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  1. Syuhada, N., Azimatun, N.A., Alfizah, H., Tzar, M.N., Ramliza, R.
    Medicine & Health, 2013;8(2):64-72.
    MyJurnal
    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) causes mild to severe diarrhoea and pseudomembranous colitis in patients who had prior antibiotic exposure. Despite CDI being prevalent worldwide, its epidemiological data is scanty in Malaysia. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and incidence of CDI at Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC). Stool specimens from 147-suspected CDI patients were obtained from 1 November 2011 until 31 October 2012. The presence of C. difficile toxin A and/or B were detected using a commercial immunochromatographic kit (Wampole™ Tox A/B Quik Chek). Surveillance data was collected from patients’ medical records to establish the demographic and clinical characteristics. The overall prevalence and incidence of CDI in UKMMC was 6.1% and 5.2 cases per 10 000 patient-days, respectively. Among nine CDI patients, 77.8% were males and 55.6% were Chinese. CDI was most common in medical wards (88.9%). The median age was 60 years and the median length of hospital stay was 13 days. Majority (88.9%) of CDI patients received antibiotics eight weeks prior to CDI. Penicillin-beta-lactamase inhibitors were the most common antecedent antibiotics. Five (55.6%) CDI patients received acid suppressant medications. The in-hospital mortality rate was 22.2%. In conclusion, the prevalence and incidence of CDI at UKMMC is relatively low and occurs sporadically.
  2. Abdul Halim AR, Norhamdan Y, Ramliza R
    Med J Malaysia, 2011 Jun;66(2):154-5.
    PMID: 22106702 MyJurnal
    We report a rare case of septic arthritis in a healthy child caused by Salmonella enteritidis. No predisposing factor was detected. Salmonella enteritidis was isolated from the infected joint tissue obtained following surgical drainage. Based on the culture and sensitivity report, he was treated with a 6-week course of antibiotic. He improved dramatically without any detrimental sequelae at end of one year.
  3. Nurul Iman, P., Ramliza, R., Wan Fariza, W.J., Shamsul Azhar, S., Nor Azimah, I., S. Fadilah, A.W.
    Medicine & Health, 2019;14(2):60-76.
    MyJurnal
    Bacteraemia is a common and one of the serious complications in haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). To date, there are no published data on antibiotic resistance and clinical outcome among HSCT recipients in Malaysia. The aim of the present study was to analyse the prevalence, antibiotic resistance and clinical outcome of bacteraemia in HSCT recipients, within 100 days following transplantation. We retrospectively analysed the prevalence, antibiotic resistance pattern and mortality rate of early bacteraemia among HSCT recipients in a single centre over a 5-year period (2013-2017). Thirty patients of 85 HSCT recipients developed bacteraemia with 40 positive cultures resulting in prevalence of 47% (40/85). Gram negative bacteria (GNB) accounted for 60.5% of total isolates. Enterobacteriaceae and Coagulase negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) were the commonest pathogens isolated. GNB showed a high resistance rate to ciprofloxacin. Only 30% of recipients responded to first line empirical antibiotics for febrile neutropenia (FN). The mortality rate was 13.3% (4/30), of which 50% was attributed to multi-drug resistance (MDR) Acinetobacter and 25% to extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) Enterobacteriaceae. Bacteraemia is a frequent and life-threatening early complication among HSCT recipients with MDR GNB being the commonest cause of mortality. The high rate of resistance to ciprofloxacin and failure of the first line empirical antibiotics to treat FN calls for a thorough evaluation of the current antibiotic prophylaxis and empirical treatment protocols. These findings have important clinical implications regarding the use and selection of both prophylactic and empiric antibiotic regimens to treat FN.
  4. Mogana R, Adhikari A, Tzar MN, Ramliza R, Wiart C
    BMC Complement Med Ther, 2020 Feb 14;20(1):55.
    PMID: 32059725 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-020-2837-5
    BACKGROUND: Canarium patentinervium leaves are used by the local indigenous people of Malaysia for wound healing. The current study is undertaken to screen the comprehensive antibacterial activity of the leaves and barks extracts, fractions and isolated compounds from this plant. Bioassay guided fractionation was also undertaken to deeply evaluate the antibacterial activity of the water fraction of the leaves extract. This is to provide preliminary scientific evidence to the ethnopharmacology usage of this plant by investigating antibacterial properties of the plant and its isolated constituents.

    METHODS: Bio-assay guided fractionation and subsequent isolation of compounds using open column chromatography. The antibacterial activity against gram positive and gram negative ATCC strain and resistant clinical strains were evaluated using microtiter broth dilution method to determine minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) and time-kill assay. The chemical structure of the isolated compounds from the water fraction of the ethanol extract of leaves was elucidated using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR).

    RESULTS: The ethanol extract of the leaves and barks showed antimicrobial activity against all four ATCC and eight clinical isolates. The ethanol extract of the leaves and the corresponding water fraction had good activity against MRSA S. aureus. (MIC: 250 μg/ml) and had bactericidal effect on eight of the clinical strains (MSSA,MRSA, oxacillin-resistant CONS, oxacillin-sensitive CONS, Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiela species, Kleb pneumoniae ESBL and Candida parapsilosis). Further phytochemical investigation of the water fraction of the crude ethanol extract of leaves afforded compound 7 (hyperin) and compound 8 (cynaroside) that had bactericidal activity against tested bacterial species (MIC 50 μg/ml and 100 μg/ml). The two compounds were isolated from this genus for the first time.

    CONCLUSIONS: These results may provide a rational support for the traditional use of Canarium patentinervium Miq. in infections and wound healing, since the antimicrobial compounds isolated were also present in the leaves extract.

  5. Biglari S, Alfizah H, Ramliza R, Rahman MM
    J. Med. Microbiol., 2015 Jan;64(Pt 1):53-8.
    PMID: 25381148 DOI: 10.1099/jmm.0.082263-0
    Antimicrobial resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii is a growing public health concern and an important pathogen in nosocomial infections. We investigated the genes involved in resistance to carbapenems and cephalosporins in clinical A. baumannii isolates from a tertiary medical centre in Malaysia. A. baumannii was isolated from 167 clinical specimens and identified by sequencing of the 16S rRNA and rpoB genes. The MIC for imipenem, meropenem, ceftazidime and cefepime were determined by the E-test method. The presence of carbapenemase and cephalosporinase genes was investigated by PCR. The isolates were predominantly nonsusceptible to carbapenems and cephalosporins (>70 %) with high MIC values. ISAba1 was detected in all carbapenem-nonsusceptible A. baumannii harbouring the blaOXA-23-like gene. The presence of blaOXA-51-like and ISAba1 upstream of blaOXA-51 was not associated with nonsusceptibility to carbapenems. A. baumannii isolates harbouring ISAba1-blaADC (85.8 %) were significantly associated with nonsusceptibility to cephalosporins (P<0.0001). However, ISAba1-blaADC was not detected in a minority (<10 %) of the isolates which were nonsusceptible to cephalosporins. The acquired OXA-23 enzymes were responsible for nonsusceptibility to carbapenems in our clinical A. baumannii isolates and warrant continuous surveillance to prevent further dissemination of this antibiotic resistance gene. The presence of ISAba1 upstream of the blaADC was a determinant for cephalosporin resistance. However, the absence of this ISAba1-blaADC in some of the isolates may suggest other resistance mechanisms and need further investigation.
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