skin friction
coefficient and Nusselt number. The increase of the Prandtl number leads to the decrement of the temperature profile,
while the increase of the Eckert number results in the slight increment of the skin friction coefficient and decrement of
the Nusselt number. Both velocity and temperature profiles of Eckert number show no effects at the lower stagnation
point of the cylinder.
Matched MeSH terms: Cold Temperature; Hot Temperature; Temperature
The electrical resistivity of Mg0.6Zn0.4Fe2O4 ferrite was measured as a function of temperature in the range 300-630 K. Two anomalies are observed in the resistivity curves for measurements during heating up. These anomalies are identified as a magnetic anomaly at the Neel temperature, TN = 598 K, while the other one at TOt = 445 K is discussed as due to the contribution of conduction from the tetrahedral sites. The anomaly at Tot was reduced in the measurements during recooling, while the anomaly at TN was disappeared completely during recooling and second cycle. These effects are discussed as due to the increase of Fe2+ ions at the octahedral sites as a result of cation redistribution at higher temperatures. A relatively small anomaly at Tot still can be observed during the second run. This is possible if the Fe2+ ions have a preference to be relocated at the tetrahedral sites at lower temperatures.
Kerintangan elektrik Mg0.6Zn0.4Fe2O4 ferit telah diukur sebagai fungsi suhu dalam julat 300 - 630 K. Dua anomali dapat dicerap pada lengkung kerintangan bagi pengukuran semasa pemanasan. Dua anomali tersebut dikenalpasti sebagai anomali magnet pada suhu Neel, TN = 598 K, manakala yang satu lagi pada Tot = 445 K dibincangkan sebagai berpunca daripada sumbangan kekonduksian pada tapak tetrahedron. Anomali pada Tot mengurang dalam pengukuran semasa penyejukan semula pada julat suhu yang sarna, manakala anomali pada TN terus lenyap dalam pengukuran semasa penyejukan semula dan juga semasa kitar kedua. Kesan ini dibincangkan sebagai disebabkan oleh peningkatan ion Fe2+ pada tapak oktahedron daripada proses taburan semula kation pada suhu tinggi. Anomali yang berkurang pada Tot masih boleh dicerap semasa pengukuran kitar kedua. Keadaan seperti ini adalah mungkin jika ion Fe2+ mempunyai kecenderongan untuk bertempat semula pada tapak tetrahedron apabila suhu menurun.
Matched MeSH terms: Cold Temperature; Hot Temperature; Temperature
The mechanical properties of fractured rock mass are largely dependent on the fracture structure under the coupling of freeze-thaw cycles and large temperature difference. Based on the traditional macroscopic continuum theory, the thermal and mechanical model and the corresponding theories ignore the material internal structure characteristics, which add difficulty in describing the mesoscopic thermal and mechanical behavior of the fractured rock mass among different phases. In order to uncover the inherent relationship and laws among the internal crack development, structural change and the physical and mechanical properties of rock under strong cold and frost weathering in cold area, typical granite and sandstone in cold region were analyzed in laboratory tests. The SEM scanning technology was introduced to record the microstructural change of rock samples subject to freeze-thaw cycles and large temperature difference. Association rules between the microstructure and the physical mechanical properties of rock mass were analyzed. The results indicated that, with the increase of the cyclic number, the macroscopic physical and mechanical indexes and the microscopic fracture index of granite and sandstone continuously and gradually deteriorate. The width of original micro crack continues to expand and extend and new local micro cracks are generated and continue to expand. The fracture area and width of the rock increase and the strength of the rock is continuously damaged. In particular, the strength and elastic modulus of granite decrease by 20.2% and 33.36%, respectively; the strength and elastic modulus of sandstone decrease by 33.4% and 36.43%, respectively.
Matched MeSH terms: Body Temperature; Cold Temperature; Temperature
Iban categories of hot and cold are examined in the context of humoral medical systems in southeast Asia. These categories are more than binary and oppositional: they are also contradictory and can only be understood in terms of their capacity for transformation in 'depth'. Analysis of the Iban epistemology of temperature sensation reveals the limitations of reductionist empirical approaches to hot and cold. Illness is apprehended, at one level, in terms of unusual conjunctions of opposite temperatures which signify a deeper disturbance in the relationship between body and soul, humans and spirits. Iban therapy redefines and relocates these categories in their proper place and at their appropriate level. It progresses from hot lay treatments to cool ritual treatments, yet cannot be accounted for within a limited framework of homeostatic balance. This paper develops an ethnographically grounded definition of humoralism which emphasizes non-reductive logic, cultural practice and transformation. The key element, transformation, is defined as a transition between categories and a shift in the level of interpretation which fundamentally alter the Iban experience of body and illness.
Matched MeSH terms: Cold Temperature; Hot Temperature; Temperature*
The transition of orthogonal smectic A (SmA) phase to the tilted phases, upon lowering the temperature, is explored with a discrete phenomenological model and the phase diagrams are presented. The results show that the transition of SmA to uniplanar structures can be affected by the effect of chirality. The areas showing the uniplanar phase in the phase diagrams diminish with the increase in effect of chirality.
In this paper, the heat transfer effect on the unsteady boundary layer flow of a Casson fluid past an infinite oscillating vertical plate with Newtonian heating is investigated. The governing equations are transformed to a systems of linear partial differential equations using appropriate non-dimensional variables. The resulting equations are solved analytically by using the Laplace transform method and the expressions for velocity and temperature are obtained. They satisfy all imposed initial and boundary conditions and reduce to some well-known solutions for Newtonian fluids. Numerical results for velocity, temperature, skin friction and Nusselt number are shown in various graphs and discussed for embedded flow parameters. It is found that velocity decreases as Casson parameters increases and thermal boundary layer thickness increases with increasing Newtonian heating parameter.
Numerical investigation of the heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of a circular fitted with V-cut twisted tape (VCT) insert with twist ratio (y = 2.93) and different cut depths (w = 0.5, 1, and 1.5 cm) were studied for laminar flow using CFD package (FLUENT-6.3.26). The data obtained from plain tube were verified with the literature correlation to ensure the validation of simulation results. Classical twisted tape (CTT) with different twist ratios (y = 2.93, 3.91, 4.89) were also studied for comparison. The results show that the enhancement of heat transfer rate induced by the classical and V-cut twisted tape inserts increases with the Reynolds number and decreases with twist ratio. The results also revealed that the V-cut twisted tape with twist ratio y = 2.93 and cut depth w = 0.5 cm offered higher heat transfer rate with significant increases in friction factor than other tapes. In addition the results of V-cut twist tape compared with experimental and simulated data of right-left helical tape inserts (RLT), it is found that the V-cut twist tape offered better thermal contact between the surface and the fluid which ultimately leads to a high heat transfer coefficient. Consequently, 107% of maximum heat transfer was obtained by using this configuration.
This paper presents the temperature characteristics of silicon nanowire transistors (SiNWTs) and examines the effect of temperature on transfer characteristics, threshold voltage, I(ON)/I(OFF) ratio, drain-induced barrier lowering (DIBL), and sub-threshold swing (SS). The (MuGFET) simulation tool was used to investigate the temperature characteristics of a transistor. The findings reveal the negative effect of higher working temperature on the use of SiNWTs in electronic circuits, such as digital circuits and amplifiers circuits, because of the lower I(ON)/I(OFF) ratio, higher DIBL, and higher SS at higher temperature. Moreover, the ON state is the optimum condition for using a transistor as a temperature nano-sensor.