This study investigated the impact of calcium silicate (CS) content on composition, compressive mechanical properties, and hardness of CS cermets with Ti-55Ni and Ti-6Al-4V alloys sintered at 1200°C. The powder metallurgy route was exploited to prepare the cermets. New phases of materials of Ni16Ti6Si7, CaTiO3, and Ni31Si12 appeared in cermet of Ti-55Ni with CS and in cermet of Ti-6Al-4V with CS, the new phases Ti5Si3, Ti2O, and CaTiO3, which were emerged during sintering at different CS content (wt%). The minimum shrinkage and density were observed in both groups of cermets for the 50 and 100 wt% CS content, respectively. The cermets with 40 wt% of CS had minimum compressive Young's modulus. The minimum of compressive strength and strain percentage at maximum load were revealed in cermets with 50 and 40 wt% of CS with Ti-55Ni and Ti-6Al-4V cermets, respectively. The cermets with 80 and 90 wt% of CS showed more plasticity than the pure CS. It concluded that the composition and mechanical properties of sintered cermets of Ti-55Ni and Ti-6Al-4V with CS significantly depend on the CS content in raw cermet materials. Thus, the different mechanical properties of the cermets can be used as potential materials for different hard tissues replacements.
This study is focused on finite element analysis of a model comprising femur into which a femoral component of a total hip replacement was implanted. The considered prosthesis is fabricated from a functionally graded material (FGM) comprising a layer of a titanium alloy bonded to a layer of hydroxyapatite. The elastic modulus of the FGM was adjusted in the radial, longitudinal, and longitudinal-radial directions by altering the volume fraction gradient exponent. Four cases were studied, involving two different methods of anchoring the prosthesis to the spongy bone and two cases of applied loading. The results revealed that the FG prostheses provoked more SED to the bone. The FG prostheses carried less stress, while more stress was induced to the bone and cement. Meanwhile, less shear interface stress was stimulated to the prosthesis-bone interface in the noncemented FG prostheses. The cement-bone interface carried more stress compared to the prosthesis-cement interface. Stair climbing induced more harmful effects to the implanted femur components compared to the normal walking by causing more stress. Therefore, stress shielding, developed stresses, and interface stresses in the THR components could be adjusted through the controlling stiffness of the FG prosthesis by managing volume fraction gradient exponent.
This study aimed to assess the performance of different longitudinal functionally graded femoral prostheses. This study was also designed to develop an appropriate prosthetic geometric design for longitudinal functionally graded materials. Three-dimensional models of the femur and prostheses were developed and analyzed. The elastic modulus of these prostheses in the sagittal plane was adjusted along a gradient direction from the distal end to the proximal end. Furthermore, these prostheses were composed of titanium alloy and hydroxyapatite. Results revealed that strain energy, interface stress, and developed stress in the femoral prosthesis and the bone were influenced by prosthetic geometry and gradient index. In all of the prostheses with different geometries, strain energy increased as gradient index increased. Interface stress and developed stress decreased. The minimum principal stress and the maximum principal stress of the bone slightly increased as gradient index increased. Hence, the combination of the femoral prosthetic geometry and functionally graded materials can be employed to decrease stress shielding. Such a combination can also be utilized to achieve equilibrium in terms of the stress applied on the implanted femur constituents; thus, the lifespan of total hip replacement can be prolonged.
Calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) consisting of nanosheets has been successfully synthesized assisted by a tip ultrasonic irradiation (UI) method using calcium nitrate (Ca(NO3)·4H2O), sodium silicate (Na2SiO3·9H2O) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in water. Systematic studies found that reaction time of ultrasonic irradiation and concentrations of surfactant (SDS) in the system were important factors to control the crystallite size and morphologies. The products were characterized by X-ray power diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR). The size-strain plot (SSP) method was used to study the individual contributions of crystallite sizes and lattice strain on the peak broadening of the CSH. These characterization techniques revealed the successful formation of a crystalline phase with an average crystallite size of about 13 nm and nanosheet morphology at a reaction time of 10 min UI with 0.2 g SDS in solvent which were found to be optimum time and concentrations of SDS for the synthesis of CSH powders.
