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  1. Riana, K.A.H., Azahadi, O., Rohani, I., Zainol Ariffin, P., Maznieda, M., Siti Zubaidah, A.
    Journal of Health Management, 2012;10(1):41-51.
    MyJurnal
    Purpose - An outbreak of food poisoning had occurred in Health Institute A on 1st June 2010 which involved twenty four staffs. Six of them were hospitalized and eighteen received outpatient treatment. A case control study was done to describe the epidemiological characteristics of the outbreak and to determine the source of infection.
    Design/methodology/approach - Food samples, rectal swab from cases, environmental and hand swab from the food handlers were also taken and sent for microbiological analysis.
    Finding- The outbreak was explosive, and the prominent clinical features were abdominal pain (62.2%), fever (51.4%), and diarrhea (56.8%). The onset time was between 9-24 hours and the median incubation period was at 15 hours. The possible source of the outbreak was durian gravy (OR= 14.00,95%CI: 2.72-92.55, p<0.001, food attack rate: 100%) and rotijala (OR= 6.69, 95%CI: LB5-24.23, p<0.001, food attack rate: 95%), The microbiological investigation revealed that various microorganisms including Salmonella spp, The food was supplied by the same food supplier from Caterer B since 2006 and the assessment of the kitchen showed that the cleanliness rate was only 54,3% with positive results of Coliform in all utensils and areas investigated in the kitchen.
    Conclusion- In conclusion, the most probable causative organism based on signs and symptoms, epidemiological analysis and microbiological results was Salmonella spp. from contaminated food seryed during the ceremony. Education on food safety and food hygiene especially personal hygiene and hand washing should be emphasized continuously for prevention of future outbreak,
  2. Khalil, A.L., Hanafiah, M.S., Idris, M.N., Khadijah, S., Suraiyah, H., Siti Sapor, B., et al.
    MyJurnal
    This is an intervention study utilising Community Counsellors ( CC) for social change. Each CC is allocated to problematic families and is asked to do Outreach Family Intervention (OFI) in the form of family diagnosis, counselling and therapy for a period of six utonths. The findings revealed that the outreach activities are moderately successful. With only minimal efforts; 33.3% ofthe total Family»Counsellors Contacts (FCC) and 56.6% ofthe total Duration of Visits (DV), CCs are capable of bringing almost 40% ofthe expected. change, understanding 57% ofthe family problems and taking action on 44% ofthe problems. This study has proven that OFI utilising CCs is quite a useful tool to bring change in the society.
  3. Roslinah, A., Azman, A.B., Roslan Johari, M.G., Noriah, B., Rohani, I., Faisal, S.
    MyJurnal
    Contact time was defined as the time spent by health personnel with a patient. The study was conducted for four months in 2007 to assess the contact time and to determine the appropriate contact time as perceived by patients attending clinics of various clinical disciplines as well as Out-Patient Departments and Emergency Departments at Ministry of Health Hospitals. This study was a cross-sectional study carried out on out-patients who came to the hospitals’ clinics for treatment. Information was gathered through self-administered questionnaires, distributed at twenty-one hospitals. The respondents were selected using stratified random sampling method. Out of 21,750 questionnaires distributed, 13,463 patients responded, a response rate of 61.9%. This study shows that the average contact time increases from small hospitals (8 minutes) to bigger hospitals (15 minutes). The contact time also varies between the clinics of various disciplines. Obstetrics and Gynecology (O&G) clinics and Pediatric clinics had the longest average contact time of 20 minutes and 15 minutes respectively. The percentage of patients who were satisfied with the contact time corresponded with the type of clinics and hospitals which had the longest contact time. Thus, it is suggested that clinics and hospitals, whenever possible try their best to follow the duration of contact time as perceived appropriate by the patients.

    Study site: Out-Patient Departments and Emergency Departments at Ministry of Health Hospitals (21)
  4. Ang KT, Rohani I, Look CH
    Med J Malaysia, 2010 Mar;65(1):58-62.
    PMID: 21265251 MyJurnal
    Dengue fever is a major public health threat in Malaysia, especially in the highly urbanized states of Selangor and the Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur. It is believed that many seek treatment at the primary care clinics and are not admitted. This study aims at establishing the fact that primary care practitioners, as the first point of patient contacts, play a crucial role in advising patients suspected of having dengue to take early preventive measures to break the chain of dengue transmission. A total of 236 patients admitted to two government hospitals for suspected dengue fever were interviewed using a structured questionnaire over a one week period in December 2008. It was found that 83.9% of the patients had sought treatment at a Primary Care (PC) facility before admission to the hospital, with 68.7% of them seeking treatment on two or more occasions. The mean time period for seeking treatment at primary care clinic was one and a half (1.4) days of fever, compared to almost five (4.9) days for admission. The majority of patients (96-98%) reported that primary care practitioners had not given them any advice on preventive measures to be taken even though 51.9% of the patients had been told they could be having dengue fever. This study showed the need for primary care providers to be more involved in the control and prevention of dengue in the community, as these patients were seen very early in their illness compared to when they were admitted.
  5. Rosuzeita F, Che Rabiaah M, Rohani I, Mohd Shukri O
    Malays J Med Sci, 2018 Feb;25(1):53-66.
    PMID: 29599635 MyJurnal DOI: 10.21315/mjms2018.25.1.7
    Background: In Malaysia, the rates of mothers practising breastfeeding exclusively among babies at six months of age still do not achieve the Global Nutritional Targets 2025 which is 50%.

    Objective: To determine the effectiveness of breastfeeding intervention in improving breastfeeding outcomes.

    Method: A quasi-experimental design was used involving a purposive sample of 96 primigravidas (intervention group (IG) = 48, control group (CG) = 48) recruited at Hospital USM. Data were collected using the Breastfeeding Assessment Questionnaire. Mothers in IG received the current usual care and two hours of an additional education programme on breastfeeding, breastfeeding booklet, notes from the module, and postnatal breastfeeding support in the first week of postpartum. Mothers in CG received the current usual care only. The mothers were assessed on the first and sixth week and then the fourth and sixth month of postpartum.

    Results: The results indicated that there was a statistically significant difference between the groups on the fourth month postpartum (X2= 5.671,P= 0.017) in practicing full breastfeeding. The breastfeeding duration rates of the IG were longer than those of the CG. However, the results showed only two follow-up weeks that were significant (week 6,X2= 5.414,P= 0.020, month 4,X2= 7.515,P= 0.006). There was a statistically significant difference between IG and CG as determined by one-way ANCOVA on the breastfeeding duration after controlling age and occupation, F (3, 82) = 6.7,P= 0.011. The test revealed that the breastfeeding duration among IG was significantly higher (20.80 ± 6.31) compared to CG (16.98 ± 8.97).

    Conclusions: Breastfeeding intervention can effectively increase breastfeeding duration and exclusivity outcomes among primiparous mothers.

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