Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 348 in total

Abstract:
Sort:
  1. Chour RG, Moda A, Arora A, Arafath MY, Shetty VK, Rishal Y
    J Int Soc Prev Community Dent, 2016 Aug;6(Suppl 2):S166-70.
    PMID: 27652251 DOI: 10.4103/2231-0762.189761
    Satisfactory composite restoration depends upon its smooth finish, quality of polishing agents, type of composite material used, and its composition. The present study evaluated the effect of different polishing systems on the surface roughness of composite resin.
    Matched MeSH terms: Surface Properties
  2. Ash A, Scholz T, de Chambrier A, Brabec J, Oros M, Kar PK, et al.
    PLoS One, 2012;7(10):e46421.
    PMID: 23056306 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0046421
    Tapeworms of Gangesia Woodland, 1924 (Cestoda: Proteocephalidea) parasitic in freshwater fishes in the Indomalayan Region were critically reviewed. Evaluation of type specimens and newly collected materials from Bangladesh, Cambodia and India, as well as critical examination of extensive literature have shown that only the following four species, instead of 48 nominal species of Gangesia and Silurotaenia Nybelin, 1942 reported from this region (36 new synonymies proposed), are valid: Gangesia bengalensis (Southwell, 1913), type-species of the genus and most common parasite of Wallago attu (Siluridae), G. macrones Woodland, 1924 typical of Sperata seenghala (Bagridae), both species characterized by the possession of two circles of hooks on the rostellum-like organ and several rows of hooklets on the anterior margins of suckers; G. agraensis Verma, 1928 from W. attu (typical host), which has the scolex with only one circle of hooks and 1-3 incomplete rows of tiny hooklets on the suckers; and G. vachai (Gupta and Parmar, 1988) n. comb. from several catfishes, which possesses 4-6 circles of hooks and 5-11 rows of hooklets on the anterior half of suckers. Scolex morphology, including surface ultrastructure (microtriches), of all but one species (G. vachai) is described for the first time using scanning electron microscopy. A phylogenetic analysis based on the partial sequences encoding the large nuclear ribosomal subunit RNA gene has shown that three Indomalayan species, namely G. bengalensis, G. macrones and G. vachai, form a monophyletic group within Gangesia, whereas G. agraensis tends to form a clade with the Palaearctic species of the genus. A table with differential characters of all species from the Indomalayan Region is also provided together with a key to identification of genera of the subfamily Gangesiinae. The present study demonstrates that species of Silurotaenia do not occur in the Indomalayan region.
    Matched MeSH terms: Surface Properties
  3. Ramimoghadam D, Bagheri S, Abd Hamid SB
    Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces, 2015 Sep 1;133:388-411.
    PMID: 26073507 DOI: 10.1016/j.colsurfb.2015.02.003
    Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MNPs) have emerged as highly desirable nanomaterials in the context of many research works, due to their extensive industrial applications. However, they are prone to agglomerate on account of the anisotropic dipolar attraction, and therefore misled the particular properties related to single-domain magnetic nanostructures. The surface modification of MNPs is quite challenging for many applications, as it involves surfactant-coating for steric stability, or surface modifications that results in repulsive electrostatic force. Hereby, we focus on the dispersion of MNPs and colloidal stability.
    Matched MeSH terms: Surface Properties
  4. Wahab HA, Noordin MY, Izman S, Kurniawan D
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2013;2013:631936.
    PMID: 23997678 DOI: 10.1155/2013/631936
    Electroplated nickel coating on cemented carbide is a potential pretreatment technique for providing an interlayer prior to diamond deposition on the hard metal substrate. The electroplated nickel coating is expected to be of high quality, for example, indicated by having adequate thickness and uniformity. Electroplating parameters should be set accordingly for this purpose. In this study, the gap distances between the electrodes and duration of electroplating process are the investigated variables. Their effect on the coating thickness and uniformity was analyzed and quantified using design of experiment. The nickel deposition was carried out by electroplating in a standard Watt's solution keeping other plating parameters (current: 0.1 Amp, electric potential: 1.0 V, and pH: 3.5) constant. The gap distance between anode and cathode varied at 5, 10, and 15 mm, while the plating time was 10, 20, and 30 minutes. Coating thickness was found to be proportional to the plating time and inversely proportional to the electrode gap distance, while the uniformity tends to improve at a large electrode gap. Empirical models of both coating thickness and uniformity were developed within the ranges of the gap distance and plating time settings, and an optimized solution was determined using these models.
    Matched MeSH terms: Surface Properties
  5. Setu SA, Dullens RP, Hernández-Machado A, Pagonabarraga I, Aarts DG, Ledesma-Aguilar R
    Nat Commun, 2015;6:7297.
    PMID: 26073752 DOI: 10.1038/ncomms8297
    Understanding fluid dynamics under extreme confinement, where device and intrinsic fluid length scales become comparable, is essential to successfully develop the coming generations of fluidic devices. Here we report measurements of advancing fluid fronts in such a regime, which we dub superconfinement. We find that the strong coupling between contact-line friction and geometric confinement gives rise to a new stability regime where the maximum speed for a stable moving front exhibits a distinctive response to changes in the bounding geometry. Unstable fronts develop into drop-emitting jets controlled by thermal fluctuations. Numerical simulations reveal that the dynamics in superconfined systems is dominated by interfacial forces. Henceforth, we present a theory that quantifies our experiments in terms of the relevant interfacial length scale, which in our system is the intrinsic contact-line slip length. Our findings show that length-scale overlap can be used as a new fluid-control mechanism in strongly confined systems.
    Matched MeSH terms: Surface Properties
  6. Lund LA, Omar Z, Khan I
    Comput Methods Programs Biomed, 2019 Dec;182:105044.
    PMID: 31491654 DOI: 10.1016/j.cmpb.2019.105044
    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The last two and half decades are witnessed a great surge in the use convective fluids for enhancement of heat transfer of minerals ethylene glycol, oil and water due to their numerous applications in the industrial segments including chemical production, microelectronics, power generation, transportation, and air-conditioning. For this purpose, different procedures were applied to upgrade the thermal conductivity of common fluid but could not. Further, Choi and Eastman in 1995 introduced nanofluid which has good thermal properties as compared to common fluids. After that, it can be seen that researchers, mathematicians, and scientists tried to understand the principles of nanofluids and how to implicate them in many different practical applications. In this work, the Buongiorno model has been considered for nanofluid. One of the prime objectives is to consider all possible multiple solutions of the model because these solutions cannot be seen experimentally.