Since most starting materials for tissue engineering are in powder form, using powder-based additive manufacturing methods is attractive and practical. The principal point of employing additive manufacturing (AM) systems is to fabricate parts with arbitrary geometrical complexity with relatively minimal tooling cost and time. Selective laser sintering (SLS) and inkjet 3D printing (3DP) are two powerful and versatile AM techniques which are applicable to powder-based material systems. Hence, the latest state of knowledge available on the use of AM powder-based techniques in tissue engineering and their effect on mechanical and biological properties of fabricated tissues and scaffolds must be updated. Determining the effective setup of parameters, developing improved biocompatible/bioactive materials, and improving the mechanical/biological properties of laser sintered and 3D printed tissues are the three main concerns which have been investigated in this article.
Calcium silicate (CaSiO3, CS) ceramic composites reinforced with graphene nanoplatelets (GNP) were prepared using hot isostatic pressing (HIP) at 1150°C. Quantitative microstructural analysis suggests that GNP play a role in grain size and is responsible for the improved densification. Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed that GNP survived the harsh processing conditions of the selected HIP processing parameters. The uniform distribution of 1 wt.% GNP in the CS matrix, high densification and fine CS grain size help to improve the fracture toughness by ∼130%, hardness by ∼30% and brittleness index by ∼40% as compared to the CS matrix without GNP. The toughening mechanisms, such as crack bridging, pull-out, branching and deflection induced by GNP are observed and discussed. The GNP/CS composites exhibit good apatite-forming ability in the simulated body fluid (SBF). Our results indicate that the addition of GNP decreased pH value in SBF. Effect of addition of GNP on early adhesion and proliferation of human osteoblast cells (hFOB) was measured in vitro. The GNP/CS composites showed good biocompatibility and promoted cell viability and cell proliferation. The results indicated that the cell viability and proliferation are affected by time and concentration of GNP in the CS matrix.
Calcium silicate (CaSiO3, CS) ceramics are promising bioactive materials for bone tissue engineering, particularly for bone repair. However, the low toughness of CS limits its application in load-bearing conditions. Recent findings indicating the promising biocompatibility of graphene imply that graphene can be used as an additive to improve the mechanical properties of composites. Here, we report a simple method for the synthesis of calcium silicate/reduced graphene oxide (CS/rGO) composites using a hydrothermal approach followed by hot isostatic pressing (HIP). Adding rGO to pure CS increased the hardness of the material by ∼40%, the elastic modulus by ∼52%, and the fracture toughness by ∼123%. Different toughening mechanisms were observed including crack bridging, crack branching, crack deflection, and rGO pull-out, thus increasing the resistance to crack propagation and leading to a considerable improvement in the fracture toughness of the composites. The formation of bone-like apatite on a range of CS/rGO composites with rGO weight percentages ranging from 0 to 1.5 has been investigated in simulated body fluid (SBF). The presence of a bone-like apatite layer on the composite surface after soaking in SBF was demonstrated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The biocompatibility of the CS/rGO composites was characterized using methyl thiazole tetrazolium (MTT) assays in vitro. The cell adhesion results showed that human osteoblast cells (hFOB) can adhere to and develop on the CS/rGO composites. In addition, the proliferation rate and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of cells on the CS/rGO composites were improved compared with the pure CS ceramics. These results suggest that calcium silicate/reduced graphene oxide composites are promising materials for biomedical applications.
Nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) a nature-based material, has gained significant attentions for its unique properties. The present study aims to investigate the flow behavior of cellulosic suspension containing non-wood pulp fibers and NCC, by means of rheological and pressure drop measurements. The NCC sample was prepared by sulfuric acid hydrolysis from Acacia mangium fibers. The rheological properties of kenaf/NCC suspensions were studied using viscosity and yield stress measurements. The pressure drop properties of the suspension flow were studied with respect to variation in flow velocity (0.4 m/s-3.6 m/s) and the NCC concentration (70 mg/l and 150 mg/l). The pressure drop results showed that the pulp suspension containing 150 mg/l NCC had higher drag reduction than kenaf suspension alone. The present insights into the flow of pulp/NCC suspension provide a new data and promote the application of NCC in industries.