Displaying all 5 publications

Abstract:
Sort:
  1. Rich KM, Bia J, Altice FL, Feinberg J
    Curr HIV/AIDS Rep, 2018 06;15(3):266-275.
    PMID: 29774442 DOI: 10.1007/s11904-018-0396-x
    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To describe models of integrated and co-located care for opioid use disorder (OUD), hepatitis C (HCV), and HIV.

    RECENT FINDINGS: The design and scale-up of multidisciplinary care models that engage, retain, and treat individuals with HIV, HCV, and OUD are critical to preventing continued spread of HIV and HCV. We identified 17 models within primary care (N = 3), HIV specialty care (N = 5), opioid treatment programs (N = 6), transitional clinics (N = 2), and community-based harm reduction programs (N = 1), as well as two emerging models. Key components of such models are the provision of (1) medication-assisted treatment for OUD, (2) HIV and HCV treatment, (3) HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis, and (4) behavioral health services. Research is needed to understand differences in effectiveness between co-located and fully integrated care, combat the deleterious racial and ethnic legacies of the "War on Drugs," and inform the delivery of psychiatric care. Increased access to harm reduction services is crucial.

  2. Loeliger KB, Altice FL, Ciarleglio MM, Rich KM, Chandra DK, Gallagher C, et al.
    Lancet HIV, 2018 11;5(11):e617-e628.
    PMID: 30197101 DOI: 10.1016/S2352-3018(18)30175-9
    BACKGROUND: People transitioning from prisons or jails have high mortality, but data are scarce for people with HIV and no studies have integrated data from both criminal justice and community settings. We aimed to assess all-cause mortality in people with HIV released from an integrated system of prisons and jails in Connecticut, USA.

    METHODS: We linked pharmacy, custodial, death, case management, and HIV surveillance data from Connecticut Departments of Correction and Public Health to create a retrospective cohort of all adults with HIV released from jails and prisons in Connecticut between 2007 and 2014. We compared the mortality rate of adults with HIV released from incarceration with the general US and Connecticut populations, and modelled time-to-death from any cause after prison release with Cox proportional hazard models.

    FINDINGS: We identified 1350 people with HIV who were released after 24 h or more of incarceration between 2007 and 2014, of whom 184 (14%) died after index release; median age was 45 years (IQR 39-50) and median follow-up was 5·2 years (IQR 3·0-6·7) after index release. The crude mortality rate for people with HIV released from incarceration was 2868 deaths per 100 000 person-years, and the standardised mortality ratio showed that mortality was higher for this cohort than the general US population (6·97, 95% CI 5·96-7·97) and population of Connecticut (8·47, 7·25-9·69). Primary cause of death was reported for 170 individuals; the most common causes were HIV/AIDS (78 [46%]), drug overdose (26 [15%]), liver disease (17 [10%]), cardiovascular disease (16 [9%]), and accidental injury or suicide (13 [8%]). Black race (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 0·52, 95% CI 0·34-0·80), having health insurance (0·09, 0·05-0·17), being re-incarcerated at least once for 365 days or longer (0·41, 0·22-0·76), and having a high percentage of re-incarcerations in which antiretroviral therapy was prescribed (0·08, 0·03-0·21) were protective against mortality. Positive predictors of time-to-death were age (≥50 years; adjusted HR 3·65, 95% CI 1·21-11·08), lower CD4 count (200-499 cells per μL, 2·54, 1·50-4·31; <200 cells per μL, 3·44, 1·90-6·20), a high number of comorbidities (1·86, 95% CI 1·23-2·82), virological failure (2·76, 1·94-3·92), and unmonitored viral load (2·13, 1·09-4·18).

    INTERPRETATION: To reduce mortality after release from incarceration in people with HIV, resources are needed to identify and treat HIV, in addition to medical comorbidities, psychiatric disorders, and substance use disorders, during and following incarceration. Policies that reduce incarceration and support integrated systems of care between prisons and communities could have a substantial effect on the survival of people with HIV.

    FUNDING: US National Institutes of Health.