    METHODS: The governing equations of fluid flow have been transformed in the form of ordinary differential equations. These equations have been solved by two methods namely, shooting method and three-stage Lobatto IIIa formula.

    RESULTS: The effects of different parameters on temperature, velocity, concentration profiles, skin friction coefficient, Sherwood number, and reduced Nusselt number were obtained and presented graphically. It was noticed that four solutions existed at definite ranges of the parameters for high suction over both surfaces for the first time. The results of the stability analysis revealed that only the first solution is more stable and possess physical reliability compared to the remaining solutions.

    CONCLUSION: The graphs also indicated that the fluid velocity decreases as the thermophoresis parameter increases but the opposite behavior observed for both temperature and concentration profiles in the first solution. Furthermore, it was detected that the concentration profile declined at the higher values of the Brownian motion parameter.

    Matched MeSH terms: Surface Properties
  7. Ali Y, Alqudah A, Ahmad S, Abd Hamid S, Farooq U
    Des Monomers Polym, 2019;22(1):91-97.
    PMID: 31007637 DOI: 10.1080/15685551.2019.1591681
    Targeted drug delivery system improves the efficiency and safety of the therapeutic agents by managing the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of drugs. Currently, numerous drug carrier systems have been developed with different sizes, architectures and characteristics surface properties. Among different systems, macromolecules have a wide range of applications in targeted drug delivery system. The optimal drug loading potential, smooth drug releasing ability and biocompatibility are the distinguishing features that ensure the drugs delivery ability of macromolecules. This review briefly introduces some of the most commonly studied macromolecules which have been recommended as drugs delivery vehicles.
    Matched MeSH terms: Surface Properties
  8. Mousa MA
    J Contemp Dent Pract, 2020 Jun 01;21(6):678-682.
    PMID: 33025938
    AIMS: The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of hot and dry weather on the hardness and surface roughness of four different maxillofacial silicone elastomeric materials (MFSEM) including two room-temperature vulcanized (RTV) and two high-temperature vulcanized (HTV) materials.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty test specimens were fabricated according to the manufacturer's instructions into rectangular test specimens. The hardness and surface roughness were tested, after 6 months of exposure to natural hot and dry weather. The hardness was measured through the International Rubber Hardness Degree (IRHD) scale using an automated hardness tester. The surface roughness was measured using a novel 3D optical noncontact technique using a combination of a light sectioning microscope and a computer vision system. Statistical Package for Social Sciences software SPSS/version 24 was used for analysis and a comparison between two independent variables was done using an independent t test, while more than two variables were analyzed, F test (ANOVA) to be used followed by a post hoc test to determine the level of significance between every two groups.

