Complementary Alternative Medicine (CAM) is broadly used as an adjunct treatment for patients to treat various kinds of disease, prevent disease and to sustain and enhance quality of life of the users. The study is aimed to investigate the association between CAM uses, Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) and anthropometric indices among workers or staffs in Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA) Gong Badak Campus, Kuala Terengganu. A total of 300 subjects participated in this study and completed the malay version of modified HRQol (SF-12) questionnaires. Anthropometric measurements among the subjects were done. Independent t-test, One-way ANOVA and Pearson correlation were used to test the association and the hypotheses. The prevalence of CAM users was 37.3%. The results showed that bodily pain score domain was significantly higher among non-CAM users. Overall, male had higher Mental Health Composite Score (MCS) score than female. Physical Health Composite Score (PCS) was only correlated negatively with BMI among non-CAM users but negative correlated with body fat percentage in both CAM and non-CAM users. As conclusion, HRQoL had significant negative correlation with body fat percentage among CAM users. No association was found between CAM use and HRQoL scores.
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer related deaths worldwide with about 40% occurring in developing countries. The two varieties of Momordica charantia, which are Chinese and Indian bitter melon, have been subjected to antiproliferative activity in human non-small cell lung cells A549. The A549 cells were treated with hot and cold aqueous extraction for both the bitter melon varieties, and the antiproliferative activity was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The apoptotic mechanism of action on A549 human lung cancer cells was evaluated first morphologically using Hoechst 33358, and cytoskeleton staining using Filamentous-actin (F-actin) cytoskeleton FICT and DAPI followed by caspase-3/7, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and p53 activity. Chinese hot aqueous extraction (CHA) exhibited potent antiproliferative activity against A549 human lung cancer cells. The morphological analysis of mitochondria destruction and the derangement of cytoskeleton showed apoptosis-inducing activity. CHA increased the caspase-3/7 activity by 1.6-fold and the ROS activity by 5-fold. Flow cytometric analysis revealed 34.5% of apoptotic cells significantly (p<0.05) compared to cisplatin-treated A549 human cancer cells. CHA is suggested to induce apoptosis due to their rich bioactive chemical constituents. These findings suggest that the antiproliferative effect of CHA was due to apoptosis via ROS-mediated mitochondria injury.
Momordica charantia Linn., commonly known as bitter gourd, has many protective roles due to its medicinal value as it contains bioactive components. However, this extract showed possible toxicity effect on zebrafish embryo. Thus this study was designed to differentiate the toxicity activities in two types of M. charantia sample which are Indian and Chinese M. charantia, as well as to compare between two different aqueous extraction methods, hot and cold aqueous method, using zebrafish embryo assay assessment. It was observed that the survival rate of zebrafish embryo decreased as the concentration of test extract increased for all samples of M. charantia. The LC50 values of hot aqueous Chinese M. charantia, hot aqueous Indian M. charantia, and cold aqueous Chinese M. charantia were 144.54 μg/ml, 199.53 μg/ml, and 251.19 μg/ml, respectively. However, cold aqueous Indian M. charantia has a higher LC50 which was not in the range of the tested concentration. Hatchability of Danio rerio embryo reduced as the concentration of M. charantia extract increased while no hatching was observed in the highest concentration (1000 μg/ml). Scoliosis of zebrafish larvae was only seen in higher concentrations (125-1000 μg/ml) of extract. The heartbeat of zebrafish larvae treated with M. charantia extract was within the normal range, 120-180 bpm, but at higher concentrations (125-1000 μg/ml) the heartbeat differed for all samples of test extract. Hence, although this plant extract was safe to be consumed due to its pharmaceutical effect, it still exhibited mild toxicity effect at higher concentration when it was evaluated on zebrafish embryo.
From January 2008 to December 2009, 433 Streptococcus pneumoniae strains were examined to determine the serotype distribution and susceptibility to selected antibiotics. About 50% of them were invasive isolates. The strains were isolated from patients of all age groups and 33.55% were isolated from children below 5 years. The majority was isolated from blood (48.53%) and other sterile specimens (6.30%). Community acquired pneumonia (41.70%) is the most common diagnosis followed by sepsis (9.54%). Serotyping was done using Pneumotest Plus-Kit and antibiotic susceptibility pattern was determined by modified Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method and measurement of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) using E-test strip. Ten most common serotypes were 19F (15.02%), 6B (10.62%), 19A (6.93%), 14 (6.70%), 1 (5.08%), 6A (5.08%), 23F (4.85%), 18C (3.93%), 3 (2.08%) and 5 (1.85%). Penicillin MIC ranged between ≤ 0.012-4 μg/ml with MIC₉₀ of 1 μg/ml. Penicillin resistant rate is 31.78%. The majority of penicillin less-susceptible strains belonged to serotype 19F followed by 19A and 6B. Based on the serotypes distribution 22 (44.00%), 28 (56.00%) and 39 (78.00%) of the invasive isolates from children ≤ 2 years were belonged to serotypes included in the PCV7, PCV10 and PCV13, respectively.