  3. Rich KM, Valencia Huamaní J, Kiani SN, Cabello R, Elish P, Florez Arce J, et al.
    AIDS Care, 2018 11;30(11):1341-1350.
    PMID: 29843518 DOI: 10.1080/09540121.2018.1476657
    In Peru, HIV is concentrated among men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TGW). Between June 2015 and August 2016, 591 HIV-positive MSM and TGW were recruited at five clinical care sites in Lima, Peru. We found that 82.4% of the participants had achieved viral suppression (VS; VL 
  4. Rich KM, Wickersham JA, Valencia Huamaní J, Kiani SN, Cabello R, Elish P, et al.
    LGBT Health, 2019 3 16;5(8):477-483.
    PMID: 30874476 DOI: 10.1089/lgbt.2017.0186
    PURPOSE: Globally, transgender women (TGW) experience a high burden of adverse health outcomes, including a high prevalence of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) as well as psychiatric disorders and substance use disorders. To address gaps in HIV research in Peru focused specifically on TGW, this study presents characteristics of a sample of HIV-positive TGW and identifies factors associated with viral suppression.

    METHODS: Between June 2015 and August 2016, 50 HIV-positive TGW were recruited in Lima, Peru. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with viral suppression (<200 copies/mL) among the TGW.

    RESULTS: Among TGW, 85% achieved viral suppression. Approximately half (54%) reported anal sex with more than five partners in the past 6 months, 38% reported sex work, 68% had not disclosed their HIV status to one or more of their partners, and 38% reported condomless sex with their last partner. The prevalence of alcohol use disorders was high (54%), and 38% reported use of drugs in the past year. Moderate-to-severe drug use significantly reduced odds of achieving viral suppression (adjusted odds ratio 0.69; 95% confidence interval: 0.48-0.98).

    CONCLUSION: Our findings highlight the need for integrated treatment for substance disorders in HIV care to increase the viral suppression rate among TGW in Lima, Peru.

  5. Brunton LA, Desbois AP, Garza M, Wieland B, Mohan CV, Häsler B, et al.
    Sci. Total Environ., 2019 Oct 15;687:1344-1356.
    PMID: 31412468 DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.06.134
    Aquaculture systems are highly complex, dynamic and interconnected systems influenced by environmental, biological, cultural, socio-economic and human behavioural factors. Intensification of aquaculture production is likely to drive indiscriminate use of antibiotics to treat or prevent disease and increase productivity, often to compensate for management and husbandry deficiencies. Surveillance or monitoring of antibiotic usage (ABU) and antibiotic resistance (ABR) is often lacking or absent. Consequently, there are knowledge gaps for the risk of ABR emergence and human exposure to ABR in these systems and the wider environment. The aim of this study was to use a systems-thinking approach to map two aquaculture systems in Vietnam - striped catfish and white-leg shrimp - to identify hotspots for emergence and selection of resistance, and human exposure to antibiotics and antibiotic-resistant bacteria. System mapping was conducted by stakeholders at an interdisciplinary workshop in Hanoi, Vietnam during January 2018, and the maps generated were refined until consensus. Thereafter, literature was reviewed to complement and cross-reference information and to validate the final maps. The maps and component interactions with the environment revealed the grow-out phase, where juveniles are cultured to harvest size, to be a key hotspot for emergence of ABR in both systems due to direct and indirect ABU, exposure to water contaminated with antibiotics and antibiotic-resistant bacteria, and duration of this stage. The pathways for human exposure to antibiotics and ABR were characterised as: occupational (on-farm and at different handling points along the value chain), through consumption (bacterial contamination and residues) and by environmental routes. By using systems thinking and mapping by stakeholders to identify hotspots we demonstrate the applicability of an integrated, interdisciplinary approach to characterising ABU in aquaculture. This work provides a foundation to quantify risks at different points, understand interactions between components, and identify stakeholders who can lead and implement change.
Related Terms
Filters
Contact Us

Please provide feedback to Administrator (tengcl@gmail.com)

External Links