    RESULTS: The hot and dry weather statistically influenced the hardness and surface roughness of MFSEM. Cosmesil M-511 showed the least hardness in test groups while A-2000 showed the hardest material (p < 0.05). A-2000 showed significant changes from rough in case of nonweathered to become smoother in weather followed by A-2186 (p < 0.05). Cosmesil M-511 showed the roughest material.

    CONCLUSION: Cosmesil M-511 showed the least hard MFSEM after outdoor weathering while A-2000, the highest and least material showed hardness and surface roughness, respectively.

    CLINICAL IMPLICATION: A-2000 had a high IRHD scale hardness. This makes this material more suitable for the replacement of ear and nose defects. Cosmesil M-511 is soft and easily adaptable material that makes the material more appropriate for the replacement of small facial defect with undercut area to be easily inserted and removed. Whilst A-2000 is smoother and finer in test specimens after weathering, Cosmesil M-511 became rougher after weathering.

    Matched MeSH terms: Surface Properties
  9. Rad MA, Ahmad MR, Nakajima M, Kojima S, Homma M, Fukuda T
    Scanning, 2017;2017:8393578.
    PMID: 29109826 DOI: 10.1155/2017/8393578
    The preparation and observations of spheroplast W303 cells are described with Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope (ESEM). The spheroplasting conversion was successfully confirmed qualitatively, by the evaluation of the morphological change between the normal W303 cells and the spheroplast W303 cells, and quantitatively, by determining the spheroplast conversion percentage based on the OD800 absorbance data. From the optical microscope observations as expected, the normal cells had an oval shape whereas spheroplast cells resemble a spherical shape. This was also confirmed under four different mediums, that is, yeast peptone-dextrose (YPD), sterile water, sorbitol-EDTA-sodium citrate buffer (SCE), and sorbitol-Tris-Hcl-CaCl2 (CaS). It was also observed that the SCE and CaS mediums had a higher number of spheroplast cells as compared to the YPD and sterile water mediums. The OD800 absorbance data also showed that the whole W303 cells were fully converted to the spheroplast cells after about 15 minutes. The observations of the normal and the spheroplast W303 cells were then performed under an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM). The normal cells showed a smooth cell surface whereas the spheroplast cells had a bleb-like surface after the loss of its integrity when removing the cell wall.
    Matched MeSH terms: Surface Properties*
  10. Aggarwal H, Kumar P, Eachempati P, Krishanappa SK
    J Prosthet Dent, 2015 Sep;114(3):456-7.
    PMID: 26047802 DOI: 10.1016/j.prosdent.2015.04.010
    This article describes a cost-effective, expedient, and time-saving technique for surface texturing a facial prosthesis with fine sand mixed in resin adhesive glue.
    Matched MeSH terms: Surface Properties
  11. Taweepreda W
    Sains Malaysiana, 2014;43:241-245.
    Biodegradable polymeric films, obtained from chitosan/natural rubber latex (CS/NRL) blends with different compositions, have been prepared by wetting process. The blends were characterized by dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) and found that the CS/NRL blends are thermodynamically incompatible. This is evident from the presence of two glass transitions, corresponding to CS and NRL phases in the blend. The mechanical properties of the CS/NRL blends were improved with increasing the amount of chitosan and after surface treatment with sulphuric acid due to the sulfonate ionic interaction. The dielectric properties was determined using Precision LCR meter in the frequency range 75 kHz up to 30 MHz. After CS/NRL surface treatment with sulphuric acid at high content of chitosan showed the highest dielectric constant. The surface properties of the CS/NRL blend films before and after surface treatment were confirmed by atomic force microscopy (AFM), respectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Surface Properties
  12. Yam F, Hassan Z, Omar K
    This article reports on the studies of structural and optical properties of nanoporous GaN prepared by Pt assisted electro chemical etching. The porous GaN samples were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and optical transmission (OT). SEM images liang indicated that the density of the pores increased with etching duration, however, the etching duration has no significant effect on the size and shape of the pores. AFM measurements exhibited that the surface roughness was increased with etching durations, however, for long etching duration, the increase of the surface roughness became insignificant. OT measurements revealed that the increase of pore density would lead to the reduction of light transmission. The studies showed that the porosity could influence the structural and optical properties of the GaN.
    Matched MeSH terms: Surface Properties
  13. Chew WX, Kaizu K, Watabe M, Muniandy SV, Takahashi K, Arjunan SNV
