METHODS: Bio-assay guided fractionation and subsequent isolation of compounds using open column chromatography. The antibacterial activity against gram positive and gram negative ATCC strain and resistant clinical strains were evaluated using microtiter broth dilution method to determine minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) and time-kill assay. The chemical structure of the isolated compounds from the water fraction of the ethanol extract of leaves was elucidated using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR).
RESULTS: The ethanol extract of the leaves and barks showed antimicrobial activity against all four ATCC and eight clinical isolates. The ethanol extract of the leaves and the corresponding water fraction had good activity against MRSA S. aureus. (MIC: 250 μg/ml) and had bactericidal effect on eight of the clinical strains (MSSA,MRSA, oxacillin-resistant CONS, oxacillin-sensitive CONS, Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiela species, Kleb pneumoniae ESBL and Candida parapsilosis). Further phytochemical investigation of the water fraction of the crude ethanol extract of leaves afforded compound 7 (hyperin) and compound 8 (cynaroside) that had bactericidal activity against tested bacterial species (MIC 50 μg/ml and 100 μg/ml). The two compounds were isolated from this genus for the first time.
CONCLUSIONS: These results may provide a rational support for the traditional use of Canarium patentinervium Miq. in infections and wound healing, since the antimicrobial compounds isolated were also present in the leaves extract.