    Phys Rev E, 2019 Apr;99(4-1):042411.
    PMID: 31108654 DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.99.042411
    Microscopic models of reaction-diffusion processes on the cell membrane can link local spatiotemporal effects to macroscopic self-organized patterns often observed on the membrane. Simulation schemes based on the microscopic lattice method (MLM) can model these processes at the microscopic scale by tracking individual molecules, represented as hard spheres, on fine lattice voxels. Although MLM is simple to implement and is generally less computationally demanding than off-lattice approaches, its accuracy and consistency in modeling surface reactions have not been fully verified. Using the Spatiocyte scheme, we study the accuracy of MLM in diffusion-influenced surface reactions. We derive the lattice-based bimolecular association rates for two-dimensional (2D) surface-surface reaction and one-dimensional (1D) volume-surface adsorption according to the Smoluchowski-Collins-Kimball model and random walk theory. We match the time-dependent rates on lattice with off-lattice counterparts to obtain the correct expressions for MLM parameters in terms of physical constants. The expressions indicate that the voxel size needs to be at least 0.6% larger than the molecule to accurately simulate surface reactions on triangular lattice. On square lattice, the minimum voxel size should be even larger, at 5%. We also demonstrate the ability of MLM-based schemes such as Spatiocyte to simulate a reaction-diffusion model that involves all dimensions: three-dimensional (3D) diffusion in the cytoplasm, 2D diffusion on the cell membrane, and 1D cytoplasm-membrane adsorption. With the model, we examine the contribution of the 2D reaction pathway to the overall reaction rate at different reactant diffusivity, reactivity, and concentrations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Surface Properties
  14. Ang TN, Young BR, Burrell R, Taylor M, Aroua MK, Baroutian S
    Chemosphere, 2021 Feb;264(Pt 2):128535.
    PMID: 33045509 DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.128535
    The emission of waste anaesthetic gas is a growing contributor to global warming and remains a factor in atmospheric ozone depletion. Volatile anaesthetics in medical waste gases could be removed via adsorption using suitable activated carbon materials possessing an enhanced affinity to anaesthetic molecules. In this work, the effects of surface physical and chemical properties on sevoflurane adsorption were investigated by oxidative hydrothermal surface modification of a commercial activated carbon using only distilled water. The hydrothermal surface modification was carried out at different treatment temperatures (150-300 °C) for varying durations (10-30 min), and adsorption was conducted under fixed conditions (bed depth = 10 cm, inlet concentration = 528 mg/L, and flow rate = 3 L/min). The hydrothermal treatment generally increased the BET surface area of the activated carbons. At oxidation temperatures above 200 °C, the micropore volume of the samples diminished. The relative amount of surface oxygen was enriched as the treatment temperature increased. Treatment duration did not significantly affect the introduction of relative amount of surface oxygen, except at higher temperatures. There were no new types of functional groups introduced. However, disappearance and re-formation of oxygen functional groups containing C-O structures (as in hydroxyl and ether groups) occurred when treatment temperature was increased from 150 to 200 °C, and when treatments were conducted above 200 °C, respectively. The ester/acetal groups were enriched under the temperature range studied. The findings suggested that the re-formation of surface oxygen functionalities might lead to the development of functional groups that improve sevoflurane adsorption.
    Matched MeSH terms: Surface Properties
  15. Wang Y, Lee SM, Gentle IR, Dykes GA
    Biofouling, 2020 11;36(10):1227-1242.
    PMID: 33412938 DOI: 10.1080/08927014.2020.1865934
    A statistical approach using a polynomial linear model in combination with a probability distribution model was developed to mathematically represent the process of bacterial attachment and study its mechanism. The linear deterministic model was built based on data from experiments investigating bacterial and substratum surface physico-chemical factors as predictors of attachment. The prediction results were applied to a normal-approximated binomial distribution model to probabilistically predict attachment. The experimental protocol used mixtures of Streptococcus salivarius and Escherichia coli, and mixtures of porous poly(butyl methacrylate-co-ethyl dimethacrylate) and aluminum sec-butoxide coatings, at varying ratios, to allow bacterial attachment to substratum surfaces across a range of physico-chemical properties (including the surface hydrophobicity of bacterial cells and the substratum, the surface charge of the cells and the substratum, the substratum surface roughness and cell size). The model was tested using data from independent experiments. The model indicated that hydrophobic interaction was the most important predictor while reciprocal interactions existed between some of the factors. More importantly, the model established a range for each factor within which the resultant attachment is unpredictable. This model, however, considers bacterial cells as colloidal particles and accounts only for the essential physico-chemical attributes of the bacterial cells and substratum surfaces. It is therefore limited by a lack of consideration of biological and environmental factors. This makes the model applicable only to specific environments and potentially provides a direction to future modelling for different environments.
    Matched MeSH terms: Surface Properties
  16. Tiang KL, Ooi EH
    Med Eng Phys, 2016 Aug;38(8):776-84.
    PMID: 27340100 DOI: 10.1016/j.medengphy.2016.05.011
    The majority of the eye models developed in the late 90s and early 00s considers only heat conduction inside the eye. This assumption is not entirely correct, since the anterior and posterior chambers are filled aqueous humor (AH) that is constantly in motion due to thermally-induced buoyancy. In this paper, a three-dimensional model of the human eye is developed to investigate the effects AH hydrodynamics have on the human eye temperature under exposure to external heat sources. If the effects of AH flow are negligible, then future models can be developed without taking them into account, thus simplifying the modeling process. Two types of external thermal loads are considered; volumetric and surface irradiation. Results showed that heat convection due to AH flow contributes to nearly 95% of the total heat flow inside the anterior chamber. Moreover, the circulation inside the anterior chamber can cause an upward shift of the location of hotspot. This can have significant consequences to our understanding of heat-induced cataractogenesis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Surface Properties
  17. Bagheri S, Muhd Julkapli N, Bee Abd Hamid S
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:727496.
    PMID: 25383380 DOI: 10.1155/2014/727496
    The lack of stability is a challenge for most heterogeneous catalysts. During operations, the agglomeration of particles may block the active sites of the catalyst, which is believed to contribute to its instability. Recently, titanium oxide (TiO2) was introduced as an alternative support material for heterogeneous catalyst due to the effect of its high surface area stabilizing the catalysts in its mesoporous structure. TiO2 supported metal catalysts have attracted interest due to TiO2 nanoparticles high activity for various reduction and oxidation reactions at low pressures and temperatures. Furthermore, TiO2 was found to be a good metal oxide catalyst support due to the strong metal support interaction, chemical stability, and acid-base property. The aforementioned properties make heterogeneous TiO2 supported catalysts show a high potential in photocatalyst-related applications, electrodes for wet solar cells, synthesis of fine chemicals, and others. This review focuses on TiO2 as a support material for heterogeneous catalysts and its potential applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Surface Properties
  18. Khalaf S, Ariffin Z, Husein A, Reza F
    J Prosthodont, 2015 Jul;24(5):419-23.
    PMID: 25219956 DOI: 10.1111/jopr.12213
    PURPOSE: This study aimed to compare the surface roughness of maxillofacial silicone elastomers fabricated in noncoated and coated gypsum materials. This study was also conducted to characterize the silicone elastomer specimens after surfaces were modified.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A gypsum mold was coated with clear acrylic spray. The coated mold was then used to produce modified silicone experimental specimens (n = 35). The surface roughness of the modified silicone elastomers was compared with that of the control specimens, which were prepared by conventional flasking methods (n = 35). An atomic force microscope (AFM) was used for surface roughness measurement of silicone elastomer (unmodified and modified), and a scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to evaluate the topographic conditions of coated and noncoated gypsum and silicone elastomer specimens (unmodified and modified) groups. After the gypsum molds were characterized, the fabricated silicone elastomers molded on noncoated and coated gypsum materials were evaluated further. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis of gypsum materials (noncoated and coated) and silicone elastomer specimens (unmodified and modified) was performed to evaluate the elemental changes after coating was conducted. Independent t test was used to analyze the differences in the surface roughness of unmodified and modified silicone at a significance level of p < 0.05.

    RESULTS: Roughness was significantly reduced in the silicone elastomers processed against coated gypsum materials (p < 0.001). The AFM and SEM analysis results showed evident differences in surface smoothness. EDX data further revealed the presence of the desired chemical components on the surface layer of unmodified and modified silicone elastomers.

    CONCLUSIONS: Silicone elastomers with lower surface roughness of maxillofacial prostheses can be obtained simply by coating a gypsum mold.

    Matched MeSH terms: Surface Properties
  19. Uddin MJ, Khan WA, Amin NS
    PLoS One, 2014;9(6):e99384.
    PMID: 24927277 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0099384
    The unsteady two-dimensional laminar g-Jitter mixed convective boundary layer flow of Cu-water and Al2O3-water nanofluids past a permeable stretching sheet in a Darcian porous is studied by using an implicit finite difference numerical method with quasi-linearization technique. It is assumed that the plate is subjected to velocity and thermal slip boundary conditions. We have considered temperature dependent viscosity. The governing boundary layer equations are converted into non-similar equations using suitable transformations, before being solved numerically. The transport equations have been shown to be controlled by a number of parameters including viscosity parameter, Darcy number, nanoparticle volume fraction, Prandtl number, velocity slip, thermal slip, suction/injection and mixed convection parameters. The dimensionless velocity and temperature profiles as well as friction factor and heat transfer rates are presented graphically and discussed. It is found that the velocity reduces with velocity slip parameter for both nanofluids for fluid with both constant and variable properties. It is further found that the skin friction decreases with both Darcy number and momentum slip parameter while it increases with viscosity variation parameter. The surface temperature increases as the dimensionless time increases for both nanofluids. Nusselt numbers increase with mixed convection parameter and Darcy numbers and decreases with the momentum slip. Excellent agreement is found between the numerical results of the present paper with published results.
    Matched MeSH terms: Surface Properties
  20. Hosseini S, Ibrahim F, Djordjevic I, Koole LH
    Analyst, 2014 Jun 21;139(12):2933-43.
    PMID: 24769607 DOI: 10.1039/c3an01789c
    Biosensor chips for immune-based assay systems have been investigated for their application in early diagnostics. The development of such systems strongly depends on the effective protein immobilization on polymer substrates. In order to achieve this complex heterogeneous interaction the polymer surface must be functionalized with chemical groups that are reactive towards proteins in a way that surface functional groups (such as carboxyl, -COOH; amine, -NH2; and hydroxyl, -OH) chemically or physically anchor the proteins to the polymer platform. Since the proteins are very sensitive towards their environment and can easily lose their activity when brought in close proximity to the solid surface, effective surface functionalization and high level of control over surface chemistry present the most important steps in the fabrication of biosensors. This paper reviews recent developments in surface functionalization and preparation of polymethacrylates for protein immobilization. Due to their versatility and cost effectiveness, this particular group of plastic polymers is widely used both in research and in industry.
    Matched MeSH terms: Surface Properties
Filters
Contact Us

Please provide feedback to Administrator (tengcl@gmail.com)

External Links